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Defend Against DNA Destruction

October 2012

By Alex Richter


1. Best BP. Nuclear DNA damage as a direct cause of aging. Rejuven ation Res. 2009 Jun;12(3):199-208.

2. Malpass K. Alzheimer disease: DNA damage provides novel and powerful biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012;8(4):178.

3. Molenaar JC. DNA damage and aging. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. Dec 27 2003;147(52):2578-81.

4. Tobin DJ, Paus R. Graying: gerontobiology of the hair follicle pigmentary unit. Exp Gerontol. Jan 2001;36(1):29-54.

5. Warren DT, Shanahan CM. Defective DNA-damage repair induced by nuclear lamina dysfunction is a key mediator of smooth muscle cell aging. Biochem Soc Trans. Dec 2011;39(6):1780-85.

6. Mein JR, Dolnikowski GG, Ernst H, Russell RM, Wang XD. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Feb 1;506(1):109-21. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

7. Lorenzo Y, Azqueta A, Luna L, Bonilla F, Domínguez G, Collins AR. The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA oxidation damage in addition to acting as an antioxidant in human cells. Carcinogenesis. 2009 Feb;30(2):308-14.

8. Santocono M, Zurria M, Berrettini M, Fedeli D, Falcioni G. Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2006 Dec 1;85(3):205-15. Epub 2006 Sep 8.

9. Mathers JC, Coxhead JM, Tyson J. Nutrition and DNA repair--potential molecular mechanisms of action. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. Aug 2007;7(5):425-31.

10. Tyson J, Mathers JC. Dietary and genetic modulation of DNA repair in healthy human adults. Proc Nutr Soc. Feb 2007; 66(1):42-51.

11. Lyons NM, O'Brien NM. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J Dermatol Sci. Oct 2002;30(1):73-84.

12. Mathers JC. The biological revolution - towards a mechanistic understanding of the impact of diet on cancer risk. Mutat Res. Jul 13 2004;551(1-2):43-49.

13. Kelemen LE, Cerhan JR, Lim U, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and antioxidant-related nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. Jun 2006;83(6):1401-10.

14. Serpeloni JM, Grotto D, Mercadante AZ, de Lourdes Pires Bianchi M, Antunes LM. Lutein improves antioxidant defense in vivo and protects against DNA damage and chromosome instability induced by cisplatin. Arch Toxicol. Oct 2010;84(10):811-22.

15. Astley SB, Elliott RM, Archer DB, Southon S. Increased cellular carotenoid levels reduce the persistence of DNA single-strand breaks after oxidative challenge. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):202-13.

16. Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. Sep 15 2002;156(6):536-47.

17. Briviba K, Bub A, Moseneder J, et al. No differences in DNA damage and antioxidant capacity between intervention groups of healthy, nonsmoking men receiving 2, 5, or 8 servings/day of vegetables and fruit. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):164-70.

18. Yeon JY, Kim HS, Sung MK. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables suppress blood biomarkers of metabolic stress in overweight women. Prev Med. Dec 29 2011.

19. Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Nieves C, Jr., Percival SS. Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate. J Nutr. Oct 2006;136(10):2606-10.

20. Kiokias S, Gordon MH. Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress. Eur J Clin Nutr. Sep 2003;57(9):1135-40.

21. Gao S, Qin T, Liu Z, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces H2O2-induced oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3180-90.

22. Zhao W, Jing X, Chen C, Cui J, Yang M, Zhang Z. Protective effects of astaxanthin against oxidative damage induced by 60Co gamma-ray irradiation. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. Sep 2011;40(5):551-54.

23. Serpeloni JM, Barcelos GR, Friedmann Angeli JP, Mercadante AZ, Lourdes Pires Bianchi M, Greggi Antunes LM. Dietary carotenoid lutein protects against DNA damage and alterations of the redox status induced by cisplatin in human derived HepG2 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. Mar 2012;26(2):288-94.

24. Zhao X, Aldini G, Johnson EJ, et al. Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan 2006;83(1):163-9.

25. Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:18.

26. Johnson IT. Micronutrients and cancer. Proc Nutr Soc. Nov 2004;63(4):587-595.

27. Tanaka T, Shnimizu M, Moriwaki H. Cancer chemoprevention by carotenoids. Molecules. 2012;17(3):3202-42.

28. Go VL, Wong DA, Butrum R. Diet, nutrition and cancer prevention: where are we going from here? J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11 Suppl):3121S-6S.

29. Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Iijima K, Gross MD. Antitumor activity of astaxanthin and its mode of action. Nutr Cancer. 2000;36(1):59-65.

30. Chew BP, Brown CM, Park JS, Mixter PF. Dietary lutein inhibits mouse mammary tumor growth by regulating angiogenesis and apoptosis. Anticancer Res. Jul-Aug 2003;23(4):3333-39.

31. Nakao R, Nelson OL, Park JS, Mathison BD, Thompson PA, Chew BP. Effect of dietary astaxanthin at different stages of mammary tumor initiation in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res. Jun 2010;30(6):2171-75.

32. Firdous AP, Sindhu ER, Ramnath V, Kuttan R. Anti-mutagenic and anti- carcinogenic potential of the carotenoid meso-zeaxanthin. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(6):1795-800.

33. Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Mikami N, Miyashita K, Tanaka T. Dietary astaxanthin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice via modulation of the inflammatory cytokines. Chem Biol Interact. Aug 15 2011;193(1):79-87.

34. Reynoso-Camacho R, Gonzalez-Jasso E, Ferriz-Martinez R, et al. Dietary supplementation of lutein reduces colon carcinogenesis in DMH-treated rats by modulating K-ras, PKB, and beta-catenin proteins. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(1):39-45.

35. Reiman JM, Kmieciak M, Manjili MH, Knutson KL. Tumor immunoediting and immunosculpting pathways to cancer progression. Semin Cancer Biol. Aug 2007;17(4):275-87.

36. Lee EH, Faulhaber D, Hanson KM, et al. Dietary lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. Feb 2004;122(2):510-17.

37. Astner S, Wu A, Chen J, et al. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin partially reduces photoaging and photocarcinogenesis in chronically UVB-irradiated Skh-1 hairless mice. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;20(6):283-91.

38. Heinen MM, Hughes MC, Ibiebele TI, Marks GC, Green AC, van der Pols JC. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer. Eur J Cancer. Dec 2007;43(18):2707-16.

39. Bernstein PS. Nutritional Interventions against Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Acta Hortic. 2009;841:103-12.

40. Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry. Apr 2004;75(4):216-30.

41. Johnson EJ, Chung HY, Caldarella SM, Snodderly DM. The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation. Am J Clin Nutr. May 2008;87(5):1521-29.

42. Carpentier S, Knaus M, Suh M. Associations between lutein, zeaxanthin, and age-related macular degeneration: an overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Apr 2009;49(4):313-26.

43. Johnson EJ, Maras JE, Rasmussen HM, Tucker KL. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. J Am Diet Assoc. Sep 2010;110(9):1357-62.

44. Schweigert FJ, Reimann J. Micronutrients and their relevance for the eye--function of lutein, zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. Jun 2011;228(6):537-43.

45. Liang FQ, Godley BF. Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: a possible mechanism for RPE aging and age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res. Apr 2003;76(4):397-403.

46. Karunadharma PP, Nordgaard CL, Olsen TW, Ferrington DA. Mitochondrial DNA damage as a potential mechanism for age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Nov 2010;51(11):5470-79.

47. Jarrett SG, Lin H, Godley BF, Boulton ME. Mitochondrial DNA damage and its potential role in retinal degeneration. Prog Retin Eye Res. Nov 2008;27(6):596-607.

48. Lau LI, Liu CJ, Wei YH. Increase of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in aqueous humor of patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Nov 2010;51(11):5486-90.

49. SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, et al. The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 22. Arch Ophthalmol. Sep 2007;125(9):1225-32.

50. Zeimer M, Hense HW, Heimes B, Austermann U, Fobker M, Pauleikhoff D. The macular pigment: short- and intermediate-term changes of macular pigment optical density following supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin and co-antioxidants. The LUNA Study. Ophthalmologe. Jan 2009;106(1):29-36.

51. Connolly EE, Beatty S, Thurnham DI, et al. Augmentation of macular pigment following supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: an exploratory study. Curr Eye Res. Apr 2010;35(4):335-51.

52. Sasamoto Y, Gomi F, Sawa M, Tsujikawa M, Nishida K. Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Dec 2011;249(12):1847-54.

53. Richer SP, Stiles W, Graham-Hoffman K, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zeaxanthin and visual function in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function Study (ZVF) FDA IND #78, 973. Optometry. Nov 2011;82(11):667-80 e666.

54. Parisi V, Tedeschi M, Gallinaro G, Varano M, Saviano S, Piermarocchi S. Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year. Ophthalmology. Feb 2008;115(2): 324-33 e322.

55. Norkus EP, Norkus KL, Dharmarajan TS, Schierle J, Schalch W. Serum lutein response is greater from free lutein than from esterified lutein during 4 weeks of supplementation in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. Dec 2010;29(6):575-85.

56. Zhang M, Holman CD, Binns CW. Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Nutr. Jul 2007;98(1):187-93.

57. Mignone LI, Giovannucci E, Newcomb PA, et al. Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Int J Cancer. Jun 15 2009;124(12):2929-37.

58. Zhang X, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L, et al. Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. Mar 2012;95(3):713-25.

59. Tirupula KC, Balem F, Yanamala N, Klein-Seetharaman J. pH-dependent interaction of rhodopsin with cyanidin-3-glucoside. 2. Functional aspects. Photochem Photobiol. Mar-Apr 2009; 85(2):463-70.

60. Yanamala N, Tirupula KC, Balem F, Klein-Seetharaman J. pH-dependent interaction of rhodopsin with cyanidin-3-glucoside. 1. Structural aspects. Photochem Photobiol. Mar-Apr 2009; 85(2):454-62.