Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Life Extension Magazine

<< Back to October 2004

My Interview with Suzanne Somers

October 2004

By William Faloon

LE Magazine October 2004

My Interview with Suzanne Somers

How Life Extension Membership Can Save Your Life
In this issue of Life Extension, we present novel approaches that aging women should consider when it comes to safe hormone restoration. We also talk a lot about Suzanne Somers and her book, which is now in the hands of so many women. Suzanne was able to treat her cancer with a drug that is not approved by the FDA. While the efficacy of this particular drug remains questionable, Suzanne presents a compelling story to justify her right to access any drug that she believes would increase her chances of staying alive.

We do not agree with everything in Suzanne’s book, but if it takes a celebrity to get the message across about the necessity of maintaining youthful hormone balance—while personally defying FDA dictates—we welcome the support. Our long-standing position is that the FDA is the roadblock that separates Americans from breakthrough medical discoveries.

As a member of the Life Extension Foundation, you gain access to in-depth analyses of complex medical issues that are comprehensible to the lay reader. We recommend Suzanne Somers’ new book because it so well describes the critical need for hormone restoration. If you had to rely on Suzanne’s book alone, however, you would only get part of the story. Life Extension members gain access to the collective experiences of physicians and scientists who have used safe and natural approaches to hormone replacement for decades, despite FDA persecution.

The Life Extension Foundation has long exposed misleading government propaganda about the failed war against cancer. While survival rates have improved for some cancers over the past 30 years, the government ignores the harsh reality that many of the allegedly “cured” cancer victims suffer horribly from their treatments. The Life Extension Foundation continues to be the voice that challenges the overwhelming power of the cancer establishment, and informs our members about realities the federal government would prefer to hide from the public.

If you are not yet a Life Extension member, I invite you to peruse this month’s issue and ask yourself how valuable the information you read really is. On one side is the cancer establishment, supported financially, legally, and politically by the federal government. The objective of the cancer establishment is to pretend that significant progress is being made, though much of this so-called “success” is a result of earlier diagnosis and not better treatments. Life Extension, on the other hand, has consistently exposed the egregious misrepresentations made to the American public by the cancer establishment. Life Extension represents the consumer against an entrenched establishment that seeks to maintain its economic stranglehold on cancer research and treatment dollars.

As a member of our 24-year-old Foundation, you gain access to the latest medical breakthroughs, along with personalized access to Life Extension staff doctors by telephone. The free telephone contact alone could be worth hundreds of dollars, but membership in the Life Extension Foundation costs only $75 a year. Life Extension endeavors to take care of its members’ health concerns by incorporating the latest scientific findings in practical disease prevention and treatment protocols.

I hope the articles in this month’s issue are impressive enough to convince you that Life Extension membership is the best investment you could ever make in yourself.

For longer life,

William Faloon


As you can see from the following list, estrogen and progesterone drugs come in a wide range of choices.
Here we list the most commonly prescribed estrogen-progestin drugs and the type of estrogen, along with
the dosage units.

Brand Name

Type of Estrogen and Dosage Units

Oral Estradiol Drugs


Estradiol 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg
Estradiol 0.02 mg, 0.05 mg, 1 mg

Estinyl® comes in a lower-dose strength because it has a much longer-acting effect in the body.

Transdermal Estradiol Drugs

Alora®, Climara®, Esclim™, Vivelle®

Estradiol matrix patch
Estradiol matrix patch
Estradiol reservoir patch
Estradiol topical emulsion 1.7 g twice daily

Estradiol patches have variable rates of estradiol release over 24 hours and are changed once or twice weekly depending on the patch used.

Vaginal Cream, Gel, Ring, or Tablet Estradiol Drugs (for vaginal symptoms only)

Estrace® Vaginal (cream)
Estring® (ring)
Vagifem® (tablet)

Estradiol (0.01%) = 0.1 mg/dose
Estradiol 2 mg (7 ug over 24 hrs)
Estradiol 25 ug per tablet

Conjugated Estrogen Drugs

Premarin® Vaginal (cream)
Premarin® (oral)

Conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/g
*Conjugated estrogens 0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, 0.625 mg, 0.9 mg, 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg.
*0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, 0.625 mg, 0.9 mg
0.3 mg, 0.625 mg, 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg

These drugs consist of 75-85% sodium estrone sulfate and 6-15% sodium equilin sulfate in such proportion that combined these total not less than 90% of the total esterified estrogens content. (Source: Facts and Comparisons, 2004 ed.)

* The manufacturers of Cenestin® (Barr Labs) and Premarin® (Wyeth) would not confirm the percentages of any of the estrogen components in their formulas, stating that this is “proprietary information.” Note that Premarin® is a natural, animal-based product derived from pregnant mare’s urine, unlike other commonly prescribed products such as Estrace® (soy based) and Cenestin® (yam based)

Oral Estrone Drugs



Estrone 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg
Estrone 0.625 mg, 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg

Oral Estriol Drugs

Estriol (generic only)

Estriol 4 mg, 8 mg

Commonly Prescribed Estrogen-Progestogen (Progestin) Drugs


Activella™, FemHrt® 1/5, Prefest®, Premphase®, Prempro™
Climara Pro™ and Combipatch®

Note: Progestogens and progestins are progesterone-like substances but are not structurally or biologically identical to progesterone. These include medroxyprogesterone acetate, norethindrone acetate, and levonorgestrel.

Progesterone-Only Medications Non-bioidentical to humans

Avgestin®, Aygestin®

Medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg, 5 mg
Norethindrone acetate 5 mg

Bioidentical Progesterone

Prometrium® (micronized progesterone)

100 mg, 200 mg capsules

(Note: Natural progesterone capsules are not recommended because the liver first metabolizes them before they enter the bloodstream. Natural progesterone creams are a better choice.)

Common Bioidentical Hormone Formulations


A combination of human bioidentical estradiol and estriol compounded by a pharmacist. It may come in varying per- centages of each hormone and the total milligram dose may differ depending on what the doctor orders. A common start- ing dose is 80% estriol and 20% estradiol, with a total dosage of 1.25 mg providing 0.25 mg of estradiol and 1 mg of estriol. The dose can be titrated upward. It comes in oral, top- ical cream, gel, or a lozenger (troche). Most think of an 80:20 ratio when they think of BiEst®. Because the medication is compounded to order, the physician can order whatever he or she believes will work best for each patient.


A combination of estradiol, estriol, and estrone. It may also come in varying percentages and the total dose may differ depending on what the doctor orders. A common starting dose is 80% estriol, 10% estradiol, and 10% estrone, with a total dosage of 1.25-2.5 mg. The dose can be titrated upward. Comes in the same options as BiEst® (oral, topical, or lozenger). Most think of the 80:10:10 ratio when they think of TriEst®, but the physician can order whatever ratio he or she believes will work best for the patient.


1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Cancer survivorship United States, 1971-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Jun;53(24):526-9.

2. Available at: root/med/content/med_1_1_Most- Requested_Graphs_and_Figures.asp. Accessed July 22, 2004.

3. Available at:
Chemotherapy.asp?sitearea=MBC. Accessed July 22, 2004.

4. Available at: Accessed July 22, 2004.

5. Available at: Accessed July 22, 2004.

6. Available at:
sitearea=NWS&viewmode=print&. Accessed July 22, 2004.

7. Huddart R, Norman A, Shahidi M, et al. Cardiovascular disease as a long-term com- plication of treatment for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr 15;21(8):1513-23.

8. Levi F, Te VC, Randimbison L, La Vecchia C. Cancer risk in women with previ- ous breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2003 Jan;14(1):71-3.

9. DiFronzo LA, Wanek LA, Elashoff R, Morton DL. Increased incidence of second primary melanoma in patients with a previous cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999 Oct;6(7):705-11.

10. Palme C, Waseem Z, Raza S, Eski S, Walfish P, Freeman J. Management and outcome of recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004 Jul;130(7):819-24.

11. Fries M, Hailey B, Flanagan J, Licklider D. Outcome of five years of accelerated surveillance in patients at high risk for inherited breast/ovarian cancer: report of a phase II trial. Mil Med. 2004 Jun;169(6):411-6.

12. Fisher B, Dignam J, Wolmark N, et al. Tamoxifen in treatment of intraductal breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-24 randomised con- trolled trial. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):1993-2000.

13. Dorresteijn L, Kappelle A, Boogerd W, et al. Increased risk of ischemic stroke after radio- therapy on the neck in patients younger than 60 years. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 1;20(1):282- 8.

14. Wilson PW, Garrison RJ, Castelli WP. Postmenopausal estrogen use, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular morbidity in women over 50. The Framingham Study. N Engl J Med. 1985 Oct 24;313(17):1038-43.

15. Hemminki E, McPherson K. Impact of post menopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular events and cancer: pooled data from clinical trials. BMJ. 1997 Jul 19;315(7101):149-53.

16. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wilett WC. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease: ten-year follow-up from the Nurses’ Health Study. N Engl J Med. 1991 Sep 12;325(11):756-62.

17. Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2003 Aug 7;349(6):523-34.

18. Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 15;335(7):453-61.

19. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.

20. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Hendrix SL, Limacher M, et al. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 May 28;289(20):2673-84.

21. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Apr 14;291(14):1701-12.

22. Mueck AO, Seeger H, Wallwiener D. Comparison of the proliferative effects of estradiol and conjugated equine estrogens on human breast cancer cells and impact of continuous combined progestogen addition. Climacteric. 2003 Sep;6(3):221-7.

23. Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2003 Jun 25;289(24):3243-53.

24. Porch JV, Lee IM, Cook NR, Rexrode KM, Burin JE. Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: the Women’s Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Nov;13(9):847-54.

25. Beral V, Banks E, Reeves G, Appleby P. Use of HRT and the subsequent risk of cancer. J Epidemiol Biostat. 1999;4(3):191-210.

26. Gajdos C, Tarter PI, Babinszki A. Breast cancer diagnosed during hormone replacement therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Apr;95(4):513-18.

27. Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in post- menopausal women. JAMA. 1990 Nov 28;264(20):2648-53.

28. Chen Y, Liu X, Pisha E, et al. A metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000 May;13(5):342-50.

29. Magnusson C, Baron JA, Correia N, Bergstrom R, Adami HO, Persson L. Breast cancer risk following long-term oestrogen and oestrogen-progestin replacement thera- py. Int J Cancer. 1999 May 5;81:339-44.

30. Persson I, Weiderpass E, Bergkvist L, Bergstrom R, Schairer C. Risks of breast and endometrial cancer after estrogen and estro- gen-progestin replacement. Canc Causes Control. 1999 Aug;10(4):253-60.

31. Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, Sturgeon S, Brinton L, Hoover R. Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. JAMA. 2000 Jan 26;283(4):485-91.

32. Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Wan PC, Pike MC. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus estro- gen plus progestin. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Feb 16;92(4):328-32.

33. Hoover R, Gray LA Sr, Fraumeni JF Jr. Stilboestrol (diethylstilbestrol) and the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1977 Sep 10;2(8037):533-4.

34. Rodriguez C, Calle EE, Coates RJ, Miracle- McMahill HL, Thun MJ, Heath CW Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy and fatal ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1995 May 1;141(9):828-35.

35. Lacey JV Jr, Mink PJ, Lubin JH, et al. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):334-41.

36. Available at: Accessed July 22, 2004.

37. He Y, Friesen MD, Ruch R, Schut H. Indole-3-carbinol as a chemopreventive agent in 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimida- zo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) carcinogenesis: inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation, acceleration of PhIP metabolism, and induc- tion of cytochrome P450 in female F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):15-23.

38. Arif J, Gairola C, Kelloff G, Lubet R, Gupta RC. Inhibition of cigarette smoke-related DNA adducts in rat tissues by indole-3- carbinol. Mutat Res. 2000 Jul 20;452(1):11-8.

39. Bell M, Crowley-Nowick P, Bradlow H, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN. Gynecol Oncol. 2000 Aug;78(2):123-9.

40. Tiwari R, Guo L, Bradlow H, Telang N, Osborne MP. Selective responsiveness of human breast cancer cells to indole-3- carbinol, a chemopreventive agent. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Jan 19;86(2):126-31.

41. Grubbs C, Steele V, Casebolt T, et al. Chemoprevention of chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis by indole-3- carbinol. Anticancer Res. 1995 May- Jun;15(3):709-16.

42. Jin L, Qi M, Chen D, et al. Indole-3-carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 1999 Aug 15;59(16):3991-7.

43. Rahman K, Aranha O, Glazyrin A, Chinni S, Sarkar F. Translocation of Bax to mitochondria induces apoptotic cell death in indole-3- carbinol (I3C) treated breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2000 Nov 23;19(50):5764-71.

44. Meng Q, Qi M, Chen D, et al. Suppression of breast cancer invasion and migration by indole-3-carbinol: associated with up-regulation of BRCA1 and E-cadherin/catenin complexes. J Mol Med. 2000 78(3):155-65.

45. Cover C, Hsieh S, Cram E et al. Indole-3-carbinol and tamoxifen cooperate to arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15;59(6):1244- 51.

46. Cover C, Hsieh S, Tran S,Hallden G, Kim GS, Bjeldanesl JF, Firestonr GL. Indole-3- carbinol inhibits the expression of cyclin- dependent kinase-6 and induces a G1 cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells independent of estrogen receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 13;273(7):3838-47.

47. Manson M, Hudson E, Ball H et al. Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1-induced carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol in rat liver-predicting the outcome using early bio- markers. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Oct;19(10):1829-36.

48. Bradlow H, Michnovicz J, Telang N, Osborne M. Effects of dietary indole-3- carbinol on estradiol metabolism and spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis. 1991 Sep;12(9):1571-4.

49. Michnovicz J, Bradlow H. Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans follow- ing consumption of indole-3-carbinol. Nutr Cancer. 1991 16(1):59-66.

50. Shertzer H, Berger M, Tabor M. Intervention in free radical mediated hepa- totoxicity and lipid peroxidation by indole-3- carbinol. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Jan 15;37(2):333-8.

51. Asou H, Koshizuka K, Kyo T, Takata N, Kamada N, Koeffier HP. Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes, is a new inducer of differentiation in human myeloid leukemias. Int J Hematol. 2002 Jun;75(5):528-33.

52. Bernhard D, Tinhofer I, Tonko M et al. Resveratrol causes arrest in the S-phase prior to Fas-independent apoptosis in CEM-C7H2 acute leukemia cells. Cell Death Differ. 2000 Sep;7(9):834-42.

53. Clement M, Hirpara J, Chawdhury S, Pervaiz S. Chemopreventive agent resvera- trol, a natural product derived from grapes, triggers CD95 signaling-dependent apopto- sis in human tumor cells. Blood. 1998 Aug 1;92(3):996-1002.

54. Jang M, Pezzuto J. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25(2-3):65-77.

55. Kang J, Park Y, Choi S, Yang EK, Lee WJ. Resveratrol derivatives potently induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Exp Mol Med. 2003 Dec 31;35(6):467- 74.

56. Kimura Y, Okuda H. Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice. J Nutr. 2001 Jun;131(6):1844-9.

57. Kozuki Y, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Resveratrol suppresses hepatoma cell invasion inde- pendently of its anti-proliferative action. Cancer Lett. 2001 Jun 26;167(2):151-6.

58. Nakagawa H, Kiyozuka Y, Uemura Y, et al. Resveratrol inhibits human breast cancer cell growth and may mitigate the effect of linoleic acid, a potent breast cancer cell stimulator. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr;127(4):258-64.

59. Szende B, Tyihak E, Kiraly-Veghely Z. Dose- dependent effect of resveratrol on proliferation and apoptosis in endothelial and tumor cell cultures. Exp Mol Med. 2000 Jun 30;32(2):88-92.

60. Tessitore L, Davit A, Sarotto I, Caderni G. Resveratrol depresses the growth of colorectal aberrant crypt foci by affecting bax and p21(CIP) expression. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Aug;21(8):1619-22.

61. Tsan M, White J, Maheshwari J, Chikkappa G. Anti-leukemia effect of resveratrol. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002 May;43(5):983-7.

62. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga M, Ames B. Gamma tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):714-22.

63. Helzlsouer K, Huang H, Alberg A, et al. Association between alpha tocopherol, gamma tocopherol, selenium and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23.

64. London S, Stein E, Henderson I, et al. Carotenoids, retinol and vitamin E and risk of proliferation benign breast disease and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Nov;3(6):503-12.

65. Nomura A, Ziegler R, Stemmermann G, Chyou P, Craft N. Serum micronutrients and upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Jun;6(6):407-12.

66. Smigel K. Vitamin E reduces prostate cancer rates in Finnish trial: U.S. considers follow- up. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Mar 18;90(6):416-7.

67. Christen S, Woodall A, Shigenaga M, Southwell-Keely P, Duncan M, Ames B. Gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implica- tions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997 Apr 1;94(7):3217-22.

68. Blask D, Sauer L, Dauchy R. Melatonin as a chronobiotic/anticancer agent: cellular, bio-chemical, and molecular mechanisms of action and their implications for circadian-based cancer therapy. Curr Top Med Chem. 2002 Feb;2(2):113-32.

69. Brzezinski A. Melatonin in humans. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 16;336(3):186-95.

70. Cos S, Fernandez R, Guezmes A, Sanchez- Barcelo EJ. Influence of melatonin on invasive and metastatic properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1998 Oct 1;58(19):4383-90.

71. Lissoni P, Barni S, Ardizzoia A, Tancini G, Conti A, Maestroni G. A randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in patients with brain metastases due to solid neoplasms. Cancer. 1994 Feb 1;73(3):699-701.

72. Lissoni P, Brivio F, Brivio O, et al. Immune effects of preoperative immunotherapy with high-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 versus neuroimmunotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 plus the neurohormone melatonin in gastrointestinal tract tumor patients. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 1995 Jan;9(1):31-3.

73. Oosthuizen J, Bornman M, Barnard H, Schulenburg GW, Boomker D, Reif S. Melatonin and steroid-dependent carcinomas. Andrologia. 1989 Sep;21(5):429-31.

74. Ram P, Yuan L, Dai J, et al. Differential responsiveness of MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line stocks to the pineal hormone, melatonin. J Pineal Res. 2000 May;28(4):210- 8.

75. Sanchez-Barcelo E, Cos S, Fernandez R, Mediavilla MD. Melatonin and mammary cancer: a short review. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2003 Jun;10(2):153-9.

76. Suzuki K, Koike H, Matsui H, et al. Genistein, a soy isoflavone, induces glutathione peroxidase in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jun 20;99(6):846-52.

77. Bhatia N, Agarwal R. Detrimental effect of cancer preventive phytochemicals silymarin, genistein and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on epigenetic events in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Prostate. 2001 Feb 1;46(2):98-107.

78. Dalu A, Haskell J, Coward L, Lamartiniere CA. Genistein, a component of soy, inhibits the expression of the EGF and ErbB2/Neu receptors in the rat dorsolateral prostate. Prostate. 1998 Sep 15;37(1):36-43.

79. Elattar T, Virji A. The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2000 May;20(3A):1733-8.

80. Geller J, Sionit L, Partido C, et al. Genistein inhibits the growth of human-patient BPH and prostate cancer in histoculture. Prostate. 1998 Feb 1;34(2):75-9.

81. Khoshyomn S, Nathan D, Manske GC, Osler TM, Penar PL. Synergistic effect of genistein and BCNU on growth inhibition and cyto-toxicity of glioblastoma cells. J Neurooncol. 2002 May;57(3):193-200.

82. Li Y, Sarkar F. Down-regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes identified by cDNA microarray analysis of PC3 prostate cancer cells treated with genistein. Cancer Lett. 2002 Dec 5;186(2):157-64.

83. Lian F, Li Y, Bhuiyan M, Sarkar FH. p53- independent apoptosis induced by genistein in lung cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(2):125-31.

84. Record I, Broadbent J, King R, Dreosti IE, Head RJ, Tonkin AL. Genistein inhibits growth of B16 melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro and promotes differentiation in vitro. Int J Cancer. 1997 Sep 4;72(5):860-4.

85. Sakamoto K. Synergistic effects of thearubigin and genistein on human prostate tumor cell (PC-3) growth via cell cycle arrest. Cancer Lett. 2000 Apr 3;151(1):103-9.

86. Shao Z, Wu J, Shen Z, Barsky SH. Genistein exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1998 Nov 1;58(21):4851-7.

87. Shen J, Klein R, Wei Q, et al. Low-dose genistein induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2000 Oct;29(2):92-102.

88. Suthar A, Banavalikar M, Biyani M. Pharmacological activities of Genistein, an isoflavone from soy (Glycine max): part I— anti-cancer activity. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Jun;39(6):511-9.

89. Theodorescu D, Laderoute K, Calaoagan J, Guilding KM. Inhibition of human bladder cancer cell motility by genistein is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor but not p21ras gene expression. Int J Cancer. 1998 Dec 9;78(6):775-82.

90. Versantvoort C, Broxterman H, Lankelma J, Feller N, Pinedo HM. Competitive inhibi- tion by genistein and ATP dependence of daunorubicin transport in intact MRP over expressing human small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Sep 15;48(6):1129-36.

91. Wietrzyk J, Boratynski J, Grynkiewicz G, Ryczynski A, Radzikowski C, Opolski A. Antiangiogenic and antitumour effects in vivo of genistein applied alone or combined with cyclophosphamide. Anticancer Res. 2001 Nov;21(6A):3893-6.

92. Jung YD, Kim MS, Shin BA, et al. EGCG, a major component of green tea, inhibits tumour growth by inhibiting VEGF induction in human colon carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2001 Mar 23;84(6):844-50.

93. Jung YD, Ellis LM. Inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis by epigallocate- chin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea. Int J Exp Pathol. 2001 Dec;82(6):309-16.

94. Sartippour MR, Heber D, Zhang L, et al. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factors by green tea. Int J Oncol. 2002 Sep;21(3):487- 91.

95. Sartippour MR, Shao ZM, Heber D, et al. Green tea inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction in human breast cancer cells. J Nutr. 2002 Aug;132(8):2307-11.

96. Embola CW, Sohn OS, Fiala ES, Weisburger JH. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltrans- ferase 1 (UDP-GT1) gene complex by green tea in male F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Jun;40(6):841-4.

97. Pianetti S, Guo S, Kavanagh KT, Sonenshein GE. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin- 3 gallate inhibits Her-2/neu signaling, prolif- eration, and transformed phenotype of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 1;62(3):652-5.

98. Kelsey JL, Whittemore AS. Epidemiology and primary prevention of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary: a brief overview. Ann Epidemiol. 1994 Mar;4(2):89- 95.

99. Colditz GA. Hormones and breast cancer: evidence and implications for consideration of risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. J Womens Health. 1999 Apr;8(3):347.57.

100. Marchant DJ. Epidemiology of breast cancer. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Jun;25(2):387- 92.

101. Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Endogenous sex hor- mones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Apr 17; 94(8):606-16.

102. Kabuto M, Akiba S, Stevens RG, Neriishi K, Land CE. A prospective study of estradiol and breast cancer in Japanese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Jun;9(6):575-9.

103. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Akhmedkhanov A, Kato I, et al. Postmenopausal endogenous oestrogens and risk of endometrial cancer: results of a prospective study. Br J Cancer. 2001 Apr 6;84(7):975-81.

104. Skouby SO. The rationale for a wider range of progestogens. Climacteric. 2000 Dec;3 Suppl 2:14-20.

105. Malet C, Gompel A, Spritzer P, et al. Tamoxifen and hydroxytamoxifen isomers versus estradiol effects on normal human breast cells in culture. Cancer Res. 1988 Dec 15;48(24 Pt 1):7193-9.

106. Haber D. Roads leading to breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 23;343(21):1566-8.

107. Strauss B, Turkington E, Wang J, Sagher D. Mutagenic consequences of the alteration of DNA by chemicals and radiation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;283:211-23.

108. Apter D, Vihko R. Early menarche, a risk factor for breast cancer, indicates early onset of ovulatory cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jul;57(1):82-6.

109. Brinton LA, Schairer C, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF. Menstrual factors and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Invest. 1988;6(3): 245- 54.

110. Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer. For the Nurses’ Health Study Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Mar 20;88(6): 365-71.

111. Kelsey J, Gammon M, John E. Reproductive factors and breast cancer Epidemiol Rev. 1993 15(1):36-47.

112. Bernstein L, Pike M, Ross R, Henderson B. Age at menarche and estrogen concentrations of adult women. Cancer Causes Control. 1991 Jul;2(4):221-5.

113. Potten C, Watson R, Williams G, et al. The effect of age and menstrual cycle upon pro-liferative activity of the normal human breast. Br J Cancer. 1988 Aug;58(2):163-70.

114. Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J, Andersen A, Westergaard T, Andersen P. Preterm delivery and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999 May;80(3-4):609-13.

115. Trichopoulos D, MacMahon B, Cole P. Menopause and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1972 Mar;48(3):605-13.

116. Brinton L, Hoover RN, Szklo M, Fraumeni JF. Menopausal estrogen use and risk of breast cancer. Cancer. 1981 May 15; 47(10):2517-22.

117. Paffenbarger R Jr, Kampert J, Chang H. Characteristics that predict risk of breast cancer before and after the menopause. Am J Epidemiol. 1980 Aug;112(2):258-68.

118. Hsieh C, Trichopoulos D, Katsouyanni K, Yuasa S. Age at menarche, age at menopause, height and obesity as risk fac- tors for breast cancer; associations and inter- actions in an international case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1990 Nov 15;46(5):796-800.

119. Rozario D, Brown I, Fung MF, Temple L. Is incidental prophylactic oophorectomy an acceptable means to reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer? Am J Surg. 1997 Jun;173(6):495-8.

120. Olopade OI, Artioli G. Efficacy of risk- reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutations. Breast J. 2004 Jan-Feb;10 Suppl 1:S5-9.

121. Rebbeck TR, Lynch HT, Neuhausen SL, et al. Prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 23;346(21):1616-22.

122. Kauff ND, Satagopan JM, Robson ME, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 23;346(21):1609-15.

123. Biglia N, Defabiani E, Ponzone R, Mariani L, Marenco D, Sismondi P. Management of risk of breast carcinoma in postmenopausal women. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004 Mar;11(1):69-83.

124. Zhang Y, Kiel D, Kreger B, et al. Bone mass and the risk of breast cancer among post- menopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 27;336(9):611-7.

125. Newcomb P, Trentham-Dietz A, Egan C, et al. Fracture history and risk of breast and endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 1;153(11):1071-8.

126. Cummings S, Eckert S, Krueger K, et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 1999 Jun 16;281(23):2189-97.

127. Lippman ME, Krueger KA, Eckert S, et al. Indicators of lifetime estrogen exposure: effect on breast cancer incidence and inter- action with raloxifene therapy in the multi- ple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation study participants. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jun 15;19(12): 3111-6.

128. Zmuda J, Cauley J, Ljung B, Bauer D, Cummings S, Kuller L. Bone mass and breast cancer risk in older women: differ- ences by stage at diagnosis. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Jun 20;93(12):930-6.

129. Michels K, Ekbom A. Caloric restriction and incidence of breast cancer. JAMA. 2004 Mar 10;291(10):1226-30.

130. Fiets W, van Helvoirt R, Nortier J, van der Tweel I, Struikmans H. Acute toxicity of con- current adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CMF or AC) in breast can- cer patients. a prospective, comparative, non-randomised study. Eur J Cancer. 2003 May;39(8):1081-8.

131. Harvie M, Hooper L, Howell A. Central obesity and breast cancer risk: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2003 Aug;4(3):157-73.

132. Ziegler R, Hoover R, Nomura A, et al. Relative weight, weight change, height, and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 May 15;88(10):650-60.

133. Morimoto LM, White E, Chen Z, et al. Obesity, body size, and risk of post- menopausal breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Oct;13(8):741-51. 

134. Hamajima N, Hirose K, Tajima K, et al. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer—collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer. 2002 Nov 18;8(11):1234-45. 

135. Prentice R, Thompson D, Clifford C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, Byar D. Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentra- tion in healthy postmenopausal women. The Women’s Health Trial Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Jan 17;82(2):129-34. 

136. Holmes M, Hunter D, Colditz G, et al. Association of dietary intake of fat and fatty acids with risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1999 Mar 10;281(10):914-20.

137. Dorgan J, Reichman M, Judd J, et al. The relation of body size to plasma levels of estrogens and androgens in premenopausal women (Maryland, United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1995 Jan;6(1):3-8.

138. Lahmann P, Hoffmann K, Allen N, et al. Body size and breast cancer risk: Findings from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer. 2004 Sep 20;111(5):762–71.

139. Henderson BE, Pike MC, Ross RK, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors. In: Bonadonna G, ed. Breast Cancer: Diagnosis and Management. Chichester, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1984:15-33. 

140. Ekbom A, Hsieh CC, Lipworth L, Adami HQ, Trichopoulos D. Intrauterine environ- ment and breast cancer risk in women: A population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Jan 1;89(1):71-6.

141. Fackelmann, K. Breast cancer risk traced back to the womb. Sci News. 1992 142(Oct. 31):293.

142. Newcomb P, Storer B, Longnecker M, et al. Lactation and a reduced risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jan 13;330(2):81-7.

143. Romieu I, Hernandez-Avila M, Lazcano E, Lopez L, Romero-Jaime R. Breast cancer and lactation history in Mexican women. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Mar 15;143(6):543-52.

144. Furberg H, Newman B, Moorman P, Millikan R. Lactation and breast cancer risk. Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Jun;28(3):396-402. 

145. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breast feeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002;360(9328):187-95. 

146. Smith-Warner S, Spiegelman D, Yaun S, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women. JAMA. 1998 Feb 18;279(7):535-40.

147. Garfinkel L, Boffetta P, Stellman S. Alcohol and breast cancer: a cohort study. Prev Med. 1988 Nov;17(6):686-93.

148. Longnecker M, Newcomb P, Mittendorf R, et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to life- time alcohol consumption. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Jun 21;87(12):923-9.

149. Rockhill B, Willett W, Hunter D, Manson J, Hankinson S, Colditz G. A prospective study of recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Oct 25;159(19):2290-96.

150. Thune I, Brenn T, Lund E, Gaard M. Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997 May 1;336(18):1269- 75.

151. Bernstein L, Henderson B, Hanisch R, Sullivan-Halley J, Ross R. Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Sep 21;86(18):1403-8.

152. Matthews C, Shu X, Jin F, et al. Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Br J Cancer. 2001 Apr 6;84(7):994-1001.

153. McTiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E, et al. Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Cohort Study. JAMA. 2003 Sep 10;290(10):1331-6.

154. Bernstein L, Ross RK, Lobo RA, Hanisch R, Krailo MD, Henderson BE. The effects of moderate physical activity on menstrual cycle patterns in adolescence: implications for breast cancer prevention. Br J Cancer. 1987 Jun;55(6):681-5. 

155. Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and cancer prevention: from observational to inter- vention research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Apr;10(4):287-301.

156. Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L, Rao RS, Palmer JR. Strenuous physical activity and breast cancer risk in African-American women. J Natl Med Assoc. 2001 Jul-Aug; 93(7-8): 267-75.

157. Paganini-Hill A. Estrogen replacement ther- apy in the elderly. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1996 118(5):255-61.

158. Birkhauser MH. Indications for hormone replacement therapy. Ther Umsch. 2000 Oct;57(10):635-42.

159. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

160.Available at: Accessed July 2004.

161.Available at: Accessed July 2004.

162.Available at: Accessed July 2004.

163. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

164. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

165. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

166. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

167. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

168. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

169. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

170. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

171. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

172. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

173. Available at: Accessed July 2004.

174. Suzuki K, Takezawa Y, Suzuki T, Honma S, Yamanaka H. Synergistic effects of estrogen with androgen on the prostate effects of estrogen on the prostate of androgen-administered rats and 5-alpha-reductase activity. Prostate. 1994 Oct;25(4);169-76.

175. Steiner MS, Raghow S. Antiestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators reduce prostate cancer risk. World J Urol. 2003 May;21(1):31-6.

176. Hill P, Wynder E, Garbaczewski L, Walker A. Effect of diet on plasma and urinary hormones in South African black men with prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1982 Sep; 42(9):3864-9.

177. Seidman S, Walsh B. Testosterone and depression in aging men. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999 Winter;7(1):18-33.

178. Barrett-Connor E, Von Muhlen D, Kritz- Silverstein D. Bioavailable testosterone and depressed mood in older men: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Feb;84(2):573-7.

179. Schweiger U, Deuschle M, Weber B, et al. Testosterone, gonadotropin, and cortisol secretion in male patients with major depression. Psychosom Med. 1999 May- Jun;61(3):292-6.

180. Lubeck DP, Grossfeld GD, Carroll PR. The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer. Urology. 2001 Aug;58(2 Suppl 1):94-100.

181. Green HJ, Pakenham