Highest Quality Supplements Since 1980

Health Concerns

Life Extension Suggestions


Adamcewicz M, Bearelly D, Porat G, Friedenberg FK. Mechanism of action and toxicities of purgatives used for colonoscopy preparation. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. Jan 2011;7(1):89-101.

Allouche S, Noble F, Marie N. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2014;5:280.

Andromanakos NP, Pinis SI, Kostakis AI. Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Mar 2015;27(3):204-214.

Anti M, Pignataro G, Armuzzi A, Valenti A, Iascone E, Marmo R, . . . Gasbarrini G. Water supplementation enhances the effect of high-fiber diet on stool frequency and laxative consumption in adult patients with functional constipation. Hepato-gastroenterology. May-Jun 1998;45(21):727-732.

Arora G, Mannalithara A, Mithal A, Triadafilopoulos G, Singh G. Concurrent conditions in patients with chronic constipation: a population-based study. PloS one. 2012;7(10):e42910.

Ashraf W, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. Effects of psyllium therapy on stool characteristics, colon transit and anorectal function in chronic idiopathic constipation. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Dec 1995;9(6):639-647.

Ashraf W, Pfeiffer RF, Park F, Lof J, Quigley EM. Constipation in Parkinson's disease: objective assessment and response to psyllium. Mov Disord. Nov 1997;12(6):946-951.

Attaluri A, Donahoe R, Valestin J, Brown K, Rao SS. Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Apr 2011;33(7):822-828.

Ayaz S, Hisar F. The efficacy of education programme for preventing constipation in women. Int J Nurs Pract. Jun 2014;20(3):275-282.

Basilisco G, Coletta M. Chronic constipation: a critical review. Dig Liver Dis. Nov 2013;45(11):886-893.

Beradze G, Sherozia M, Shankulashvili G. [Influence of an exercise therapy on primary chronic constipation]. Georgian Med News. Sep 2011(198):29-32.

Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Comprehensive Physiology. Apr 2012;2(2):1143-1211.

Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis SM, Surace R, Ashman O, Siarakas S. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Jul 2004;38(6):475-483.

Borre M, Qvist N, Raahave D, Worsoe J, JP AE, Christensen P, Krogh K. [The effect of lifestyle modification on chronic constipation]. Ugeskrift for laeger. Apr 6 2015;177(15).

Boynton W, Floch M. New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician. Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. May 2013;6(3):205-213.

Brown WR. Fecal microbiota transplantation in treating Clostridium difficile infection. Journal of digestive diseases. Aug 2014;15(8):405-408.

Camilleri M, Bharucha AE. Behavioural and new pharmacological treatments for constipation: getting the balance right. Gut. Sep 2010;59(9):1288-1296.

Camilleri M, Cowen T, Koch TR. Enteric neurodegeneration in ageing. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Mar 2008;20(3):185-196.

CCS. Canadian Cancer Society. Cancer information. Anatomy and physiology of the colon and rectum. http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/colorectal/anatomy-and-physiology/?region=on. Copyright 2015. Accessed 10/5/2015.

Chalazonitis A. Neurotrophin-3 in the development of the enteric nervous system. Progress in brain research. 2004;146:243-263.

Chan AO, Leung G, Tong T, Wong NY. Increasing dietary fiber intake in terms of kiwifruit improves constipation in Chinese patients. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Sep 21 2007;13(35):4771-4775.

Chang CC, Lin YT, Lu YT, Liu YS, Liu JF. Kiwifruit improves bowel function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2010;19(4):451-457.

Chen HL, Cheng HC, Wu WT, Liu YJ, Liu SY. Supplementation of konjac glucomannan into a low-fiber Chinese diet promoted bowel movement and improved colonic ecology in constipated adults: a placebo-controlled, diet-controlled trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Feb 2008;27(1):102-108.

Chiba M, Tsuji T, Nakane K, Komatsu M. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease. The Permanente journal. Winter 2015;19(1):58-61.

Chmielewska A, Szajewska H. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials: probiotics for functional constipation. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Jan 7 2010;16(1):69-75.

Choi CH, Chang SK. Alteration of Gut Microbiota and Efficacy of Probiotics in Functional Constipation. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 2015;21(1):4-7.

Chu H, Zhong L, Li H, Zhang X, Zhang J, Hou X. Epidemiology characteristics of constipation for general population, pediatric population, and elderly population in china. Gastroenterology research and practice. 2014;2014:532734.

Cicero AF, Derosa G, Manca M, Bove M, Borghi C, Gaddi AV. Different effect of psyllium and guar dietary supplementation on blood pressure control in hypertensive overweight patients: a six-month, randomized clinical trial. Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993). Aug 2007;29(6):383-394.

Coban S, Akbal E, Koklu S, Koklu G, Ulasli MA, Erkec S, . . . Erdem HR. Clinical trial: transcutaneous interferential electrical stimulation in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome - a prospective double-blind randomized study. Digestion. 2012;86(2):86-93.

Coles R, Kushnir MM, Nelson GJ, McMillin GA, Urry FM. Simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and 6-acetylmorphine in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, and meconium by LC-MS-MS. Journal of analytical toxicology. Jan-Feb 2007;31(1):1-14.

Collado Yurrita L, San Mauro Martin I, Ciudad-Cabanas MJ, Calle-Puron ME, Hernandez Cabria M. Effectiveness of inulin intake on indicators of chronic constipation; a meta-analysis of controlled randomized clinical trials. Nutr Hosp. 2014;30(2):244-252.

Connolly P, Hughes IW, Ryan G. Comparison of "Duphalac" and "irritant" laxatives during and after treatment of chronic constipation: a preliminary study. Current medical research and opinion. 1974;2(10):620-625.

Corsetti M, Tack J. Naloxegol: the first orally administered, peripherally acting, mu opioid receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998). Aug 2015;51(8):479-489.

Dahl WJ, Whiting SJ, Healey A, Zello GA, Hildebrandt SL. Increased stool frequency occurs when finely processed pea hull fiber is added to usual foods consumed by elderly residents in long-term care. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Sep 2003;103(9):1199-1202.

Daulatzai MA. Chronic functional bowel syndrome enhances gut-brain axis dysfunction, neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability to dementia. Neurochemical research. Apr 2014;39(4):624-644.

De Palma G, Collins SM, Bercik P. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut Microbes. May-Jun 2014;5(3):419-429.

De Schryver AM, Keulemans YC, Peters HP, Akkermans LM, Smout AJ, De Vries WR, van Berge-Henegouwen GP. Effects of regular physical activity on defecation pattern in middle-aged patients complaining of chronic constipation. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Apr 2005;40(4):422-429.

Dima G, Peralta D, Novillo A, Lasa J, Besasso H, Soifer L. [Predominance of constipation in subjects with hydrogen-consuming intestinal flora]. Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana. Sep 2012;42(3):182-185.

Drossman DA, Dumitrascu DL. Rome III: New standard for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD. Sep 2006;15(3):237-241.

Duelund-Jakobsen J, Buntzen S, Lundby L, Laurberg S. Sacral nerve stimulation at subsensory threshold does not compromise treatment efficacy: results from a randomized, blinded crossover study. Ann Surg. Feb 2013;257(2):219-223.

Dupont C, Campagne A, Constant F. Efficacy and safety of a magnesium sulfate-rich natural mineral water for patients with functional constipation. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Aug 2014;12(8):1280-1287.

Ehrlich SD. University of Maryland Medical Center. Hemorrhoids. https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/hemorrhoids. 12/22/2013 . Accessed 10/26/2015.

Eswaran S, Muir J, Chey WD. Fiber and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2013;108(5):718-727.

Farlex. The Free Dictionary [Internet]. Constipation. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/constipation. Copyright 2015. Accessed 11/4/2015.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Safety Information. Entereg (alvimopan) capsules. http://www.fda.gov/safety/medwatch/safetyinformation/ucm194328.htm. 10/2013. Accessed 10/2/2015.

Franz G. The senna drug and its chemistry. Pharmacology. Oct 1993;47 Suppl 1:2-6.

Fuentes JP, Armijo Olivo S, Magee DJ, Gross DP. Effectiveness of interferential current therapy in the management of musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phys Ther. Sep 2010;90(9):1219-1238.

Furnari M, Savarino E, Bruzzone L, Moscatelli A, Gemignani L, Giannini EG, . . . Savarino V. Reassessment of the role of methane production between irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD. Jun 2012;21(2):157-163.

Gartlehner G, Jonas DE, Morgan LC, Ringel Y, Hansen RA, Bryant CM, Carey T. Introduction. Drug Class Review: Constipation rugs: Final Report [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10506/. Accessed 10/2/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Naloxone. www.clinicalkey.com. Last updated 6/24/2014. Accessed 10/7/2015.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Opium Tincture. www.clinicalkey.com. Last updated 8/7/2003. Accessed 10/7/2015.

Hanif Palla A, Gilani AH. Dual effectiveness of Flaxseed in constipation and diarrhea: Possible mechanism. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jul 1 2015;169:60-68.

HC. Health Canada. Drugs and Health Products: Summar Basis of y Decision for Resotran. Available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd_smd_2012_resotran_141157-eng.php. Last updated 2011. Accessed 07/13/15.

Hendricks M. Johns Hopkins Magazine. Health and Medicine: Bowels in an Uproar. http://pages.jh.edu/~jhumag/0497web/gastro1.html. 4/1997. Accessed 9/18/2015.

Idiaquez J, Roman GC. Autonomic dysfunction in neurodegenerative dementias. Journal of the neurological sciences. Jun 15 2011;305(1-2):22-27.

Iovino P, Chiarioni G, Bilancio G, Cirillo M, Mekjavic IB, Pisot R, Ciacci C. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes. PloS one. 2013;8(8):e72608.

Izzo AA, Gaginella TS, Capasso F. The osmotic and intrinsic mechanisms of the pharmacological laxative action of oral high doses of magnesium sulphate. Importance of the release of digestive polypeptides and nitric oxide. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. Jun 1996;9(2):133-138.

Jamshed N, Lee ZE, Olden KW. Diagnostic approach to chronic constipation in adults. American family physician. Aug 1 2011;84(3):299-306.

Johanson JF, Kralstein J. Chronic constipation: a survey of the patient perspective. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007;25(5):599.

Jones G. Canada Free Press. A Natural Cure For Constipation. http://canadafreepress.com/articles-health/a-natural-cure-for-constipation. 6/20/2010. Accessed 11/4/2015.

Kajla P, Sharma A, Sood DR. Flaxseed-a potential functional food source. J Food Sci Technol. Apr 2015;52(4):1857-1871.

Kamm MA, Dudding TC, Melenhorst J, al e. Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Constipation. Gut. 2010;59:333-340.

Karhunen LJ, Juvonen KR, Flander SM, Liukkonen KH, Lahteenmaki L, Siloaho M, . . . Poutanen KS. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults. The Journal of nutrition. Apr 2010;140(4):737-744.

Kelly CR, Kahn S, Kashyap P, Laine L, Rubin D, Atreja A, . . . Wu G. Update on Fecal Microbiota Transplantation 2015: Indications, Methodologies, Mechanisms, and Outlook. Gastroenterology. Jul 2015;149(1):223-237.

Khatri PK, Ali AD, Alzadjali N, Bhagia G, Khaliqdina SJ, Aziz S. Frequency of functional constipation in 3 different populations and its causative factors. J Pak Med Assoc. Nov 2011;61(11):1149-1152.

King DE, Mainous AG, 3rd, Lambourne CA. Trends in dietary fiber intake in the United States, 1999-2008. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. May 2012;112(5):642-648.

Klauser AG, Beck A, Schindlbeck NE, Muller-Lissner SA. Low fluid intake lowers stool output in healthy male volunteers. Z Gastroenterol. Nov 1990;28(11):606-609.

Koch SM, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG. Determination of therapeutic threshold in sacral nerve modulation for faecal incontinence. The British journal of surgery. Jan 2005;92(1):83-87.

Kolida S, Tuohy K, Gibson GR. Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose. The British journal of nutrition. May 2002;87 Suppl 2:S193-197.

Komissarenko IA, Levchenko SV, Sil'vestrova S, Kosacheva TA, Noskova KK. [Multipurpose psyllium monotherapy in patients with diverticular disease]. Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologiia = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology. 2012(3):62-67.

Lawton CL, Walton J, Hoyland A, Howarth E, Allan P, Chesters D, Dye L. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner. Nutrients. Apr 2013;5(4):1436-1455.

Lee YY. What's New in the Toolbox for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence? Front Med (Lausanne). 2014;1:5.

Lembo A, Camilleri M. Chronic constipation. The New England journal of medicine. Oct 2 2003;349(14):1360-1368.

Leung FW, Rao SS. Approach to fecal incontinence and constipation in older hospitalized patients. Hospital practice (1995). Feb 2011;39(1):97-104.

Leung L, Riutta T, Kotecha J, Rosser W. Chronic constipation: an evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Med. Jul-Aug 2011;24(4):436-451.

Lewis JH. Esophageal and small bowel obstruction from guar gum-containing "diet pills": analysis of 26 cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Am J Gastroenterol. Oct 1992;87(10):1424-1428.

Lin CH, Lin JW, Liu YC, Chang CH, Wu RM. Risk of Parkinson's disease following severe constipation: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. Dec 2014;20(12):1371-1375.

Liu LW. Chronic constipation: current treatment options. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie. Oct 2011;25 Suppl B:22B-28B.

LPI. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center: Vitamin C. Available at http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-C. Last updated 01/14/2014. Accessed 07/26/2015.

Markland AD, Palsson O, Goode PS, Burgio KL, Busby-Whitehead J, Whitehead WE. Association of low dietary intake of fiber and liquids with constipation: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2013;108(5):796-803.

Marzio L, Del Bianco R, Donne MD, Pieramico O, Cuccurullo F. Mouth-to-cecum transit time in patients affected by chronic constipation: effect of glucomannan. Am J Gastroenterol. Aug 1989;84(8):888-891.

Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Diseases and conditions: Anal fissure. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anal-fissure/basics/definition/con-20024998?p=1. Last updated 12/04/2012. Accessed 07/05/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions: Constipation. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/constipation/basics/causes/con-20032773?p=1. Last updated 08/31/2013a. Accessed 07/03/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions: Hemorrhoids. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hemorrhoids/basics/symptoms/con-20029852?p=1. Last updated 06/19/2013b. Accessed 07/05/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. Diseases and conditions: Rectocele. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rectocele/basics/symptoms/con-20027826?p=1. Last updated 10/04/2014b. Accessed 07/05/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Over-the-counter laxatives for constipation: Use with caution. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/constipation/in-depth/laxatives/art-20045906. 6/6/2014 a. Accessed 10/9/2015.

McRorie JW, Daggy BP, Morel JG, Diersing PS, Miner PB, Robinson M. Psyllium is superior to docusate sodium for treatment of chronic constipation. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. May 1998;12(5):491-497.

McRorie JW, Jr. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 1: What to Look for and How to Recommend an Effective Fiber Therapy. Nutr Today. Mar 2015;50(2):82-89.

Mehler PS. Bulimia nervosa. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;349(9):875-881.

Merenstein DJ, Tan TP, Molokin A, Smith KH, Roberts RF, Shara NM, . . . Solano-Aguilar G. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study. Gut microbes. 2015;6(1):66-77.

Miller LE, Ouwehand AC. Probiotic supplementation decreases intestinal transit time: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Aug 7 2013;19(29):4718-4725.

Moore T, Rodriguez A, Bakken JS. Fecal microbiota transplantation: a practical update for the infectious disease specialist. Clin Infect Dis. Feb 2014;58(4):541-545.

Moreno LA, Tresaco B, Bueno G, Fleta J, Rodriguez G, Garagorri JM, Bueno M. Psyllium fibre and the metabolic control of obese children and adolescents. J Physiol Biochem. Sep 2003;59(3):235-242.

Muller-Lissner S, Tack J, Feng Y, Schenck F, Specht Gryp R. Levels of satisfaction with current chronic constipation treatment options in Europe - an internet survey. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Jan 2013;37(1):137-145.

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Hosoi Y, Itabashi M. Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. European journal of clinical nutrition. May 2007;61(5):616-622.

MUSC. Medical University of South Carolina. Digestive disease center: Rectal descent. Available at http://www.ddc.musc.edu/public/symptomsDiseases/diseases/colon/rectalDescent.html. Last updated 2015. Accessed 07/05/15. 2015.

Narula N, Marshall JK. Role of probiotics in management of diverticular disease. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Dec 2010;25(12):1827-1830.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Hemorrhoids. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/hemorrhoids/Pages/facts.aspx. Last updated 11/27/2013. Accessed 9/15/2015.

Nishimura M, Ohkawara T, Kanayama T, Kitagawa K, Nishimura H, Nishihira J. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. Jul 2015;5(3):161-167.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Gastrointestinal perforation. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000235.htm. Last updated 8/11/2014a. Accessed 9/15/2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. LiverTox. Drug Record: Cascara (Cascara Sagrada). http://livertox.nih.gov/Cascara.htm. Last updated 9/30/2015. Accessed 10/8/2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002136.htm. Last updated 8/11/2014b. Accessed 10/16/2015.

Norderval S, Rydningen M, Lindsetmo RO, Lein D, Vonen B. Sacral nerve stimulation. Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke. Jun 17 2011;131(12):1190-1193.

O'Malley D, Quigley EM, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Do interactions between stress and immune responses lead to symptom exacerbations in irritable bowel syndrome? Brain, behavior, and immunity. Oct 2011;25(7):1333-1341.

Oh JE, Kim YW, Park SY, Kim JY. Estrogen rather than progesterone cause constipation in both female and male mice. The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology. Oct 2013;17(5):423-426.

Pare P, Fedorak RN. Systematic review of stimulant and nonstimulant laxatives for the treatment of functional constipation. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Nov 2014;28(10):549-557.

Parkman HP, Rao SS, Reynolds JC, Schiller LR, Wald A, Miner PB, . . . Cedarbaum JM. Neurotrophin-3 improves functional constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. Jun 2003;98(6):1338-1347.

Pashankar DS. Childhood constipation: evaluation and management. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. May 2005;18(2):120-127.

Passaretti S, Franzoni M, Comin U, Donzelli R, Rocca F, Colombo E, . . . et al. Action of glucomannans on complaints in patients affected with chronic constipation: a multicentric clinical evaluation. Ital J Gastroenterol. Sep-Oct 1991;23(7):421-425.

Pereira J, Horrigan FD. Understanding adult acquired megacolon. Geriatric Nursing. 1// 1987;8(1):16-19.

Polymeros D, Beintaris I, Gaglia A, Karamanolis G, Papanikolaou IS, Dimitriadis G, Triantafyllou K. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum accelerates colonic transit time and improves symptoms in adults with chronic constipation. Digestive diseases and sciences. Sep 2014;59(9):2207-2214.

Portalatin M, Winstead N. Medical management of constipation. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. Mar 2012;25(1):12-19.

Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Pelletier A, Montplaisir J. Prodromal autonomic symptoms and signs in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Mov Disord. May 2013;28(5):597-604.

Quartarone G. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article. Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica. Dec 2013;59(4):329-340.

Queralto M, Vitton V, Bouvier M, Abysique A, Portier G. Interferential therapy: a new treatment for slow transit constipation. a pilot study in adults. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Jan 2013;15(1):e35-39.

Quigley EMM. The enteric microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of constipation. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. Feb 2011;25(1):119-126.

Quigley EMM. Prebiotics and Probiotics: Their Role in the Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adults. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2012a;27(2):195-200.

Quigley EMM. Prebiotics and probiotics; modifying and mining the microbiota. Pharmacological Research. 2010;61(3):213-218.

Quigley EMM. Prucalopride: safety, efficacy and potential applications. Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. Jan 2012b;5(1):23-30.

Rama Reddy NR, Mehta RH, Soni PH, Makasana J, Gajbhiye NA, Ponnuchamy M, Kumar J. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties. PloS one. 2015;10(6):e0129422.

Ramos CI, Andrade de Lima AF, Grilli DG, Cuppari L. The short-term effects of olive oil and flaxseed oil for the treatment of constipation in hemodialysis patients. Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation. Jan 2015;25(1):50-56.

Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. American journal of therapeutics. Sep-Oct 2001;8(5):345-357.

Rao S, Sifuentes H. Chronic constipation in adults. Available at https://online.epocrates.com/u/2911154/Constipation+in+adults. Last updated 12/18/2014. Accessed 06/25/2015.

Rao SS. Biofeedback therapy for constipation in adults. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. Feb 2011;25(1):159-166.

Rao SS, Yu S, Fedewa A. Systematic review: dietary fibre and FODMAP-restricted diet in the management of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Jun 2015;41(12):1256-1270.

Robson KM, Kiely DK, Lembo T. Development of constipation in nursing home residents. Diseases of the colon and rectum. Jul 2000;43(7):940-943.

Roerig JL, Steffen KJ, Mitchell JE, Zunker C. Laxative abuse: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs. Aug 20 2010;70(12):1487-1503.

Rogers J. Management of constipation in the community. Journal of Community Nursing. 2013;27(2):20–24.

Roque MV, Bouras EP. Epidemiology and management of chronic constipation in elderly patients. Clinical interventions in aging. 2015;10:919-930.

Rossen NG, MacDonald JK, de Vries EM, D'Haens GR, de Vos WM, Zoetendal EG, Ponsioen CY. Fecal microbiota transplantation as novel therapy in gastroenterology: A systematic review. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. May 7 2015;21(17):5359-5371.

Rush EC, Patel M, Plank LD, Ferguson LR. Kiwifruit promotes laxation in the elderly. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2002;11(2):164-168.

Russo L, Andreozzi P, Zito FP, Vozzella L, Savino IG, Sarnelli G, Cuomo R. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: effects of gender, age, and body mass index. Saudi J Gastroenterol. Mar-Apr 2015;21(2):104-110.

Sandler RS, Jordan MC, Shelton BJ. Demographic and dietary determinants of constipation in the US population. American journal of public health. Feb 1990;80(2):185-189.

Sankar NS, Donaldson D. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach diuretic therapy and a laxative causing electrolyte and water imbalance, loss of attention, a fall and subsequent fractures of the tibia and fibula in an elderly lady. The journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Aug 1998;118(4):237-240.

Sartore G, Reitano R, Barison A, Magnanini P, Cosma C, Burlina S, . . . Lapolla A. The effects of psyllium on lipoproteins in type II diabetic patients. European journal of clinical nutrition. Oct 2009;63(10):1269-1271.

Schmier JK, Miller PE, Levine JA, Perez V, Maki KC, Rains TM, . . . Alexander DD. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:374.

Sharma A, Bussen D, Herold A, Jayne D. Review of sacral neuromodulation for management of constipation. Surg Innov. Dec 2013;20(6):614-624.

Shin A, Camilleri M, Kolar G, Erwin P, West CP, Murad MH. Systematic review with meta-analysis: highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) in chronic constipation. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Feb 2014;39(3):239-253.

Shneyder N, Adler CH, Hentz JG, Shill H, Caviness JN, Sabbagh MN, . . . Driver-Dunckley E. Autonomic complaints in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep medicine. Dec 2013;14(12):1413-1416.

Siegel JD, Di Palma JA. Medical treatment of constipation. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. May 2005;18(2):76-80.

Siemens W, Gaertner J, Becker G. Advances in pharmacotherapy for opioid-induced constipation - a systematic review. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. Mar 2015;16(4):515-532.

Sigma-Aldrich. Cascara sagrada. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/rhamnus-purshiana.html. Copyright 2010 by National Standard Corporation. Accessed 10/8/2015.

Sikirov BA. Primary constipation: an underlying mechanism. Medical hypotheses. Feb 1989;28(2):71-73.

Sikirov D. Comparison of straining during defecation in three positions: results and implications for human health. Digestive diseases and sciences. Jul 2003;48(7):1201-1205.

Slavin JL, Greenberg NA. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum: clinical nutrition uses. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Jun 2003;19(6):549-552.

Sparberg M. Chapter 89: Constipation. In: Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations, 3rd ed. Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, eds. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK415/. Accessed 10/2/2015.

Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Bowen PE, Hussain EA, Damayanti-Wood BI, Farnsworth NR. Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food? Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. May 2001;41(4):251-286.

Strate LL, Modi R, Cohen E, Spiegel BM. Diverticular disease as a chronic illness: evolving epidemiologic and clinical insights. Am J Gastroenterol. Oct 2012;107(10):1486-1493.

Suares NC, Ford AC. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, chronic idiopathic constipation in the community: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. Sep 2011a;106(9):1582-1591; quiz 1581, 1592.

Suares NC, Ford AC. Systematic review: the effects of fibre in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Apr 2011b;33(8):895-901.

Tack J, Camilleri M, Dubois D, Vandeplassche L, Joseph A, Kerstens R. Association between health-related quality of life and symptoms in patients with chronic constipation: an integrated analysis of three phase 3 trials of prucalopride. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Mar 2015;27(3):397-405.

Tatsuki M, Miyazawa R, Tomomasa T, Ishige T, Nakazawa T, Arakawa H. Serum magnesium concentration in children with functional constipation treated with magnesium oxide. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Feb 14 2011;17(6):779-783.

Tester RF, Al-Ghazzewi FH. Mannans and health, with a special focus on glucomannans. Food Research International. 2013;50(1):384-391.

Thayalasekeran S, Ali H, Tsai HH. Novel therapies for constipation. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Dec 7 2013;19(45):8247-8251.

Thomas GP, Dudding TC, Rahbour G, Nicholls RJ, Vaizey CJ. Sacral nerve stimulation for constipation. The British journal of surgery. Jan 2013;100(2):174-181.

Thomas RH, Luthin DR. Current and Emerging Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: Focus on Prosecretory Agents. Pharmacotherapy. Jun 2015;35(6):613-630.

Ueki A, Otsuka M. Life style risks of Parkinson's disease: association between decreased water intake and constipation. J Neurol. Oct 2004;251 Suppl 7:vII18-23.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health information: Medical reference guide: Bowel incontinence. Available at http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/bowel-incontinence. Last updated 05/20/2014. Accessed 07/05/2015.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health Information: Medical Reference Guide: Constipation. Available at http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/constipation. Last updated 05/07/2013a. Accessed 07/03/2015.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health Information: Medical Reference Guide: Fecal impaction. Available at http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/fecal-impaction. Last updated 05/04/2015a. Accessed 07/05/2015.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health Information: Medical Reference Guide: Psyllium. Available at http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/psyllium. Last reviewed 07/07/2013b. Accessed 07/26/2015.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health information: Medical reference guide: Rectal prolapse. Available at http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/rectal-prolapse. Last updated 05/04/2015b. Accessed 07/05/2015.

USDA. US Department of Agriculter. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/dietaryguidelines2010.pdf Accessed 10/16/2015. 2010.

UU. University of Utah Health Care. Health Library: Cascara. Available at http://healthcare.utah.edu/healthlibrary/related/doc.php?type=19&id=CascaraSagrada. Accessed 07/26/15a.

UU. UNiversity of Utah Health Care. Healthfeed: 4 Causes of Constipation. Available at http://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2015/05/050515_slideshow-prevent-constipation.php. Published 05/05/2015b. Accessed 07/26/15.

Vakil N, Niklasson A, Denison H, Ryden A. Symptom profile in partial responders to a proton pump inhibitor compared with treatment-naive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a post hoc analysis of two study populations. BMC gastroenterology. 2014;14:177.

Varankovich NV, Nickerson MT, Korber DR. Probiotic-based strategies for therapeutic and prophylactic use against multiple gastrointestinal diseases. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:685.

Vieira MJ, Gama-Rodrigues JJ, Habr-Gama A, Faintuch J, Waitzberg DL, Pinotti HW. Preoperative assessment in cases of adult megacolon suffering from moderate malnutrition. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Jul-Aug 1996;12(7-8):491-495.

Volta U, Villanacci V. Celiac disease: diagnostic criteria in progress. Cellular & molecular immunology. Mar 2011;8(2):96-102.

Wang JY, Abbas MA. Current management of fecal incontinence. The Permanente journal. Summer 2013;17(3):65-73.

Watkins JL, Eckmann KR, Mace ML, Rogers J, Langley G, Smith W. Utilization of methylnaltrexone (relistor) for opioid-induced constipation in an oncology hospital. P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management. Jan 2011;36(1):33-36.

Weerkamp NJ, Tissingh G, Poels PJ, Zuidema SU, Munneke M, Koopmans RT, Bloem BR. Nonmotor symptoms in nursing home residents with Parkinson's disease: prevalence and effect on quality of life. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Oct 2013;61(10):1714-1721.

Woo HI, Kwak SH, Lee Y, Choi JH, Cho YM, Om AS. A Controlled, Randomized, Double-blind Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Vegetables and Whole Grain Powder That Is Rich in Dietary Fibers on Bowel Functions and Defecation in Constipated Young Adults. J Cancer Prev. Mar 2015;20(1):64-69.

Wood JD. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Mar 7 2007;13(9):1313-1332.

Xu L, Yu W, Jiang J, Li N. [Clinical benefits after soluble dietary fiber supplementation: a randomized clinical trial in adults with slow-transit constipation]. Zhonghua yi xue za zhi. Dec 30 2014;94(48):3813-3816.

Xu MQ, Cao HL, Wang WQ, Wang S, Cao XC, Yan F, Wang BM. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Jan 7 2015;21(1):102-111.

Yamasaki M, Funakoshi S, Matsuda S, Imazu T, Takeda Y, Murakami T, Maeda Y. Interaction of magnesium oxide with gastric acid secretion inhibitors in clinical pharmacotherapy. European journal of clinical pharmacology. Aug 2014;70(8):921-924.

Yang J, Wang HP, Zhou L, Xu CF. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: a meta analysis. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Dec 28 2012;18(48):7378-7383.

Yarandi SS, Srinivasan S. Diabetic gastrointestinal motility disorders and the role of enteric nervous system: current status and future directions. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. May 2014;26(5):611-624.

Youngster I, Russell GH, Pindar C, Ziv-Baran T, Sauk J, Hohmann EL. Oral, capsulized, frozen fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. Nov 5 2014;312(17):1772-1778.

Yu SW, Rao SS. Anorectal physiology and pathophysiology in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. Feb 2014;30(1):95-106.

Zakrzewska-Pniewska B, Gawel M, Szmidt-Salkowska E, Kepczynska K, Nojszewska M. Clinical and functional assessment of dysautonomia and its correlation in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. Dec 2012;27(8):592-599.

Zhao JS, Tong WD. [Pathophysiology of slow transit constipation]. Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery. Jul 2012;15(7):758-760.

Zhou XF, Rush RA. Functional roles of neurotrophin 3 in the developing and mature sympathetic nervous system. Molecular neurobiology. Dec 1996;13(3):185-197.

Ziai SA, Larijani B, Akhoondzadeh S, Fakhrzadeh H, Dastpak A, Bandarian F, . . . Emami T. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Nov 14 2005;102(2):202-207.