[No authors listed]. Vinpocetine Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7(3): 240-3. Available at: http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/7/3/240.pdf Accessed 7/25/2012.
Adám-Vizi V. “Neuroprotective Effect of Sodium Channel Blockers in Ischemia: The Pathomechanism of Early Ischemic Dysfunction” [in Hungarian]. Orv Hetil. 141.23 (2000): 1279-86.
Aggarwal BB, et al. “Suppression of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB Activation Pathway by Spice-Derived Phytochemicals: Reasoning for Seasoning.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1030 (2004): 434-41.
Akbar M, et al. “Docosahexaenoic Acid: A Positive Modulator of Akt Signaling in Neuronal Survival.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102.31 (2005): 10858-63.
Alkadhi K and Eriksen J. The complex and multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2011 Dec;9(4):586.
Alzheimer’s Association. Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia. 2012. Available at: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_diagnosis.asp. Accessed May 24, 2012a.
Alzheimer’s Association. Risk Factors. 2012. Available at: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_causes_risk_factors.asp?gclid=CLyKuavN8bACFQeCnQoduQNh-Q. Accessed June 28, 2012b.
Ames BN, et al. “Delaying the Mitochondrial Decay of Aging with Acetylcarnitine.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1033 (2004): 108-16.
Amtul Z, et al. “Structural Basis for the Differential Effects of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids on Abeta Production and Amyloid Plaques.” J Biol Chem. (2010): Epub ahead of print October 22, 2010.
Annweiler C, Rolland Y, Schott AM, et al. Higher Vitamin D Dietary Intake Is Associated with Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A 7-Year Follow-Up. [In Eng] J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr 13;
Arakawa M and Ito Y. “N-acetylcysteine and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.” Cerebellum. (2007):1-7. Epub ahead of print.
Aranda-Abreu GE, et al. “Rehabilitating a Brain with Alzheimer’s: A Proposal.” Clin Interv Aging. 6 (2011): 53-9.
Araujo JA, et al. “Improvement of Short-Term Memory Performance in Aged Beagles by a Nutraceutical Supplement Containing Phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, Vitamin E, and Pyridoxine.” Can Vet J. 49.4 (2008): 379-85.
Ardebili SM, Yeghaneh T, Gharesouran J, et al. Genetic association of TNF-α-308 G/A and -863 C/A polymorphisms with late onset Alzheimer’s disease in Azeri Turk population of Iran.” J Res Med Sci. 16.8 (2011): 1006-1013.
Bai DL, et al. “Huperzine A: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Curr Med Chem. 7.3 (2000): 355-74.
Bailey ME, Wang AC, Hao J, et al. teractive effects of age and estrogen on cortical neurons: implications for cognitive aging. Neuroscience. 2011 Sep 15;191:148-58.
Balestreri R, Fontana L, Astengo F. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1987 May;35(5):425-30.
Baloyannis SJ, and Baloyannis IS. The vascular factor in Alzheimer's disease: A study in Golgi technique and electron microscopy. J Neurol Sci. 2012 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Barbagallo M, et al. “Altered Ionised Magnesium Levels in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease.” Magnes Res. 24.3 (2011): S115-21.
Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks." An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.
Bardgett ME, et al. “Magnesium Deficiency Impairs Fear Conditioning in Mice.” Brain Res. 1038.1 (2005): 100-6.
Barron AM, Pike CJ. “Sex hormones, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease.” Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 1;4:976-97.
Baum L, et al. “Curcumin Interaction with Copper and Iron Suggests One Possible Mechanism of Action in Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Models.” J Alzheimers Dis. 6.4 (2004): 367-77.
Baum L, Lam CW, Cheung SK, et al. Six-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Pilot Clinical Trial of Curcumin in Patients with Alzheimer Disease. [In eng] J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Feb; 28(1): 110-3.
Begum AN, et al. “Curcumin Structure-Function, Bioavailability, and Efficacy in Models of Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 326.1 (2008): 196-208.
Berry NM, Robinson MJ, Bryan J, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PR. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine.Jul 2011;17(7):635-637.
Biasutti M, Dufour N, Ferroud C, et al. “Cost-Effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a New Contrast Agent for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease.” PLoS One. 7.4 (2012): e35559.
Blum S, et al. “Memory after Silent Stroke: Hippocampus and Infarcts Both Matter.” Neurology. 78.1 (2012): 38-46.
Boothby LA, Doering PL. “Vitamin C and vitamin E for Alzheimer’s disease.” Ann Pharmacother. 39.12 (2005):2073-80.
Bowman GL, et al. “Nutrient Biomarker Patterns, Cognitive Function, and MRI Measures of Brain Aging.” Neurology. [Epub ahead of print] December 28, 2011.
Brinton RD. “Investigative Models for Determining Hormone Therapy-Induced Outcomes in Brain: Evidence in Support of a Healthy Cell Bias of Estrogen Action.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1052:57-74.
Bubenik GA and Konturek SJ. “Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment.” J Physiol Pharmacol. 62.1 (2011): 13-9.
Burns JM, et al. “Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Brain Atrophy in Early Alzheimer Disease.” Neurology. 71.3 (2008): 210-6.
Butt MS, et al. “Coffee and Its Consumption: Benefits and Risks.” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 51.4 (2011): 363-73.
Butterworth RF. “Evidence for Forebrain Cholinergic Neuronal Loss in Congenital Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency.” Metab Brain Dis. 15.1 (2000): 83-91.
Cai Z. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: promising therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (Review). Molecular medicine reports. May 2014;9(5):1533-1541.
Cai Z, et al. “Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: A Valid Therapeutic Target through the Autophagy Pathway for Alzheimer’s disease?” J Neurosci Res. 90.6 (2012): 1105-18.
Canto C, Houtkooper RH, Pirinen E, et al. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab.Jun 6 2012;15(6):838-847.
Cao C, et al. “Caffeine Synergizes with Another Coffee Component to Increase Plasma GCSF: Linkage to Cognitive Benefits in Alzheimer’s Mice.” J Alzheimers Dis. 25.2 (2011): 323-35.
Cardinali DP, Furio AM, Brusco LI. “The use of chronobiotics in the resynchronization of the sleep/wake cycle. Therapeutical application in the early phases of Alzheimer’s disease.” Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 5.2 (2011): 80-90.
Carroll JC and Rosario ER. “The Potential Use of Hormone-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 2012 Jan;9(1):18-34.
Casadesus G, Shukitt-Hale B, Stellwagen HM, et al. Nutr Neurosci. 7.5-6 (2004): 309-16.
Caselli RJ, Reiman EM. “Characterizing the Preclinical Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease and the Prospect of Presymptomatic Intervention.” J Alzheimers Dis. (2012) [Epub ahead of print]
Chan A, et al. “Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study with a 16-Month Caregiver Extension.” Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 23.6 (2008): 571-85.
Chen HK, Ji ZS, Dodson SE, et al. “Apolipoprotein E4 Domain Interaction Mediates Detrimental Effects on Mitochondria and Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer Disease.” J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 18;286(7):5215-21.
Cheng F, et al. “Suppression of Amyloid β A11 Antibody Immunoreactivity by Vitamin C: Possible Role Of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides Derived From Glypican-1 By Ascorbate-induced, Nitric Oxide (NO)-catalyzed Degradation.” J Biol Chem, 286.31 (2011): 27559-72.
Cheng Y, et al. “Beneficial Effects of Melatonin in Experimental Models of Alzheimer Disease.” Acta Pharmacol Sin. 27.2 (2006): 129-39
Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care.Nov 2013;16(6):657-661.
Choudhary MI, et al. “Cholinesterase Inhibiting Withanolides from Withania somnifera.” Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo. 52.11 (2004): 1358-61.
Chowanadisai W, et al. “Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression.” J Biol Chem. 285.1 (2010): 142-152.
Christensen LP. “Ginsenosides chemistry, biosynthesis, analysis, and potential health effects.” Adv Food Nutr Res. 55 (2009): 1-99.
Ciabattoni G, et al. “Determinants of Platelet Activation in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Neurobiol Aging. 28.3 (2007): 336-72. Epub ahead of print January 24, 2006.
Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01617577. Efficacy and Safety of Filgrastim in Alzheimer's Disease (FFAD) Available at: http://clinicaltrial.gov/ct2/show/NCT01617577?term=Granulocyte+Colony-stimulating+Factor&rank=15 Accessed 7/25/2012.
Cole GM, et al. “NSAID and Antioxidant Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease: Lessons from in Vitro and Animal Models.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1035 (2004): 68-84.
Corsonello A, et al. “Serum Magnesium Levels and Cognitive Impairment in Hospitalized Hypertensive Patients.” Magnes Res. 14.4 (2001): 273-82.
Cotman CW, et al. “Exercise Builds Brain Health: Key Roles of Growth Factor Cascades and Inflammation.” Trends Neurosci. 30.9 (2007): 464-72.
Crack PJ, et al. Lack of Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Exacerbates Abeta-Mediated Neurotoxicity in Cortical Neurons.” J Neural Transm 113.5 (2006): 645-57. Epub ahead of print October 21, 2005.
Creeley CE, et al. “Donepezil Markedly Potentiates Memantine Neurotoxicity in the Adult Rat Brain.” Neurobiol Aging. 29.2 (2008): 153-67.
Crespo-Biel N, Theunis C, and Van Leuven F. Protein tau: prime cause of synaptic and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;2012:251426.
Culpan d, Kehoe PG, Love S. “Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and miRNA expression in frontal and temporal neocortex in Alzheimer’s disease and the effect of TNFα on miRNA expression in vitro.” Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet. 2.2 (2011): 156-62.
Danysz W, Parsons CG. “Alzheimer′s disease, β-amyloid, glutamate, NMDA receptors and memantine – searching for the connections.” Br J Pharmacol. 2012 May 30. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02057.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Daviglus ML, et al. “Risk Factors and Preventive Interventions for Alzheimer’s disease: State of the Science.” Arch Neurol. 68.9 (2011): 1185-90.
Deleglise B, Lassus B, Soubeyre V, et al. Synapto-protective drugs evaluation in reconstructed neuronal network. PloS one.2013;8(8):e71103.
Delumeau JC, Bentue-Ferrer D, Gandon JM, Amrein R, Belliard S, Allain H. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, cognitive functions and neurodegenerative diseases. Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum.1994;41:259-266.
Demarin V, et al. “Mediterranean Diet in Healthy Lifestyle and Prevention of Stroke.” Acta Clin Croat. 50.1 (2011): 67-77.
Demarin V, Podobnik SS, Storga-Tomic D, Kay G. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with stabilized oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a randomized, double-blind study. Drugs under experimental and clinical research.2004;30(1):27-33.
Dézsi L, et al. “Neuroprotective Effects of Vinpocetine in Vivo and in Vitro: Apovincaminic Acid Derivatives as Potential Therapeutic Tools in Ischemic Stroke” [in Hungarian]. Acta Pharm Hung. 72.2 (2002): 84-91.
Dhanasekaran M, et al. “The Emerging Role of Coenzyme Q-10 in Aging, Neurodegeneration, Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus.” Curr Neurovasc Res. 2.5 (2005): 447-59.
Dhitavat S, et al. “Folate, Vitamin E, and Acetyl-L-Carnitine Provide Synergistic Protection against Oxidative Stress Resulting from Exposure of Human Neuroblastoma Cells to Amyloid-Beta.” Brain Res. 1061.2 (2005): 114-7.
Diamond BJ, et al. “Ginkgo biloba Extract: Mechanisms and Clinical Indications.” Arch Phys Med Rehab. 81.5 (2000): 668-78.
Dimpfel W, Storni C, Verbruggen M. Ingested oat herb extract (Avena sativa) changes EEG spectral frequencies in healthy subjects. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine.May 2011;17(5):427-434.
Dong-gyu J, et al. “Evidence That γ-Secretase Mediates Oxidative-Stress Induced β-Secretase Expression in Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Jun;31(6):917-25.
Ejaz P, Bhojani K, Joshi VR. NSAIDs and kidney. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Aug;52:632-40.
Engelborghs S, et al. “Correlations between Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychological Findings and Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folate in Patients with Dementia.” Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 19.4 (2004): 365-70.
Engelborghs S, Le Bastard N. “The impact of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers on the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.” Mol Diagn Ther. 16.3 (2012): 135-41.
Epis R, et al. “Modulatory Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism in Hippocampal Neurons.” Eur J Pharmocol. 597.1-3 (2008): 51-53.
Eyles DW, et al. “Distribution of the Vitamin D Receptor and 1α-hydroxylase in Human Brain.” J Chem Neuroanat. 29.1 (2005): 21-30.
Facecchia K, et al. “Oxidative Toxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Therapeutic Strategies.” J Toxicol. 2011 (2011): 683728. Epub ahead of print July 14, 2011.
Farr SA, et al. “DHEAS Improves Learning and Memory in Aged SAMP8 Mice but Not in Diabetic Mice.” Life Sci. 75.2 (2004): 2775-85.
Finali G, Piccirilli M, Oliani C, Piccinin GL. L-deprenyl therapy improves verbal memory in amnesic Alzheimer patients. Clinical neuropharmacology.Dec 1991;14(6):523-536.
Fleisher AS, et al. “Phase 2 Safety Trial Targeting Amyloid Beta Production with a Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor in Alzheimer Disease.” Arch Neurol. 65.8 (2008): 1031-8.
Fonte V, Dostal V, Roberts CM et al. A glycine zipper motif mediates the formation of toxic β-amyloid oligomers in vitro and in vivo. Mol Neurodegener. 2011 Aug 23;6(1):61.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drugs page. Drugs to be Discontinued. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/DrugShortages/ucm050794.htm. Last updated 5/28/2013. Accessed 5/28/2013.
Forette F, et al. “Prevention of Dementia in Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial.” Lancet. 352.9137 (1998): 1347-51.
Forlenza OV, de Paula VJ, Machado-Vieira R, et al. Does lithium prevent Alzheimer's disease? Drugs Aging. 2012 May 1;29(5):335-42.
Forlenza OV, et al. “Disease-Modifying Properties of Long-Term Lithium Treatment for Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Randomised Controlled Trial.” Br J Psychiatry. 198 (2011): 351-6.
Forman HJ, et al. “Glutathione: Overview of its Protective Roles, Measurement, and Biosynthesis.” Mol Aspects Med. 30.1-2 (2009): 1-12.
Galbusera C, et al. “Increased Susceptibility to Plasma Lipid Peroxidation in Alzheimer Disease Patients.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 1.2 (2004): 103-9.
Galpern WR, et al. “Coenzyme Q Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Aging.” Mitochondrion. 7 Supp (2007): S146-53.
Gao J, Wang WY, Mao YW, et al. A novel pathway regulates memory and plasticity via SIRT1 and miR-134. Nature.Aug 26 2010;466(7310):1105-1109.
Gauthier S, et al. “Can We Do Better in Developing New Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease?” Alzheimers Dement. 5.6 (2009): 489-91.
Geda Y, et al. “Caloric Intake, Aging, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Study.” Presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology. New Orleans. April 21-28, 2012.
Gehin A, et al. “Glyphosate-induced Antioxidant Imbalance in HaCaT: The Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E.” Environ Toxicol Pharmocol. 22.1 (2006): 27-34.
Gomez-Pinilla F, et al. “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Functions as a Metabotrophin to Mediate the Effects of Exercise on Cognition.” Eur J Neurosci. 28.11 (2008): 2278-87.
Gong B, Pan Y, Vempati P, et al. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha regulated beta-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models. Neurobiol Aging.Jun
Grundman M. “Vitamin E and Alzheimer Disease: The Basis for Additional Clinical Trials.” Am J Clin Nutr. 71.2 (2000): 630S-6S.
Gu Y, et al. “Dietary Patterns in Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Aging.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 8.5 (2011): 510-9.
Gutzmann H, and Hadler D. Sustained Efficacy and Safety of Idebenone in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Update on a 2-Year Double-Blind Multicentre Study. [In eng] J Neural Transm Suppl. 1998 54(301-10.
Gutzmann H, Kuhl KP, Hadler D, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Idebenone Versus Tacrine in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Multicenter Study. [In eng] Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 Jan; 35(1): 12-8.
Hager K, et al. “Alpha-Lipoic Acid as a New Treatment Option for Alzheimer [corrected] Type Dementia.” Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 32.3 (2001): 275-82.
Hager K, et al. “Alpha-Lipoic Acid as a New Treatment Option for Alzheimer's Disease—A 48 Months Follow-up Analysis.” J Neural Transm Suppl. 72 (2007): 189-93.
Hajjar IM, et al. “Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: An Observational Study.” Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 23.1 (2008): 77-83.
Hampel H, Prvulovic D, Teipel S, et al. The future of Alzheimer's disease: the next 10 years. Prog Neurobiol. 2011 Dec;95(4):718-28.
Hansen RA, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Donepezil, Galantamine, and Rivastigmine for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Clin Interv Aging. 3.2 (2008): 211-25.
Haque AM, et al. “Green Tea Catechins Prevent Cognitive Deficits Caused by Abeta1-40 in Rats.” J Nutr Biochem. 19.9 (2008): 619-26.
Harrison FE. “A critical review of vitamin C for the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease.” J Alzheimer’s Dis. 29.4 (2012): 711-26.
Haskell CF, et al. “Effects of a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Supplement on Cognitive Function and Fatigue During Extended Multi-Tasking.” Hum Psychopharmacol. 25.6 (2010): 448-61.
Hayden K. M., Zandi P. P., Khachaturian A. S., et al. Cache County Investigators (2007). Does NSAID use modify cognitive trajectories in the elderly? The Cache County study. Neurology 69, 275–282.
Hillen T, et al. “DHEA-S Plasma Levels and Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Biol Psychiatry. 47.2 (2000): 161-3.
Hinterberger M and Fischer P. “Folate and Alzheimer: when time matters.” J Neural Transm. 2012 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Ho L, et al. “Heterogeneity in Red Wine Polyphenolic Contents Differentially Influences Alzheimer’s Disease-Type Neuropathology and Cognitive Deterioration.” J Alzheimers Dis. 16.1 (2009): 59-72.
Holmes C, et al. “Long-Term Effects of Abeta42 Immunisation in Alzheimer’s Disease: Follow-Up of a Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Phase I Trial.” Lancet. 2008 Jul 19;372(9634):216-23.
Holmquist L, et al. “Lipoic Acid as a Novel Treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and Related Dementias.” Pharmacol Thera. 113.1 (2007): 154-164.
Honjo K, van Reekum R, Verhoeff NP. Alzheimer's disease and infection: do infectious agents contribute to progression of Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimers Dement. 2009 Jul;5(4):348-60.
Houtkooper RH, Canto C, Wanders RJ, Auwerx J. The secret life of NAD+: an old metabolite controlling new metabolic signaling pathways. Endocr Rev. Apr 2010;31(2):194-223.
Imai S, Guarente L. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol.Aug 2014;24(8):464-471.
Ito S, et al. “1-alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Enhances Cerebral Clearance of Human Amyloid-Β Peptide(1-40) from Mouse Brain across the Blood-Brain Barrier.” Fluids Barriers CNS. 8 (2011): 20.
Ittner LM and Götz J. Amyloid-β and tau--a toxic pas de deux in Alzheimer's disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Feb;12(2):65-72.
Jaiswal R, et al. “Profile and characterization of the chlorogenic acids in green Robusta coffee beans by LC-MS(n): identification of seven new classes of compounds.” J Agric Food Chem. 58.15 (2010): 8722-37.
Janssen IM, et al. “Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review.” Wien Med Wochenschr. 160.21-22 (2010): 539-46.
Jiang H, et al. “Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Attenuates Chronic Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice: An Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model.” J Int Med Res. 38.4 (2010): 1305-12.
Jiménez-Jiménez FJ, et al. “Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Neural Transm. 104.6-7 (1997): 703-10.
Jossan SS, Gillberg PG, Gottfries CG, Karlsson I, Oreland L. Monoamine oxidase B in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease: a biochemical and autoradiographical study. Neuroscience.1991;45(1):1-12.
Jóźwiak S, et al. “Dietary Treatment of Epilepsy: Rebirth of an Ancient Treatment.” Neurol Neurochir Pol. 45.4 (2011): 370-8.
Kado DM, et al. “Homocysteine versus the Vitamins Folate, B6, and B12 as Predictors of Cognitive Function and Decline in Older High-Functioning Adults: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.” Am J Med. 118.2 (2005): 161-7.
Kalaria RN, Akinyemi R, and Ihara M. Does Vascular Pathology Contribute to Alzheimer Changes? [In Eng] J Neurol Sci. 2012 Aug 9;
Kariv-Inbal Z, Yacobson S, Berkecz R, et al. The isoform-specific pathological effects of apoE4 in vivo are prevented by a fish oil (DHA) diet and are modified by cholesterol. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28(3):667-83.
Kasper DL, et al., eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004.
Kato-Kataoka A, et al. “Soybean-derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Functions of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints.” J Clin Biochem Nutr. 47.3 (2010) 246-55.
Kennedy DO, et al. “Acute Cognitive Effects of Standardised Ginkgo Biloba Extract Complexed with Phosphatidylserine.” Hum Psychopharmacol. 22.4 (2007): 199-210.
Kennedy DO, et al. “Dose Dependent Changes in Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Acute Administration of Ginseng to Healthy Young Volunteers.” Nutr Neurosci. 4.4 (2001): 295-310.
Kennedy DO, Jackson PA, Forster J, Khan J, Grothe T, Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Haskell-Ramsay CF. Acute effects of a wild green-oat (Avena sativa) extract on cognitive function in middle-aged adults: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial. Nutritional neuroscience.Nov 30 2015.
Kidd PM. “Neurodegeneration from Mitochondrial Insufficiency: Nutrients, Stem Cells, Growth Factors, and Prospects for Brain Rebuilding Using Integrative Management.” Altern Med Rev. 10.4 (2005): 268-93.
Kim D, et al. “SIRT1 Deacetylase Protects against Neurodegeneration in Models for Alzheimer’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.” EMBO J. 26.13 (2007): 3169-79.
Kim J, et al. “The Inhibitory Effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on the Amyloid Formation and Cytotoxicity of Truncated Alpha-Synuclein.” Mol Neurodegener. 5 (2010): 20.
Kim TI, et al. “L-Theanine, an Amino Acid in Green Tea, Attenuates Beta-Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Neurotoxicity: Reduction in Oxidative Damage and Inactivation of ERK/p38 Kinase and NF-kappaB Pathways.” Free Radic Biol Med. 47.11 (2009): 1601-10.
Knopman DS. Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier;2012. Available at: http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00409-7&isbn=978-1-4377-1604-7&uniqId=349213967-58#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00409-7--s0010. Accessed August 3, 2012.
Kristensen MO, Gulmann NC, Christensen JE, et al. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid in Alzheimer dementia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993 Jun;87(6):475-81.
Kuboyama T, et al. “Neuritic Regeneration and Synaptic Reconstruction Induced by Withanolide A.” Br J Pharmacol. 144.7 (2005): 961-71.
Kwon SH, et al. “Neuroprotective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia via Anti-Acetylcholinesterase and Anti-Oxidative Activities in Mice.” Eur J Pharmacol. 649.1-3 (2010): 210-7.
Ladiwala ARA, et al. “Resveratrol Selectively Remodels Soluble Oligomers and Fibrils of Amyloid Beta into Off-Pathway Conformers.” J Biol Chem. 285 (2010): 24228-37.
Landmark K. “Could Intake of Vitamins C and E Inhibit Development of Alzheimer Dementia?” [in Norwegian]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 126.2 (2006): 159-61.
Laske C, et al. “Decreased Plasma Levels of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in Patients with Early Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Alzheimers Dis. 17.1 (2009): 115-23.
Lau FC, et al. “The Beneficial Effects of Fruit Polyphenols on Brain Aging.” Neurobiol Aging. 26.1 (2005): 128-32.
Lee ST, et al. “Panax ginseng Enhances Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer Disease.” Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 22.3 (2008): 222-6.
Lee YM, Han SI, Song BC, Yeum KJ. Bioactives in Commonly Consumed Cereal Grains: Implications for Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Journal of medicinal food.Nov 2015;18(11):1179-1186.
Leuner K, Müller WE, and Reichert AS. From Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Amyloid Beta Formation: Novel Insights into the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2012 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Li G, et al. “Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentration of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Subjects.” PLoS One. 4.5 (2009): Epub ahead of print May 1, 2009.
Li MH, et al. “Protective Effects of Oligomers of Grape Seed Polyphenols against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Cell Death.” Ann NY Acad Sci. 1030 (2004): 317-29.
Liu S, et al. “Enhanced Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration through Silicon Tubes Filled with Pyrroloquinoline Quinone.” Microsurgery. 25.4 (2005): 329-37.
Lo D and Grossberg GT. Use of memantine for the treatment of dementia. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Oct;11(10):1359-70.
Loeb MB, Molloy DW, Smieja M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of doxycycline and rifampin for patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Mar;52(3):381-7.
Longpré F, et al. “Protection by EGb 761 against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity: Involvement of NF-KappaB, SIRT1, and Mapks Pathways and Inhibition of Amyloid Fibril Formation.” Free Radic Biol Med. 41.12 (2006): 1781-94.
Lu PH, Masterman DA, Mulnard R, et al. Effects of testosterone on cognition and mood in male patients with mild Alzheimer disease and healthy elderly men. Arch Neurol. 2006 Feb;63(2):177-85.
Luan K, Rosales JL, Lee KY. “VIEWPOINT: Crosstalks Between Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid Plaque Formation.” Ageing Res Rev. (2012) [Epub ahead of print]
Luchsinger JA, Cheng D, Tang MX, et al. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Apr;26(2): 101-5.
Lukiw WJ, et al. “A Role for Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Neuroprotectin D1 in Neural Cell Survival and Alzheimer Disease.” J Clin Invest. 115.10 (2005): 2774-83.
Luu-The V, Labrie F. “The Intracrine Sex Steroid Biosynthesis Pathways.” Prog Brain Res. 181. (2010): 177-92.
Ma QL, et al. “Beta-Amyloid Oligomers Induce Phosphorylation of Tau and Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate via C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling: Suppression by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Curcumin.” J Neurosci. 29.28 (2009): 9078-89.
Magri F, Sarra S, Cinchetti W, et al. Qualitative and quantitative changes of melatonin levels in physiological and pathological aging and in centenarians. J Pineal Res. 2004 May;36(4):256-61.
Maki PM and Henderson VW. Hormone therapy, dementia, and cognition: the Women's Health Initiative 10 years on. Climacteric. 2012 Jun;15(3):256-62.
Mallajosyula JK, Chinta SJ, Rajagopalan S, Nicholls DG, Andersen JK. Metabolic control analysis in a cellular model of elevated MAO-B: relevance to Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicity research.Oct 2009;16(3):186-193.
Malyka AG et al. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. Drugs. 2010 Feb 12;70(3):287-312.
Manacuso M, et al. “Coenzyme Q10 in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders.” Curr Drug Targets. 11.1 (2010): 111-21.
Mandel S, et al. “Green Tea Catechins as Brain-Permeable, Natural Iron Chelators-Antioxidants for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders.” Mol Nutr Food Res. 50.2 (2006): 229-34.
Mandel SA, et al. “Understanding the Broad-Spectrum Neuroprotective Action Profile of Green Tea Polyphenols in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases.” J Alzheimers Dis. 25.2 (2011): 187-208.
Marchesi VT. “Alzheimer’s disease 2012: the great amyloid gamble.” Am J Pathol. 180.5 (2012): 1762-7.
Martin LJ. “Mitochondrial and Cell Death Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Diseases.” Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 3.4 (2010): 839-915.
Mas E, et al. “Functional Vitamin E Deficiency in ApoE4 Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.” Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 21.3 (2006): 198-204.
Mashayekh A, et al. “Effects of Ginkgo biloba on Cerebral Blood Flow Assessed by Quantitative MR Perfusion Imaging: A Pilot Study.” Neuroradiology. 53.3 (2011): 185-91.
Massoud F, Gauthier S. Update on the pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2010 Mar;8(1):69-80.
Mayo Clinic. Alzheimer’s disease. Definition. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alzheimers-disease/DS00161/. Last updated January 18, 2011. Accessed August 2, 2012.
Mayo W, et al. “Individual Differences in Cognitive Aging: Implication of Pregnenolone Sulfate.” Prog Neurobiol. 2003 Sep;71(1):43-8.
Mayo W, et al. “Pregnenolone Sulfate Enhances Neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM in Young and Aged Hippocampus.” Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Jan;26(1):103-14.
McCann SM, et al. “The Nitric Oxide Theory of Aging Revisited.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1057 (2005): 64-84.
McDonnell DP, Connor CE, Wijayaratne A, et al. “Definition of the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Underlying the Tissue-selective Agonist/Antagonist Activities of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators.” Endocrine Reviews. 57.1 (2002): 295-316.
Mehta M, Adem A, and Sabbagh M. New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;2012:728983.
Meng Q, Ru J, Zhang G, et al. Re-evaluation of tacrine hepatotoxicity using gel entrapped hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Jan 30;168(2):140-7.
Miklossy J. Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 4;8:90.
Milad SB, et al. “Inflammation and apoptosis in aortic tissues of aged type II diabetes: Amelioration with Mechanisms Underlying the Tissue-selective Agonist/Antagonist Activities of .” Life Sci. 86.23-24 (2010): 844-53.
Miller WL, “Androgen Biosynthesis from Cholesterol to DHEA.” Mol Cell Endocrinol. 198.1-2 (2002): 7-14.
Mishra S, et al. “The Effect of Curcumin (Turmeric) on Alzheimer’s Disease: An Overview.” Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 11.1 (2008): 13-9.
Mizrahi EH, et al. “Plasma Total Homocysteine Levels, Dietary Vitamin B6 and Folate Intake in AD and Healthy Aging.” J Nutr Health Aging. 7.3 (2003): 160-5.
Moccetti T, Wullschleger C, Schmidt A, Aydogan C, Kreuter M. Bioactivity-based development of a wild green oat (Avena sativa L.) extract in support of mental health disorders. Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie.2006;27(S 1):P24.
Montagnana M, et al. “Coffee Intake and Cardiovascular Disease: Virtue Does Not Take Center Stage.” Semin Thromb Hemos. 38.2 (2012): 164-77. Epub February 18, 2012.
Moreira PI, et al. “CoQ10 Therapy Attenuates Amyloid Beta-Peptide Toxicity in Brain Mitochondria Isolated from Aged Diabetic Rats.” Exp Neurol. 196.1 (2005): 112-9.
Moreno M. “Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetycholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.” Clin Ther. 25.1 (2003): 178-93.
Morris MC, et al. “Dietary Niacin and the Risk of Incident Alzheimer’s Disease and of Cognitive Decline.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75.8 (2004): 1093-9.
Mulder C, et al. “Low Vitamin B6 Levels Are Associated with White Matter Lesions in Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Am Geriatr Soc. 53.6 (2005): 1073-4.
Muller WE et al. Effects of piracetam on membrane fluidity in the aged mouse, rat, and human brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 24;53(2):135-40.
Muñoz-Torrero D. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors as disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(24):2433-55.
Murase K, et al. “Stimulation of Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis/Secretion in Mouse Astroglial Cells by Coenzymes.” Biochem Mol Biol Int. 30.4 (1993): 615-21.
Nagahara AH, et al. “Neuroprotective Effects of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Rodent and Primate Models of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Nat Med. 15.3 (2009): 331-7.
Nagatsu T, Sawada M. Molecular mechanism of the relation of monoamine oxidase B and its inhibitors to Parkinson's disease: possible implications of glial cells. Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum. 2006(71):53-65.
Nakano M, Ubukata K, Yamamoto T, Yamaguchi H. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mental status of middle-aged and elderly persons. FOOD Style. 2009;21:13(7):50-3.
Nieoullon A. [Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease: further comments on their mechanisms of action and therapeutic consequences]. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2010 Jun;8(2):123-31.
Nunes PV, et al. “Lithium and Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease in Elderly Patients with Bipolar Disorder.” Br J Psychiatry. 190 (2007): 359-60.
O’Neill, et al. “Impact of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Tamoxifen, on Neuronal Outgrowth and Survival following Toxic Insults Associated with Aging and Alzheimer’s disease.” Exp Neurol. 2004 Aug;188(2):268-78.
Ono K, et al. “Preformed Beta-Amyloid Fibrils Are Destabilized by Coenzyme Q10 in Vitro.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 330.1 (2005): 111-6.
Overk CR, Perez SE, Ma C, et al. Sex Steroid Levels and Ad-Like Pathology in 3xtgad Mice. [In Eng] J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Aug 13;
Pangalos MN, et al. “Drug Development for CNS Disorders: Strategies for Balancing Risk and Reducing Attrition.” Nat Rev Drug Discov. 6 (2007): 521-32.
Pasinetti GM, Zhao Z, Qin W, et al. Caloric intake and Alzheimer's disease. Experimental approaches and therapeutic implications. Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2007;35:159-75.
Pereira C, et al. “Neuroprotection Strategies: Effect of Vinpocetine in Vitro Oxidative Stress Models” [in Portuguese]. Acta Med Port. 16.6 (2003): 401-6.
Perry EK, et al. “Medicinal Plants and Alzheimer’s Disease: From Ethnobotany to Phytotherapy.” J Pharm Pharmacol. 51.5 (1999): 527-34.
Pettegrew JW, et al. “Clinical and Neurochemical Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurobiol Aging. 16.1 (1995) 1-4.
Pocernich CB, et al. “In Vivo Glutathione Elevation Protects against Hydroxyl Free Radical-Induced Protein Oxidation in Rat Brain.” Neurochem Int. 36.3 (2000): 185-91.
Pocernich CB, et al. “Nutritional Approaches to Modulate Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 8.5 (2011): 452-69.
Polleri A, et al. “Dementia: A Neuroendocrine Perspective.” J Endocrinol Invest. 25.1 (2002): 73-83.
Polvikoski T, Sulkava R, Haltia M, et al. Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of beta-amyloid protein. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 9;333(19):1242-7.
Qiu C, et al. “Vascular and Psychosocial Factors in Alzheimer’s Disease: Epidemiological Evidence toward Intervention.” J Alzheimers Dis. 20.3 (2010): 689-97.
Qiu C. Preventing Alzheimer's Disease by Targeting Vascular Risk Factors: Hope and Gap. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Quadri P, et al. “Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.” Clin Chem Lab Med. 43.10 (2005): 1096-100.
Rafii MS, Walsh S, Little JT, et al. A phase II trial of huperzine A in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2011 Apr 19;76(16):1389-94.
Ravaglia G, et al. “Homocysteine and Folate as Risk Factors for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.” Am J Clin Nutr. 82.3 (2005): 636-43.
Rex A, Spychalla M, Fink H. Treatment with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) improves water maze performance in old Wistar rats. Behavioural brain research.Sep 23 2004;154(1):149-153.
Rezai-Zadeh K, et al. “Flavonoid-Mediated Presenilin-1 Phosphorylation Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease Beta-Amyloid Production.” J Cell Mol Med. 13.3 (2009): 574-88.
Rezai-Zadeh K, et al. “Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage and Reduces Cerebral Amyloidosis in Alzheimer Transgenic Mice.” J Neurosci. 25.38 (2005): 8807-14.
Rezai-Zadeh K, et al. “Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Beta-Amyloid Mediated Cognitive Impairment and Modulates Tau Pathology in Alzheimer Transgenic Mice.” Brain Res. 12.1214 (2008): 177-87.
Richard T, et al. “Neuroprotective Properties of Resveratrol and Derivatives.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1215 (2011): 103-8.
Richter Y, et al. “The Effect of Phosphatidylserine-containing Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Memory Abilities in Subjects with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Study.” Clin Interv Aging. 5 (2010): 313-6.
Ringman JM, et al. “A Potential Role of the Curry Spice Curcumin in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 2.2 (2005): 131-6.
Rosales-Corral SA, et al. “Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathological Mechanisms and the Beneficial Role of Melatonin.” J Pineal Res. 52.2 (2012): 167-202.
Sadowsky CH, Galvin JE. “Guidelines for management of cognitive and behavioral problems in dementia.” J Am Board Fam Med. 25.3 (2012): 350-66.
Salminen A, et al. “Inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: Amyloid-β Oligomers Trigger Innate Immunity Defence via Pattern Recognition Receptors.” Prog Neurobiol. 87.3 (2009):181-194.
Sanchez PE, Zhu L, Verret L, et al. Levetiracetam suppresses neuronal network dysfunction and reverses synaptic and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Sasaki Y, Araki T, Milbrandt J. Stimulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways delays axonal degeneration after axotomy. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.Aug 16 2006;26(33):8484-8491.
Sastre M, Gentleman SM. NSAIDs: How they Work and their Prospects as Therapeutics in Alzheimer's Disease. Front Aging Neurosci. 2010 May 18;2:20.
Saura J, Luque JM, Cesura AM, Da Prada M, Chan-Palay V, Huber G, Löffler J, Richards JG. Increased monoamine oxidase B activity in plaque-associated astrocytes of Alzheimer brains revealed by quantitative enzyme radioautography. Neuroscience.Sep 1994;62(1):15-30.
Scarmeas N, et al. “Mediterranean Diet and Alzheimer Disease Mortality.” Neurology. 69 (2007): 1084-93.
Scarmeas N, et al. “Mediterranean Diet and Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Arch Neurol. 66.2 (2009): 216-25.
Schmitz C, et al. “Hippocampal Neuron Loss Exceeds Amyloid Plaque Load in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Am J Pathol. 2004 Apr;164(4):1495-502.
Schneider LS, et al. “A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Doses of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 2.5 (2005): 541-51.
Schreiber S, et al. “An Open Trial of Plant-Source Derived Phosphatydilserine for Treatment of Age-Related Cognitive Decline.” Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 37.4 (2000): 302-7.
Schulte-Herbrüggen O, Jockers-Scherübl MC, Hellweg R. Neurotrophins: from pathophysiology to treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008 Feb;5(1):38-44.
Schumacher M, et al. “Local Synthesis and Dual Actions of Progesterone in the Nervous System: Neuroprotection and Myclination.” Growth Horm IGF Res. 14.A (2004):S18-33.
Sehgal N, Gupta A, Valli RK,et al. Withania somnifera reverses Alzheimer's disease pathology by enhancing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 28;109(9):3510-5. Epub 2012 Jan 30.
Senin U, Parnetti L, Barbagallo-Sangiorgi G, et al. Idebenone in Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type: A Multicentre Study. [In eng] Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1992 Nov-Dec; 15(3): 249-60.
Serot JM, et al. “CSF-Folate Levels Are Decreased in Late-Onset AD Patients.” J Neural Transm. 108.1 (2001): 93-9.
Shah NS, Vidal JS, Masaki K. Midlife blood pressure, plasma β-amyloid, and the risk for Alzheimer disease: the Honolulu Asia Aging Study. Hypertension. 2012 Apr;59(4):780-6. Epub 2012 Mar 5.
Shi J, et al. “Polyphenolics in Grape Seeds: Biochemistry and Functionality.” J Med Food. 6.4 (2003): 291-9.
Shireen KF, et al. “Effects of Dietary Vitamin E, C and Soybean Oil Supplementation on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Liver and Muscles of Rats.” Food Chem Toxicol. 46.10 (2008): 3290-3294.
Shyh-Hwa L, et al. “Docosahexaenoic Acid and Phosphatidylserine Supplementations Improve Antioxidant Activities and Cognitive Functions of the Developing Brain on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure Model.” Brain Res. 1451. (2012): 19-26.
Sitges M, et al. “Vinpocetine Blockade of Sodium Channels Inhibits the Rise in Sodium and Calcium Induced by 4-Aminopyridine in Synaptosomes.” Neurochem Int. 46.7 (2005): 533-40.
Slutsky I, et al. “Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium.” Neuron. 65.2 (2010): 165-77.
Solfrizzi V, et al. “Mediterranean Diet in Predementia and Dementia Syndromes.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011 Aug;8(5):520-42.
Soscia SJ, Kirby JE, Washicosky KJ, et al. The Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein is an antimicrobial peptide. PLoS One. 2010 Mar 3;5(3):e9505.
Sostres C, Gargallo CJ, Arroyo MT, et al. “Adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, aspirin and coxibs) on upper gastrointestinal tract.” Best Prac Res Clin Gastroenterol. 24.2 (2010):121-32.
Srinivasan V, et al. “Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders.” Behav Brain Funct. 4.2 (2006): 15.
Srivastava S. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders. Clinical and translational medicine.Dec 2016;5(1):25.
St. George-Hyslop PH, et al. “Will Anti-Amyloid Therapies Work for Alzheimer’s Disease?” Lancet. 2008 Jul 19;372(9634):180-2.
Stern: Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry, 1st ed. Copyright © 2008 Mosby, An Imprint of Elsevier. Available at http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-04743-2..50021-4--cesec5&isbn=978-0-323-04743-2&uniqId=348489237-3#4-u1.0-B978-0-323-04743-2..50021-4--cesec5 Accessed 7/31/2012.
Suchy J, et al. “Dietary supplementation with a combination of α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, glycerophosphocoline, docosahexaenoic acid, and phosphatidylserine reduces oxidative damage to murine brain and improves cognitive performance.” Nut Res. 29.1 (2009): 70-74.
Sun QQ, et al. “Huperzine-A Capsules Enhance Memory and Learning Performance in 34 Pairs of Matched Adolescent Students.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 20.7 (1999): 601-3.
Swanson D, et al. “Omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA: Health Benefits throughout Life.” Adv Nutr. 3.1 (2012): 1-7
Szilagyi G, et al. “Effects of Vinpocetine on the Redistribution of Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients: A PET Study.” J Neurol Sci. Mar 15 (2005); 229-230: 275-84.
Tao R, et al. “Pyrroloquinoline quinone preserves mitochondrial function and prevents oxidative injury in Alzheimer’s diseaseult rat cardiac myocytes.” Biochem Biophys Res Commune. 363.2 (2007):257-262. Epub ahead of printTarawneh R and Holtzman DM. The clinical problem of symptomatic Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2(5):a006148.
Tarawneh R, Holtzman DM. “The clinical problem of symptomatic Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.” Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2.5 (2012):a006148.
Tchantchou F, et al. “N-Acetyl Cysteine Alleviates Oxidative Damage to Central Nervous System of Apoe-Deficient Mice Following Folate and Vitamin E-Deficiency.” J Alzheimers Dis. 7.2 (2005): 135-8.
Teng CC, Yang YT, Chen YC, et al. “Role of WWOX/WOX1 in Alzheimer’s disease pathology and in cell death signaling.” Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 4 (2012): 1951-65.
Tobinick EL and Gross H. “Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer’s disease following perispinal etanercept administration.” J Neuroinflammation. 5 (2008b): 2.
Tobinick EL and Gross H. “Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer’s disease.” BMC Neurol. 8 (2008a): 27.
Tobinick EL. “Deciphering the Physiology Underlying the Rapid Clinical Effects of Perispinal Etanercept in Alzheimer’s disease.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 9.1 (2012): 99-109.
Trenkwalder P. “The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE)—Recent Analyses.” J Hypertens Suppl. 24.1 (2006): S107-14.
Tsai GE, k WE, Gunther J, et al. Improved cognition in Alzheimer's disease with short-term D-cycloserine treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;156(3):467-9.
Tsai KJ, et al. “G-CSF Rescues the Memory Impairment of Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Exp Med. 204.6 (2007): 1273-80.
Tucker KL, et al. “High Homocysteine and Low B Vitamins Predict Cognitive Decline in Aging Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.” Am J Clin Nutr. 82.3 (2005): 627-35.
Upadhyaya P, Seth V, Ahmad M. “Therapy for Alzheimer’s disease: An update.” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 4.6 (2010): 408-21.
Uzun S, Kozumplik O, Folnegovic-Smalc V. “Alzheimer’s Dementia: Current Data Review.” Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1333-7.
Van der Auwera I, Wera S, Van Leuven F, et al. “A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.” Nutr Metab (Lond). 2 (2005):28.
van Himbergen TM, et al. “Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance and Inflammation and the Risk for All-Cause Dementia and Alzheimer Disease: Results From the Framingham Heart Study.” Arch Neurol. (2012): Epub ahead of print January 2, 2012. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.670.
van Praag H. “Exercise and the Brain: Something to Chew On.” Trends Neurosci. 32.5 (2009): 283-90.
Ven Murthy MR, et al. “Scientific Basis for the Use of Indian Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Ashwagandha.” Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 10.3 (2010): 238-46.
Vest RS, and Pike CJ. Gender, sex steroid hormones, and Alzheimer's disease. Horm Behav. 2012 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Vingtdeux V, Dreses-Werringloer U, Zhao H, et al. “Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer’s disease.” BMC Neurosci. 9(Suppl 2) (2008): S6.
Virmani MA, et al. “The Action of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on the Neurotoxicity Evoked by Amyloid Fragments and Peroxide on Primary Rat Cortical Neurones.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 939 (2001): 162-78.
Waegemans T et al. Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2002;13(4):217-24.
Walker D, et al. “Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease: Current Status and Future Directions.” Curr Neuropharmacol. 5.4 (2007): 232-43.
Walter A, et al. “ Glycerophosphocholine is Elevated in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer Patients.” Neurobiol Aging. 25.10 (2004): 1299-303.
Wang BS, et al. “Efficacy and Safety of Natural Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Huperzine A in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis.” J Neural Transm. 116.4 (2009): 457-65.
Wang HX, et al. “Vitamin B(12) and Folate in Relation to the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Neurology. 56.9 (2001): 1188-94.
Wang J, et al. “Grape-Derived Polyphenolics Prevent Alpha Beta Oligomerization and Attenuate Cognitive Deterioration in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Neurosci. 28.25 (2008): 6388-92.
Wang JZ, et al. “Role of Melatonin in Alzheimer-Like Neurodegeneration.” Acta Pharmacol Sin. 27.1 (2006a): 41-9.
Wang R, et al. “Progress in Studies of Huperzine A: A Natural Cholinesterase Inhibitor from Chinese Herbal Medicine.” Acta Pharmacol Sin. 27.1 (2006b): 1-26.
Wang X, Su B, Perry G, et al. Insights into amyloid-beta-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer disease. Free Radic Bio Med. 43.12 (2007): 1569-73.
Wang XD, Zhang JM, Yang HH, et al. Modulation of NMDA receptor by huperzine A in rat cerebral cortex. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Jan;20(1):31-5.
Weill-Engerer S, et al. “Neurosteroid Quantification in Human Brain Regions: Comparison between Alzheimer’s and Nondemented Patients.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87.11 (2002): 5138-43.
William BW, Cruz C. “Impact of NSAIDs on Cardiovascular Risk and Hypertension.” Ital J Med. 5.3 (2011):175-183.
Winter B et al. High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007 May;87(4):597-609.
Wong RH, Howe PR, Bryan J, Coates AM, Buckley JD, Berry NM. Chronic effects of a wild green oat extract supplementation on cognitive performance in older adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Nutrients.May 2012;4(5):331-342.
Wu A, et al. “Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Normalize BDNF Levels, Reduce Oxidative Damage, and Counteract Learning Disability after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.” J Neurotrauma. 21.10 (2004a): 1457-67.
Wu X, et al. “Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Common Foods in the United States.” J Agric Food Chem. 52.12 (2004b): 4026-37.
Yaffe K, et al. “Effect of Raloxifene on Prevention of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment in Older Women: The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene (MORE) Randomized Trial.” Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;162(4):683-90.
Yamaguchi K, et al. “Stimulation of Nerve Growth Factor Production by Pyrroloquinoline Quinone and Its Derivatives in Vitro and in Vivo.” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 57.7 (1993): 1231-3.
Yang F, et al. “Curcumin Inhibits Formation of Amyloid Beta Oligomers and Fibrils, Binds Plaques, and Reduces Amyloid in Vivo.” J Biol Chem. 280.7 (2005): 5892-901.
Yang X, et al. “Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates Beta-Amyloid Pathology in the Aged Transgenic Mice with Alzheimer Presenilin 1 Mutation.” J Mol Neurosci. 34.2 (2008): 165-71.
Yao ZX, et al. “Ginkgo biloba Extract (Egb 761) Inhibits Beta-Amyloid Production by Lowering Free Cholesterol Levels.” J Nutr Biochem. 15.12 (2004): 749-56.
Yilmaz N. “Relationship between paraoxonase and homocysteine: crossroads of oxidative diseases.” Arch Med Sci. 8.1: 138-53.
Young G, et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Reprod Nutr Dev 45.1 (2005): 1-28.
Yurko-Mauro K, et al. “Beneficial Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cognition in Age-Related Cognitive Decline.” Alzheimers Dement. 6.6 (2010): 456-64.
Zandi PP, Carlson MC, Plassman BL, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer disease in older women: the CacheCounty Study. JAMA. 2002 Nov 6;288(17):2123-9.
Zandi PP, et al. “Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Disease in Users of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements: The Cache County Study.” Arch Neurol. 61.1 (2004): 82-8.
Zapp LM, Slaga TJ, Zhao J. et al. Method for enhancing post-processing content of beneficial compounds in beverages naturally - United States Patent Application 20100183790. Publication Date: 2010-07-22. Available at: http://patent.ipexl.com/U2S/20100183790.html accessed 7/25/2012.
Zhang JJ, et al. “Protective Effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone against Abeta-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.” Neurosci Lett. 464.3 (2009): 165-9.
Zhang S and Yao T. [Estrogen: regulation of amyloid-beta protein metabolism and attenuation of amyloid-beta protein neurotoxicity]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 2003 Jul;34(3):197-201.
Zhao Y, Zhao B. “Natural antioxidants in prevention and management of Alzheimer’s disease.” Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 1.4 (2012): 794-808.
Zhou P, et al. “Acetyl-L-Carnitine Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Alzheimer-Like Histopathological and Behavioral Abnormalities.” Rejuvenation Res. 14.6 (2011): 669-79.