Friday, February 15, 2013. On February 7, the journal Cell Reports published the findings of Daren Knoell and colleagues at Ohio State University (OSU) of an immune-regulating effect for the mineral zinc in sepsis, a systemic response to infection that frequently causes death in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Zinc deficiency is estimated to occur in 40 percent of older individuals: a population that is also more likely to be admitted to the ICU.
In previous research conducted by Dr Knoell's laboratory, mice provided with zinc deficient diets exhibited high levels of inflammation in response to sepsis in comparison with mice given normal diets. However, deficient mice supplemented with zinc had less inflammation than their unsupplemented counterparts.
"The immune system has to work under very strict balance, and this is a classic example of where more is not always better," stated Dr Knoell, who is a professor of pharmacy and internal medicine at OSU. "We want a robust inflammatory response, which is part of our natural programming to defend us against a bug. But if that is unchecked, and there is too much inflammation, then it not only attacks the pathogen but can also cause much more collateral damage."
The current research involved human immune cells known as monocytes. In the immune response, a protein known as nuclear factor kappa-beta (NF-kB) is activated and enters the cell nucleus. Dr Knoell and colleagues report that this action triggers the expression of a gene that produces ZIP8, a zinc transporter, which locates to the cell wall where it facilities the entry of zinc from the blood. Zinc then binds another protein in the NF-kB pathway known as IKKB, which halts further activity, thereby preventing excessive inflammation such as occurs during sepsis. Experimentation involving zinc-deficient mice with sepsis confirmed the correlation between increased inflammation and reduced control of IKKB signaling. "The benefit to health is explicit: zinc is beneficial because it stops the action of a protein, ultimately preventing excess inflammation," Dr Knoell explained. "There are certainly other zinc targets in the cell, but we found evidence that zinc is brought in by ZIP8 to turn the pathway off by interacting with this protein at a specific region."
"We do believe that to some extent, these findings are going to be applicable to other important areas of disease beyond sepsis," he remarked. "Without zinc on board to begin with, it could increase vulnerability to infection. But our work is focused on what happens once you get an infection – if you are deficient in zinc you are at a disadvantage because your defense system is amplified, and inappropriately so."
"We predict that not everybody in the ICU with sepsis needs zinc, but I anticipate that a proportion of them would," he continued. "Zinc is a critical element that we get from our diet, but we do not think we can give zinc and fix everything. Usually, if there is zinc deficiency, we would expect to see other nutrient deficiencies, too."
"We believe that our findings help to narrow an important gap that has existed in our understanding of how this relatively simple metal helps us defend ourselves from infection," he concluded. "There might be therapeutic implications about giving supplemental zinc in a strategic manner to help improve some people with certain conditions. But also, could we learn from this so someday we can be more diagnostic about who it is that needs zinc? And if so, what dose and for how long?"
The October, 2012 issue of the journal Clinical Nutrition published the results of a study of hip fracture patients which found a decrease in inflammatory markers among those with higher serum levels of specific antioxidants.
The study included 148 women aged 65 and older who participated in The Baltimore Hip Studies, a randomized trial designed to evaluate the effect of exercise on bone and muscle loss following hip fracture. Blood samples collected within 15 days following the fracture and at two, six and twelve months were analyzed for interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alphaR1 (TNF-aR1), which are markers of inflammation, and serum antioxidants including alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene.
Inflammatory biomarkers were highest and antioxidants were lowest immediately following hip fracture. The Maryland researchers found an association between lower TNF-aR1 and higher levels of alpha-tocopherol and total carotenoids at the first blood collection. All carotenoids except lycopene were individually associated with TNF-aR1 reductions at baseline. Additionally, higher total baseline carotenoids were associated with a reduction in interleukin-6. "While serum concentrations of both classes of these dietary antioxidants were associated with less inflammation, the carotenoids generally demonstrated stronger relationships than vitamin E with both sTNF-aR1 and IL-6," Christopher R. D'Adamo and his colleagues commented. "The reason for this discrepancy is unknown, but the fact that the half-lives of the serum carotenoids (between 26 and 76 days) are much longer than those of vitamin E (13 hours for gamma-tocopherol and 57 hours for a-tocopherol) suggests that carotenoids might potentially provide more sustained anti-inflammatory activity than vitamin E due to their extended period of systemic circulation."
"These findings suggest that a clinical trial increasing post-fracture intake of vitamin E and the carotenoids may be warranted," the authors conclude.
The enormous amount of energy generated within the mitochondria exposes them to constant free radical activity. The resulting mitochondrial decay is a hallmark of aging. PQQ protects and augments delicate mitochondrial structures to promote youthful cellular function in three distinct ways:
Pantothenic acid plays a role in the synthesis of hemoglobin, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and lipids. It is the most important component of coenzyme-A, which assists in several metabolic pathways and is necessary for the transfer of fats to and from cells. Pantothenic acid is only mildly acidic, but is often available in combination with calcium to neutralize its acidity and increase its storage stability.