Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Life Extension Suggestions
Abdel-Tawab M, Werz O, Schubert-Zsilavecz M. "Boswelliaserrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data." ClinPharmacokinet (2011) 50(6):349-69.
Agler AH, Kurth T, GazianoJM, et al. "Randomised vitamin E supplementation and risk of chronic lung disease in the Women's Health Study." Thorax (2011) 66(4):320-5.
Alt Med Rev [No authors listed]. Monograph. L-carnitine. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Mar;10(1):42-50.
American Lung Assc. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Fact Sheet. 2/2011. Available at: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/resources/facts-figures/COPD-Fact-Sheet.html Accessed: 6/25/2012.
American Thoracic Society. Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD (©2004). Available at: http://www.thoracic.org/clinical/copd-guidelines/resources/copddoc.pdf Accessed 7/2/2012.
An X, Zhang AL, Yang AW, et al. "Oral ginseng formulae for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review." Respir Med (2011) 105(2):165-76.
Banerjee A and Panettieri R Jr. "Vitamin D modulates airway smooth muscle function in COPD." CurrOpinPharmacol (2012) Feb 24.
Barnes PJ. "Frontrunners in novel pharmacotherapy of COPD." CurrOpinPharmacol (2008) 8(3):300-7. Barnes PJ. "New therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Med PrincPract (2010a) 19(5):330-8.
Barnes PJ. “Emerging pharmacotherapies in COPD.” Chest (2008) 134(6):1278-86.
Barnes PJ. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a controversy. Respiration. 2010b;80(2):89-95.
Barnes PJ. Reduced histone deacetylase in COPD: clinical implications. Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):151-5.
Barnes PJ. Scientific rationale for inhaled combination therapy with long-acting beta2-agonists and corticosteroids. EurRespir J. 2002 Jan;19(1):182-91.
Barnes PJ. The role of anticholinergics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Med. 2004 Dec 20;117 Suppl12A:24S-32S.
Bartziokas K, Papaioannou AI, Minas M, et al. "Statins and outcome after hospitalization for COPD exacerbation: a prospective study." PulmPharmacolTher (2011) 24:625-631.
Bednarek M, Maciejewski J, Wozniak M, et al. Prevalence, severity and underdiagnosis of COPD in the primary care setting. Thorax. 2008 May;63(5):402-7.
Borghi-Silva A, Baldissera V, Sampaio LM, et al. "L-carnitine as an ergogenic aid for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease submitted to whole-body and respiratory muscle training programs. Braz J Med Biol Res (2006) 39(4):465–74.
Bruno RS, Traber MG. Cigarette smoke alters human vitamin E requirements. J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):671-4.
Calder PC and Grimble RF. "Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity." Eur J ClinNutr (2002) 56:S14–9.
Calder PC. "Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids." J Nutr (2012)142(3):592S-599S.
Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, et al. "TORCH investigators. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." N Engl J Med (2007) 356:775-89.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Public Health Strategic Framework for COPD Prevention. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011. Available at www.cdc.gov/copd Accesses 6/25/2012.
Clinicaltrials.gov. "Randomised, Multi-Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease." NCT00977873. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00977873?term…. Accessed May 18, 2012.
Clinicaltrials.gov. "The Effect of High Dose N-acetylcysteine on Airtrapping and Airway Resistance of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease-a Double Blinded Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial." NCT01136239. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01136239?term…. Accessed May 18, 2012.
Collins PF, Stratton RJ, Elia M. "Nutritional support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Am J ClinNutr (2012) 95(6):1385-95.
Cooke M, Iosia M, Buford T, et al. "Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals" J IntSoc Sports Nutr (2008) 5: 8 doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-8.
Cooke NT, Wilson SH, and Freedman S. Blood lactate and respiratory muscle fatigue in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Thorax. 1983 Mar;38(3):184-7.
Cosio BG, Tsaprouni L, Ito K, et al. "Theophylline restores histone deacetylase activity and steroid responses in COPD macrophages." J Exp Med (2004) 200(5):689-95.
Cosio MG, Saetta M, and Agusti A. Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jun 4;360(23):2445-54.
Crawford A and Harris H. "COPD: help your patients breathe easier." RN (2008)71(1):21-6.
Culpitt SV, Rogers DF, Fenwick PS, et al. "Inhibition by red wine extract, resveratrol, of cytokine release by alveolar macrophages in COPD." Thorax (2003) 58(11):942-6.
Dal Negro RW, Aquilani R, Bertacco S, et al. Comprehensive effects of supplemented essential amino acids in patients with severe COPD and sarcopenia. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2010 Mar;73(1):25-33.
De Batlle J, Sauleda J, Balcells E, et al. "Association between Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acid intakes and serum inflammatory markers in COPD." J NutrBiochem. 2012 Jul;23(7):817-21
De Benedetto F, Aceto A, Dragani B, et al. "Long-term oral n-acetylcysteine reduces exhaled hydrogen peroxide in stable COPD." PulmPharmacolTher (2005) 18:41-47.
De Blasio F and Polverino M. "Current best practice in pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." TherAdvRespir Dis (2012) May 4.
De Matos Cavalcante AG, de Bruin PF, de Bruin VM, et al. Melatonin reduces lung oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Pineal Res. 2012 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2012.00992.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Decramer M, Janssens W, Miravitlles M. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Lancet (2012) 379(9823):1341-51.
Decramer M, Rutten-van Molken M, Dekhuijzen PN, et al. "Effects of N-acetylcysteine on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study, BRONCUS): a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet (2005) 365:1552-1560.
Dekhuijzen PN and van BeurdenWJ. "The role for N-acetylcysteine in the management of COPD." Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis (2006) 1(2):99-106.
Diamant Z, Tarasevych S, Clarke GW. "New and existing pharmacotherapeutic options for persistent asthma and COPD." Neth J Med (2011) 69(11):486-99.
Divo M, Cote C, de Torres JP, et al. Comorbidities and risk of mortablity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2012) 186(2):155-61.
D'Urzo A, Ferguson GT, van Noord JA, et al. "Efficacy and safety of once-daily NVA237 in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: the GLOW1 trial." Respir Res (2011) 12:156.
Eisner MD, Anthonisen N, Coultas D, et al. "An official American Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Am J RespirCrit Care Med. (2010) 182(5):693-718.
El-Attar M, Said M, El-Assal G, et al. "Serum trace element levels in COPD patient: the relation between trace element supplementation and period of mechanical ventilation in a randomized controlled trial." Respirology (2009) (8):1180-7.
European Medicines Agency (EMA). EnurevBreezhaler: glycopyrronium bromide. Summary of opinion (initial authorisation) 6/21/2012. Available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Summary_of_opinion_-_Initial_authorisation/human/002691/WC500129032.pdf Accessed 6/28/2012.
Faager G, Stâhle A, Larsen FF. "Influence of spontaneous pursed lips breathing on walking endurance and oxygen saturation in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." ClinRehabil (2008) 22(8):675-83.
Ferrari R, Merli E, Cicchitelli G, et al. Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:79-91.
Ferri FF. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Ferri: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Available at: http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?ei… Accessed: 6/25/2012.
Fischer BM, Pavlisko E, Voynow JA. "Pathogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease-antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation." Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. (2011) 6:413-21.
Foschino Barbaro MP, Serviddio G, et al. "Oxygen therapy at low flow causes oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Prevention by N-acetyl cysteine." Free Radic Res (2005) 39(10):1111-8.
Franssen FM, Sauerwein HP, Rutten EP, et al. Whole-body resting and exercise-induced lipolysis in sarcopenic [corrected] patients with COPD. EurRespir J. 2008 Dec;32(6):1466-71.
Fregonese L and Stolk J. Hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and its clinical consequences. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2008 Jun 19;3:16.
Fujimoto S, Kurihara N, Hirata K, et al. "Effects of coenzyme Q10 administration on pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with chronic lung diseases." ClinInvestig (1993) S162-6.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2011. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Available at: http://www.goldcopd.org/. Accessed June 1, 2012.
Godtfredsen NS and Prescott E. Benefits of smoking cessation with focus on cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities. ClinRespir J. 2011 Oct;5(4):187-94.
Gross D, Shenkman Z, Bleiberg B, et al. "Ginseng improves pulmonary functions and exercise capacity in patients with COPD." Monaldi Arch Chest Dis (2002)57(5-6):242-6.
Gumral N, Naziroglu M, Ongel K, et al. Antioxidant enzymes and melatonin levels in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during stable and exacerbation periods. Cell BiochemFunct. 2009 Jul;27(5):276-83.
Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, et al. "Effects of Boswelliaserrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study." Eur J Med Res (1998) 3(11):511-4.
Harvey CJ, ThimmulappaRK, Sethi S, et al. "Targeting Nrf2 signaling improves bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages in patients with COPD and in a mouse model." SciTransl Med (2011) 3(78):78ra32.
Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group: "The effects of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin on cause-specific mortality and on cancer incidence in 20,536 high-risk people: a randomized placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN48489393]." BMC Med (2005) 3:6.
Herr C, Greulich T, Koczulla RA, et al. "The role of vitamin D in pulmonary disease: COPD, asthma, infection, and cancer." Respir Res (2011) 12:31.
Herzog R and Cunningham-Rundles S. "Immunologic impact of nutrient depletion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Curr Drug Targets (2011) 12(4):489-500.
Hirayama F, Lee AH, et al. "Do vegetables and fruits reduce the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? A case-control study in Japan." Prev Med. (2009) 49(2-3):184-9.
Hopkinson NS, Li KW, Kehoe A, et al. "Vitamin D receptor genotypes influence quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Am J ClinNutr (2008) 87(2):385-90.
Hornikx M, Lehouck A, Carremans C, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation During Rehabilitation In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Intervention Study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2011; 183: A2533.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) 2011. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Diagnosis and Management of (Guideline). Released 3/2011. Available at: http://www.icsi.org. Accessed June 1, 2012.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on a National Surveillance System for Cardiovascular and Select Chronic Diseases. A Nationwide Framework for Surveillance of Cardiovascular and Chronic Lung Diseases. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Chronic Lung Disease.
Irwin RS, Richardson ND. Side effects with inhaled corticosteroids: the physician's perception. Chest. 2006 Jul;130(1 Suppl):41S-53S.
Janssens W, Bouillon R, Claes B, et al. "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D binding gene." Thorax (2010) 65: 215–220.
Jordan RE, Cheng KK, Miller MR, et al. "Passive smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: cross-sectional analysis of data from the Health Survey for England." BMJ Open (2011) 1(2):e000153.
Kardos P and Keenan J. Tackling COPD: a Multicomponent Disease Driven by Inflammation. Published online 8/31/2006. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781317/
Katsanos CS, Chinkes DL, Paddon-Jones D, et al. Whey protein ingestion in elderly persons results in greater muscle protein accrual than ingestion of its constituent essential amino acid content. Nutr Res. 2008 Oct;28(10):651-8.
Keranis E, Makris D, Rodopoulou P, et al. "Impact of dietary shift to higher-antioxidant foods in COPD: a randomised trial." EurRespir J (2010) 36(4):774-80.
Kirkil G, HamdiMuz M, Seçkin D, et al. "Antioxidant effect of zinc picolinate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Respir Med (2008) 102(6):840-4.
Knobloch J, Hag H, Jungck D, et al. "Resveratrol impairs the release of steroid-resistant cytokines from bacterial endotoxin-exposed alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Basic ClinPharmacolToxicol (2011) 109(2):138-43.
Knobloch J, Sibbing B, Jungck D, et al. "Resveratrol impairs the release of steroid-resistant inflammatory cytokines from human airway smooth muscle cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." J PharmacolExpTher (2010) 335(3):788-98.
Kohansal R, Martinez-Camblor P, Agustí A, et al. "The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction revisited: an analysis of the Framingham offspring cohort." Am J RespirCrit Care Med (2009) 180(1):3-10.
Kurmi OP, Semple S, Simkhada P, et al. "COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Thorax (2010) 65(3):221-8.
Lee TM, Lin MS, Chang NC. "Usefulness of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as predictors of outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving pravastatin. "Am J Cardiol (2008) 101:530-535.
Leib S, Saag KG, Adachi JD, et al. "Official Positions for FRAX(®) clinical regarding glucocorticoids: the impact of the use of glucocorticoids on the estimate by FRAX(®) of the 10 year risk of fracture from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX." J ClinDensitom (2011) 14(3):212-9.
Lin YC, Wu TC, Chen PY, et al. "Comparison of plasma and intake levels of antioxidant nutrients in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy people in Taiwan: a case-control study." Asia Pac J ClinNutr (2010) 19(3):393-401.
Littner MR. "In the clinic. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Ann Intern Med (2011) 154(7):ITC4-1-ITC4-15.
Loukides S, Bakakos P, Kostikas K. "Oxidative stress in patients with COPD." Curr Drug Targets. 2011 Apr;12(4):469-77.
Malhotra D, ThimmulappaRK, Mercado N, et al. Denitrosylation of HDAC2 by targeting Nrf2 restores glucocorticosteroid sensitivity in macrophages from COPD patients. J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov;121(11):4289-302. doi: 10.1172/JCI45144. Epub 2011 Oct 17.
Mannino DM and Martinez FJ. "Lifetime risk of COPD: what will the future bring?" Lancet (2011) 378(9795):964-5.
Mannino DM, Buist AS. "Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends." Lancet (2007) 370(9589):765-73.
Manoli I, De Martino MU, Kino T, et al. tory effects of L-carnitine on glucocorticoid receptor activity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:147-57.
Maryanoff BE, de Garavilla L, Greco MN, et al. "Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and chymase is effective in animal models of pulmonary inflammation." Am J RespirCrit Care Med (2010) 181(3):247-53.
Matera MG, Calzetta L, Rinaldi B, et al. "Treatment of COPD: moving beyond the lungs." CurrOpinPharmacol (2012b) April 30.
Matera MG, Calzetta L, Segreti A, et al. "Emerging drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Expert OpinEmerg Drugs (2012a) 17(1):61-82.
Matsuyama W, Mitsuyama H, Watanabe M, et al." Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory markers in COPD." Chest (2005) 128(6):3817-27.
McKeage K. "Indacaterol: a review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Drugs (2012) 72(4):543-63.
MedlinePlus. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Updated 5/30/2012. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000091.htm. Accessed 6/25/2012.
Merck Manual. Wise R (ed.). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Reviewed 12/2008. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/lung_and_air…Accessed: 6/25/2012.
Minor TR, g WC, and Winslow JL. Stress and adenosine: I. Effect of methylxanthine and amphetamine stimulants on learned helplessness in rats. BehavNeurosci. 1994 Apr;108(2):254-64.
Mosenifar Z. "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease." Updated October 10, 2011. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/297664-overview. Accessed 5/13/2012.
N.A. Hanania and A. Sharafkhaneh (eds.), COPD: A Guide to Diagnosis and Clinical Management, Respiratory Medicine, DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-357-8_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011
Nannini LJ, Cates CJ, LassersonTJ, Poole P. Combined corticosteroidand long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus inhaled steroids forchronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD006826.
Nathell, L.; Nathell, M.; Malmberg, P.; Larsson, K. (2007). "COPD diagnosis related to different guidelines and spirometry techniques". Respiratory research 8 (1): 89.
NCI. National Cancer Institute. "National Network of Tobacco Cessation Quitlines" Available at: http://www.cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/national_quitlines.html. Accessed May 30, 2012.
NIH-NHLBI. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Education Strategy Development Workshop: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published 12/2006. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/copd/copd_wksp.pdf Accessed: 6/25/2012.
NIH-NHLBI. What Is COPD? Updated 6/1/2010. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/. Accessed 6/22/2012.
Nunes DM, a RM, Machado MO, et al. Effect of melatonin administration on subjective sleep quality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008 Oct;41(10):926-31.
Odusanwo O, Chinthamani S, McCall A, et al. ResolvinD1 prevents TNF-α-mediated disruption of salivary epithelial formation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012 May;302(9):C1331-45.
Pandi-Perumal SR, Bahammam AS, Brown GM, et al. Melatonin Antioxidative Defense: Therapeutical Implications for Aging and Neurodegenerative Processes. Neurotox Res. 2012 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Quinzii CM, López LC, GilkersonRW, et al. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and cell death correlate with level of CoQ10 deficiency. FASEB J. 2010 Oct;24(10):3733-43.
Rabe KF, Hurd S, Anzueto A et al. (2007). "Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: GOLD Executive Summary". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.176 (6): 532–55.
Rennard SI, Vestbo J. "COPD: the dangerous underestimate of 15%." Lancet (2006) 367(9518):1216-9.
Roche N, Marthan R, Berger P, et al. Beyond corticosteroids: future prospects in the management of inflammation in COPD. EurRespir Rev. 2011 Sep 1;20(121):175-82.
Rodriguez E, Ferrer J, Martí S, et al. "Impact of occupational exposure on severity of COPD." Chest (2008) 134(6):1237-43.
Roig J, Hernando R, Mora R. Indacaterol, A Novel Once Daily Inhaled beta2-Adrenoreceptor Agonist. Open Respir Med J. 2009 Mar 12;3:27-30.
Romme EA, Rutten EP, Smeenk FW, et al. "Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Ann Med (2012) Apr 2.
Sadowska AM, Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, De Backer WA. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NAC in the treatment of COPD: discordant in vitro and in vivo dose-effects: a review." PulmPharmacolTher (2007) 20(1):9-22.
Sadowska AM. "N-Acetylcysteinemucolysis in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Ther Adv Respir Dis. (2012) Feb 23.
Salvi SS and Barnes PJ. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers." Lancet (2009) 374(9691):733-43.
Serapinas D, Sakalauskas R. Sensitivity of alpha-1 antitrypsin level for inherited deficiency detection in COPD patients. Pneumologia. 2012 Jan-Mar;61(1):34-6.
Shilo L, Dagan Y, Smorjik Y, et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep quality of COPD intensive care patients: a pilot study. Chronobiol Int. 2000 Jan;17(1):71-6.
SiddiquiMZ. "Boswelliaserrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview." Indian J Pharm Sci (2011) 73(3):255-61.
Silverio R, Laviano A, Rossi Fanelli F, et al. l-carnitine and cancer cachexia: Clinical and experimental aspects. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2011 Mar;2(1):37-44.
Singh A, Loke YK, Enright PL, et al. "Mortality associated with tiotropium mist inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials." BMJ (2011) 342:d3215. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d3215.
Slinde F, Grönberg A, EngströmCP, et al. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance predicts mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Respir Med. 2005 Aug;99(8):1004-9.
Spencer S, Evans DJ, Karner C, et al. "Inhaled corticosteroids versus long-acting beta(2)-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2011) Oct (10):CD007033.
Srinivasan V, Pandi-Perumal SR, Trahkt I, et al. Melatonin and melatonergic drugs on sleep: possible mechanisms of action. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119(6):821-46.
Stanojkovic I, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Milenkovic B, et al. Pulmonary function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in severe COPD exacerbation. Respir Med. 2011;105 Suppl 1:S31-7.
Starrett W and Blake DJ. "Sulforaphane inhibits de novo synthesis of IL-8 and MCP-1 in human epithelial cells generated by cigarette smoke extract." J Immunotoxicol (2011) 8(2):150-8.
Stav D, Raz M. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on air trapping in COPD: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Chest. 2009 Aug;136(2):381-6.
Steiropoulos P, Papanas N, Nena E, et al. "Indacaterol : a new long-acting β(2)-agonist in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Expert OpinPharmacother (2012) 13(7):1015-29.
Stephenson A, Seitz D, Bell CM, et al. Inhaled anticholinergic drug therapy and the risk of acute urinary retention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2011 May 23;171(10):914-20.
Stey C, Steurer J, Bachmann S, Medici TC, et al "The effect of oral N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: a quantitative systematic review." EurRespir J (2000) 16:253-262.
Tanrikulu AC, Abakay A, Evliyaoglu O, et al. "Coenzyme Q10, copper, zinc, and lipid peroxidation levels in serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Biol Trace Elem Res (2011) 143(2):659-67.
Tashkin DP, Celli B, Senn S, et al. A 4-Year Trial of Tiotropium in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med (2008) 359:1543-54.
Tsiligianni IG and van der Molen T. "A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD." Respir Res (2010) 11:171.
Tzortzaki EG, Proklou A, Siafakas NM. "Asthma in the Elderly: Can We Distinguish It from COPD?" J Allergy (Cairo) (2011) 2011:843543.
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm?fuseaction=Search.DrugDetails Accessed 6/26/2012.
van Eijl S, Mortaz E, Versluis C, et al. "A low vitamin A status increases the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in C57BL/6J mice." J PhysiolPharmacol (2011) 62(2):175-82.
Varraso R, Willett WC, Camargo CA Jr. "Prospective study of dietary fiber and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US women and men." Am J Epidemiol (2010) 171(7):776-84.
WHO. "World health statistics." (2008). Available at: http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS08_Full.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Williams AS, Eynott PR, Leung SY, et al. "Role of cathepsin S in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation." PulmPharmacolTher (2009) 22(1):27-32.
Wood LG, Wark PA, Garg ML. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in airway disease." Antioxid Redox Signal (2010) 13(10):1535-48.
Xue CC, Shergis JL, Zhang AL, et al. "Panax ginseng C.A Meyer root extract for moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial." Trials (2011) Jun 30;12:164. Yin P, Jiang CQ, Cheng KK, et al. "Passive smoking exposure and risk of COPD among adults in China: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study." Lancet (2007) 370(9589):751-7.