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Meta-analysis determines association between magnesium supplementation and lower glucose levels in diabetics and those at risk

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

A systematic review and meta-analysis appearing online on August 17, 2016 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition affirmed a reduction in plasma glucose in association with magnesium supplementation among those at risk of or diagnosed with diabetes.

"Observational studies have demonstrated that low magnesium intake and serum magnesium deficit are associated with a higher risk of several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including coronary artery disease, hypertension and metabolic syndrome," note authors N. Veronese and colleagues in their introduction to the article.

The researchers selected 12 randomized, controlled trials involving 670 diabetics who were followed for a median of 12 weeks and six trials that enrolled 453 men and women at high risk of diabetes followed for a median of 14 weeks. All but one of the trials of diabetics involved individuals with type 2 disease. Forms of magnesium given in the trials included magnesium oxide, magnesium picolinate, magnesium aspartate HCl, magnesium citrate, magnesium lactate, magnesium lactate-citrate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium chloride and magnesium sulfate.

Among the studies that involved diabetics, there was an association observed between reduced fasting plasma glucose and treatment with magnesium in comparison with a placebo. In studies that involved those at high risk of the disease, magnesium supplementation was associated with significantly improved plasma glucose levels compared to a placebo following a two hour oral glucose tolerance test and a trend toward reduced insulin resistance.

"Given our findings, magnesium supplementation is attracting interest in the treatment of diabetes and as prevention for diabetes in those at higher risk," the authors remark.

"Magnesium supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes and also improves insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes," they conclude.

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