Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Life Extension Magazine

<< Back to October 2013

The Truth About Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction

October 2013

By Michael Downey


  1. Jackson G. Prevention of cardiovascular disease by the early identification of erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2008 Dec;20 Suppl 2:S9-14.
  2. Available at: Accessed May 20, 2013.
  3. Banks E, Joshy G, Abhayaratna WP, et al. Erectile dysfunction severity as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease hospitalisation and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1):e1001372.
  4. Berman JR. Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17 Suppl 1:S44-51.
  5. Butler RN, Lewis MI, Hoffman E, Whitehead ED. Love and sex after 60: how to evaluate and treat the sexually-active woman. Geriatrics. 1994;49:33-4,37-8,41-2.
  6. Fode M, Krogh-Jespersen S, Brackett NL, Ohl DA, Lynne CM, Sønksen J. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders. Asian J Androl. 2012 Jan;14(1):61-8.
  7. Cortelazzi D, Marconi A, Guazzi M, et al. Sexual dysfunction in pre-menopausal diabetic women: clinical, metabolic, psychological, cardiovascular, and neurophysiologic correlates. Acta Diabetol. 2013 May 16. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Diaz-Arjonilla M, Schwarcz M, Swerdloff RS, Wang C. Obesity, low testosterone levels and erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2009 Mar-Apr;21(2):89-98
  9. Mehraban D, Naderi GH, Yahyazadeh SR, Amirchaghmaghi M. Sexual dysfunction in aging men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Urol J. 2008 Fall;5(4):260-4.
  10. Gregorian RS, Golden KA, Bahce A, Goodman C, Kwong WJ, Khan ZM. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:1577-89.
  11. Available at: Accessed May 21, 2013.
  12. Bargiota A, Dimitropoulos K, Tzortzis V, Koukoulis GN. Sexual dysfunction in diabetic women. Hormones (Athens). 2011 Jul-Sep;10(3):196-206.
  13. Nowosielski K, Drosdzol A, Sipiński A, Kowalczyk R, Skrzypulec V. Diabetes mellitus and sexuality--does it really matter? J Sex Med. 2010 Feb;7(2 Pt 1):723-35.
  14. Banks E, Joshy G, Abhayaratna WP, et al. Erectile dysfunction severity as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease hospitalisation and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1):e1001372.
  15. Moynihan R. The making of a disease: female sexual dysfunction. BMJ 2003;326:45.
  16. Lindau ST, Gavrilova N. Sex, health, and years of sexually active life gained due to good health: evidence from two US population based cross sectional surveys of ageing. BMJ. 2010 Mar 9;340:c810.
  17. Laumann EO, Nicolosi A, Glasser DB, et al. Sexual problems among women and men aged 40-80y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:39-57.
  18. Lindau ST, Schumm LP, Laumann EO, Levinson W, O’Muircheartaigh CA, Waite LJ. A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 23;357(8):762-74.
  19. Gott M, Hinchliff S. How important is sex in later life? The views of older people. Soc Sci Med. 2003 Apr;56(8):1617-28.
  20. Baldwin K, Ginsberg P, Harkaway RC. Under-reporting of erectile dysfunction among men with unrelated urologic conditions. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:87-9.
  21. Montorsi F, Salonia A, Deho F, Briganti A, Rigatti P. The ageing male and erectile dysfunction. World J Urol. 2002 May;20(1):28-35.
  22. Lim PH, Moorthy P, Benton KG. The clinical safety of viagra. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:378-88.
  23. Blonde L. Sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: a retrospective analysis of pooled data from placebo-controlled trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Nov;22(11):2111-20.
  24. Laties AM. Vision disorders and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: a review of the evidence to date. Drug Saf. 2009;32(1):1-18.
  25. Santaella RM, Fraunfelder FW. Ocular adverse effects associated with systemic medications: recognition and management. Drugs. 2007;67(1):75-93.
  26. Bella AJ, Brant WO, Lue TF, Brock GB. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. Can J Urol . 2006 Oct;13(5):3233-8.
  27. Mukherjee B, Shivakumar T. A case of sensorineural deafness following ingestion of sildenafil. J Laryngol Otol. 2007 Apr;121(4):395-7.
  28. Hong BN, Yi TH, Kim SY, Kang TH. High dosage sildenafil induces hearing impairment in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Oct;31(10):1981-4.
  29. Choi HK, Ahn TY, Kim JJ, et al. A double-blind, randomised- placebo, controlled, parallel group, multicentre, flexible-dose escalation study to assess the efficacy and safety of sildenafil administered as required to male outpatients with erectile dysfunction in Korea. Int J Impot Res. 2003 Apr;15(2):80-6.
  30. Kruuse C, Thomsen LL, Birk S, Olesen J. Migraine can be induced by sildenafil without changes in middle cerebral artery diameter. Brain. 2003 Jan;126(Pt 1):241-7.
  31. Farooq MU, Naravetla B, Moore PW, Majid A, Gupta R, Kassab MY. Role of sildenafil in neurological disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008 Nov;31(6):353-62.
  32. Kekilli M, Beyazit Y, Purnak T, Dogan S, Atalar E. Acute myocardial infarction after sildenafil citrate ingestion. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jul;39(7-8):1362-4.
  33. Huang PL. eNOS, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;20(6):295-302.
  34. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Int J Impot Res. 2008 Mar;20(2):173-80.
  35. Ning H, Xin ZC, Lin G, Banie L, Lue TF, Lin CS. Effects of icariin on phosphodiesterase-5 activity in vitro and cyclic guanosine monophosphate level in cavernous smooth muscle cells. Urology. 2006 Dec;68(6):1350-4.
  36. Aoki H, Nagao J, Ueda T, et al. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother Res. 2012 Feb;26(2):204-7.
  37. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May;29(3):207-13.
  38. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):297-302.
  39. (EBDR) European Bulletin of Drug Research. 2005;13(1):7-13.
  40. Nikolova V, Stanislavov R, Vatev I, Nalbanski B, Pŭnevska M. Sperm parameters in male idiopathic infertility after treatment with prelox. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2007;46(5):7-12.
  41. Lamm S, Prelox® for improvement of erectile quality, European Endocrinology. 2009;5(1):70–4.
  42. Schuman EM, Madison DV. A requirement for the intercellular messenger nitric oxide in long-term potentiation. Science. 1991 Dec 6;254(5037):1503-6.
  43. Jacoby S, Sims RE, Hartell NA. Nitric oxide is required for the induction and heterosynaptic spread of long-term potentiation in rat cerebellar slices. J Physiol. 2001 Sep 15;535(Pt 3):825-39.
  44. Hawkins RD, Son H, Arancio O. Nitric oxide as a retrograde messenger during long-term potentiation in hippocampus. Prog Brain Res. 1998;118:155-72.
  45. Prast H, Philippu A. Nitric oxide as modulator of neuronal function. Prog Neurobiol. 2001 May;64(1):51-68.
  46. Nussler AK, Billiar TR. Inflammation, immunoregulation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Leukoc Biol. 1993 Aug;54(2):171-8.
  47. Corseaux D, Ollivier V, Fontaine V, et al. Hemostasis imbalance in experimental hypertension. Mol Med. 2002 Apr;8(4):169-78.
  48. Jiang Z, Hu B, Wang J, et al. Effect of icariin on cyclic GMP levels and on the mRNA expression of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE5) in penile cavernosum. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2006;26(4):460-2.
  49. Xin ZC, Kim EK, Lin CS, et al. Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian J Androl. 2003 Mar;5(1):15-8.
  50. Dell’Agli M, Galli GV, Dal Cero E, et al. Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives. J Nat Prod. 2008 Sep;71(9):1513-7.
  51. Xu HB, Huang ZQ. Icariin enhances endothelial nitric-oxide synthase expression on human endothelial cells in vitro. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;47(1):18-24.
  52. Tian L, Xin ZC, Liu WJ, et al. Effects of icariin on the erectile function and expression of nitrogen oxide synthase isoforms in corpus cavernosum of arterigenic erectile dysfunction rat model. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Jun 2;84(11):954-7.
  53. Liu WJ, Xin ZC, Xin H, Yuan YM, Tian L, Guo YL. Effects of icariin on erectile function and expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in castrated rats. Asian J Androl. 2005 Dec;7(4):381-8.
  54. Zhang ZB, Yang QT. The testosterone mimetic properties of icariin. Asian J Androl. 2006 Sep;8(5):601-5.
  55. Makarova MN, Pozharitskaya ON, Shikov AN, Tesakova SV, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP. Effect of lipid-based suspension of Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract on sexual behavior in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;114(3):412-6.
  56. Basson R, Althof S, Davis S, et al. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med. 2004 Jul;1(1):24-34.
  57. Berman L, Berman J, Felder S, et al. Seeking help for sexual function complaints: what gynecologists need to know about the female patient’s experience. Fertil Steril. 2003 Mar;79(3):572-6.
  58. Simon JA. Identifying and treating sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: the role of estrogen. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Oct;20(10):1453-65.
  59. Zhu J-S, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis parti. J Alt Complement Med. 1998;4(3):289-303.
  60. Wan F, Guo Y, Deng X. Sex hormone-like effects of JinShuiBao capsule: Pharmacological and clinical studies. Chinese Trad Pat Med. 1988;9:29-31.
  61. Manabe N, Sugimoto M, Azume Y, et al. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1996;70:85-8.
  62. Wang Y, Wang M, Ling Y, Fan W, Wang Y, Yin H. Structural determination and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(5):977-89.
  63. Liu Z, Li P, Zhao D, Tang H, Guo J. Anti-inflammation effects of cordyceps sinensis mycelium in focal cerebral ischemic injury rats. Inflammation. 2011;34(6):639-44.
  64. Chiou YL, Lin CY. The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity. Inflammation. 2012 Jun;35(3):985-93.
  65. Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62.
  66. Piacente S, Carbone V, Plaza A, Zampelli A, Pizza C. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agricul Food Chem. 2002;50(20):5621–5.
  67. Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 2003 Jan;176(1):163-8.
  68. Gonzales GF. Ethnobiology and ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:193496. Epub 2011 Oct 2.
  69. Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G, et al. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008 Fall;14(3):182-91.
  70. Chang A, Kwak B-Y, Yi K, Kim JS. The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phtyother Res. 2012 Apr;26(4):510-6.
  71. Csoka A, Bahrick A, Mehtonen O-P. Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Sex Med. 2008;5:227-33.
  72. Montejo AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Rico-Villademoros F. Incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant agents: a prospective multicenter study of 1022 outpatients. Spanish Working Group for the Study of Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 3:10-21.
  73. Landen M, Eriksson E, Agren H, Fahlen T. Effect of buspirone on sexual dysfunction in depressed patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999; 19(3):268-71.
  74. Gupta S, Droney T, Masand P, Ashton AK. SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction treated with sildenafil. Depress Anxiety. 1999;9(4):180-2.
  75. Aizenberg D, Zemishlany Z, Weizman A. Cyproheptadine treatment of sexual dysfunction induced by serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Neuropharmacol , 1995;18(4):320-4.
  76. Modabbernia A, Sohrabi H, Nasehi AA, et al. Effect of saffron on fluoxetine-induced sexual impairment in men: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223(4):381-8.
  77. Feder R. Reversal of antidepressant activity of fluoxetine by cyproheptadine in three patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991;52(4):163-4.
  78. Kashani L, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, et al. Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jan;28(1):54-60.