AAFP. American Academy of Family Physicians. Commence Screening at Age 45, ACS Recommends. Available at https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20180605acscrcscreen.html. Published 06/05/2018. Accessed 11/01/2018. 2018.
Abdul Khalek, F. J., G. I. Gallicano, et al. (2010). "Colon cancer stem cells." Gastrointest Cancer Res(Suppl 1): S16-23.
Adams, W. J. and D. L. Morris (1994a). "Short-course cimetidine and survival with colorectal cancer." Lancet 344(8939-8940): 1768-1769.
Adams, W. J., D. L. Morris, et al. (1994b). "Cimetidine preserves non-specific immune function after colonic resection for cancer." Aust N Z J Surg 64(12): 847-852.
Agarwal, M. K., M. L. Agarwal, et al. (2004). "Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil activates p53, modulates Bax/Bcl2 ratio and induces apoptosis independent of cell cycle association." Cell Cycle 3(2): 205-211.
Aggarwal, B. B., M. E. Van Kuiken, et al. (2009). "Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals Derived from Dietary Spices: Potential Role in Suppression of Inflammation and Tumorigenesis." Experimental Biology and Medicine 234(8): 825-849.
Ahearn, T. U., M. L. McCullough, et al. (2011). "A randomized clinical trial of the effects of supplemental calcium and vitamin D3 on markers of their metabolism in normal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients." Cancer Res 71(2): 413-423.
Ahlquist, D. (2010). "New Test Measures DNA Methylation Levels to Predict Colon Cancer."
Al-Taie, O. H., J. Seufert, et al. (2003). "Selenium supplementation enhances low selenium levels and stimulates glutathione peroxidase activity in peripheral blood and distal colon mucosa in past and present carriers of colon adenomas." Nutr Cancer 46(2): 125-130.
Alizadeh AA, Aranda V, Bardelli A, Blanpain C, Bock C, Borowski C, . . . Zucman-Rossi J. Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity. Nature medicine. Aug 2015;21(8):846-853.
Alvarez-Díaz, S., N. Valle, et al. (2009). "Cystatin D is a candidate tumor suppressor gene induced by vitamin D in human colon cancer cells." The Journal of Clinical Investigation 119(8): 2343-2358.
Anand, P., C. Sundaram, et al. (2008). "Curcumin and cancer: An “old-age” disease with an “age-old” solution." Cancer letters 267(1): 133-164.
Anti, M., F. Armelao, et al. (1994). "Effects of different doses of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation in patients with sporadic colonic adenomas." Gastroenterology 107(6): 1709-1718.
Anti, M., G. Marra, et al. (1992). "Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on rectal mucosal cell proliferation in subjects at risk for colon cancer." Gastroenterology 103(3): 883-891.
Antonarakis ES, Heath EI, Smith DC, Rathkopf D, Blackford AL, Danila DC, . . . Carducci MA. Repurposing itraconazole as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer: a noncomparative randomized phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The oncologist. 2013;18(2):163-173.
Aranda-Hernández J, Hwang J, Kandel G. Seeing better--Evidence based recommendations on optimizing colonoscopy adenoma detection rate. World journal of gastroenterology. Feb 7 2016;22(5):1767-1778.
Arber, N., C. J. Eagle, et al. (2006). "Celecoxib for the Prevention of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps." New England Journal of Medicine 355(9): 885-895.
Arul AB, Savarimuthu I, Alsaif MA, et al. Multivitamin and mineral supplementation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced experimental colon carcinogenesis and evaluation of free radical status, antioxidant potential, and incidence of ACF. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Jan;90(1):45-54.
Asamoto M, Ota T, Toriyama-Baba H, et al. Mammary carcinomas induced in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats are estrogen-independent, but responsive to d-limonene treatment. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002 Jan;93(1):32-5.
Bachmeier, B. E., P. Killian, et al. (2010). "Novel aspects for the application of Curcumin in chemoprevention of various cancers." Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2: 697-717.
Bancroft, L. K., J. R. Lupton, et al. (2003). "Dietary fish oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat colonocytes." Free Radic Biol Med 35(2): 149-159.
Barclay, R. L., J. J. Vicari, et al. (2006). "Colonoscopic Withdrawal Times and Adenoma Detection during Screening Colonoscopy." New England Journal of Medicine 355(24): 2533-2541.
Barresi V et al. Correlative study of microvessel density and 5-lipoxygenase expression in human sporadic colorectal cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Nov;132(11):1807-12.
Bar-Sela, G., R. Epelbaum, et al. (2010). "Curcumin as an anti-cancer agent: review of the gap between basic and clinical applications." Curr Med Chem 17(3): 190-197.
Bartik, L., G. K. Whitfield, et al. (2010). "Curcumin: a novel nutritionally derived ligand of the vitamin D receptor with implications for colon cancer chemoprevention." J Nutr Biochem 21(12): 1153-1161.
Bartoli, G. M., P. Palozza, et al. (1993). "n-3 pufa and α-tocopherol control of tumor cell proliferation." Molecular Aspects of Medicine 14(3): 247-252.
Benais-Pont, G., Y. M. Dupertuis, et al. (2006). "ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and ionizing radiation: Combined cytotoxicity on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 22(9): 931-939.
Benson, A. B., 3rd (2007). "Epidemiology, disease progression, and economic burden of colorectal cancer." J Manag Care Pharm 13(6 Suppl C): S5-18.
Bente K, P. (2011). "Exercise-induced myokines and their role in chronic diseases." Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25(5): 811-816.
Bernstein, H., C. Bernstein, et al. (2005). "Bile acids as carcinogens in human gastrointestinal cancers." Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 589(1): 47-65.
Bertagnolli, M. M., C. J. Eagle, et al. (2009). "Five-Year Efficacy and Safety Analysis of the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib Trial." Cancer Prevention Research 2(4): 310-321.
Bishnoi M et al. Co-administration of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, a specific 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, potentiates the protective effect of COX-2 inhibitors in kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Pharmacology. 2007;79(1):34-41. Epub 2006 Nov 30.
Bland J. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors.2001;October 17-21, 2001.
Bohanes P et al. Predictive molecular classifiers in colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol. 2011 Aug;38(4):576-87.
Boland CR et al. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(6):2073-2087.e3.
Boman, B. M., J. Z. Fields, et al. (2008). "How Dysregulated Colonic Crypt Dynamics Cause Stem Cell Overpopulation and Initiate Colon Cancer." Cancer Research 68(9): 3304-3313.
Bostick, R. M., J. D. Potter, et al. (1993). "Reduced Risk of Colon Cancer with High Intake of Vitamin E: The Iowa Women's Health Study." Cancer Research 53(18): 4230-4237.
Boyle, T., L. Fritschi, et al. (2011). "Long-Term Sedentary Work and the Risk of Subsite-specific Colorectal Cancer." American Journal of Epidemiology 173(10): 1183-1191.
Brandin H et al. Effects of herbal medicinal products and food supplements on induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in the human colon carcinoma cell line LS180. Phytother Res. 2007 Mar;21(3):239-44.
Brenner H, Chang-Claude J, Rickert A, Seiler CM, Hoffmeister M. Risk of colorectal cancer after detection and removal of adenomas at colonoscopy: population-based case-control study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Aug 20 2012;30(24):2969-2976.
Bruce, W. R., M. Cirocco, et al. (2005). "A pilot randomised controlled trial to reduce colorectal cancer risk markers associated with B-vitamin deficiency, insulin resistance and colonic inflammation." Br J Cancer 93(6): 639-646.
Buczacki SJA, Popova S, Biggs E, Koukorava C, Buzzelli J, Vermeulen L, . . . Winton DJ. Itraconazole targets cell cycle heterogeneity in colorectal cancer. The Journal of experimental medicine. May 31 2018.
Butt, M. S. and M. T. Sultan (2009). "Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies." Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49(5): 463-473.
Cahill, L. E. and A. El-Sohemy (2010). "Haptoglobin genotype modifies the association between dietary vitamin C and serum ascorbic acid deficiency." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(6): 1494-1500.
Caldwell, B., S. Aldington, et al. (2006). "Risk of cardiovascular events and celecoxib: a systematic review and meta-analysis." JRSM 99(3): 132-140.
Campbell, S., W. Stone, et al. (2003). "Development of gamma (gamma)-tocopherol as a colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent." Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 47(3): 249-259.
Campbell, S., W. Stone, et al. (2006). "Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines." BMC Cancer 6(1): 13.
Chapkin, R. S., J. Seo, et al. (2008). "Mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid and related fatty acids reduce colon cancer risk and inflammatory disorders of the intestine." Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 153(1): 14-23.
Chen G, Shi J, Hu Z, Hang C. Inhibitory effect on cerebral inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury in rats: a potential neuroprotective mechanism of N-acetyl cysteine. Mediators Inflamm. 2008;2008:716458.
Cheng, C. Y., Y. H. Lin, et al. (2010). "Curcumin inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma J5 cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction." Int J Mol Med 26(5): 673-678.
Cheng, J., K. Ogawa, et al. (2003). "Increased intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevates the level of apoptosis in the normal sigmoid colon of patients polypectomized for adenomas/tumors." Cancer Lett 193(1): 17-24.
Choudhury A et al. Clinical results of vaccine therapy for cancer: learning from history for improving the future. Adv Cancer Res. 2006;95:147-202.
Chu, A. J., T. H. Chou, et al. (2004). "Prevention of colorectal cancer using COX-2 inhibitors: basic science and clinical applications." Front Biosci 9: 2697-2713.
Clark, L. C., G. F. Combs, et al. (1996). "Effects of Selenium Supplementation for Cancer Prevention in Patients With Carcinoma of the Skin." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 276(24): 1957-1963.
Connelly-Frost, A., C. Poole, et al. (2009). "Selenium, folate, and colon cancer." Nutrition and cancer 61(2): 165-178.
Courtney, E., S. Matthews, et al. (2007). "Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces crypt cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in normal colonic mucosa in subjects with a history of colorectal adenomas." International Journal of Colorectal Disease 22(7): 765-776.
Crea F et al. Epigenetics and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer: an opportunity for treatment tailoring and novel therapeutic strategies. Drug Resist Updat. 2011 Dec;14(6):280-96. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
Cross, H. S., P. Bareis, et al. (2001). "25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor gene expression in human colonic mucosa is elevated during early cancerogenesis." Steroids 66(3-5): 287-292.
Cruz-Correa M et al. Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;4(8):1035-8. Epub 2006 Jun 6.
Cui, X., Y. Jin, et al. (2010). "Resveratrol suppresses colitis and colon cancer associated with colitis." Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(4): 549-559.
Cummings LC et al. Colorectal cancer screening: update for 2011. Semin Oncol. 2011 Aug;38(4):483-9.
D’Errico, I. and A. Moschetta (2008). "Nuclear receptors, intestinal architecture and colon cancer: an intriguing link." Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65(10): 1523-1543.
Dai GJ et al. [Anticancer effects of tea polyphenols on colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability in nude mice]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2008 Dec;6(12):1263-6.
Dashwood, R. H. and E. Ho (2007). "Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: From cells to mice to man." Seminars in Cancer Biology 17(5): 363-369.
Dashwood, R. H., M. Xu, et al. (1999). "Cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of tea against heterocyclic amine mutagens from cooked meat." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220(4): 239-243.
Del Rio, D., G. Borges, et al. (2010). "Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects." Br J Nutr 104 Suppl 3: S67-90.
Dihal AA et al. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis. Proteomics. 2008 Jan;8(1):45-61.
Din, F. V. N., E. Theodoratou, et al. (2010). "Effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on risk and survival from colorectal cancer." Gut 59(12): 1670-1679.
Dos Santos MD et al. tion of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the natural polyphenol chlorogenic acid. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Nov;29(11):2236-40.
Dougherty U et al. merican ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Nov 9;11(1):111. [Epub ahead of print]
Drew, J. E. (2011). "Molecular mechanisms linking adipokines to obesity-related colon cancer: focus on leptin." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society FirstView: 1-6.
Dupertuis, Y. M., M. M. Meguid, et al. (2007). "Colon cancer therapy: new perspectives of nutritional manipulations using polyunsaturated fatty acids." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10(4): 427-432.
Estensen, R. D., M. Levy, et al. (1999). "N-acetylcysteine suppression of the proliferative index in the colon of patients with previous adenomatous colonic polyps." Cancer Lett 147(1-2): 109-114.
Fakih, M. G., L. Pendyala, et al. (2006). "A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of fixed-dose selenomethionine and irinotecan in solid tumors." Clinical Cancer Research 12(4): 1237-1244.
Fedirko, V., R. M. Bostick, et al. (2009). "Effects of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Markers of Apoptosis in Normal Colon Mucosa: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial." Cancer Prevention Research 2(3): 213-223.
Fernandez, E., L. Chatenoud, et al. (1999). "Fish consumption and cancer risk." Am J Clin Nutr 70(1): 85-90.
Fernández-Bañares, F., E. Cabré, et al. (2002). "Serum selenium and risk of large size colorectal adenomas in a geographical area with a low selenium status." The American journal of gastroenterology 97(8): 2103-2108.
Ferrucci, L. M., C. R. Daniel, et al. (2010). "Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 11(6): 1621-1629.
Feskanich, D., J. Ma, et al. (2004). "Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 13(9): 1502-1508.
Fleischauer, A. T., C. Poole, et al. (2000). "Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(4): 1047-1052.
Freedman, D. M., A. C. Looker, et al. (2007). "Prospective Study of Serum Vitamin D and Cancer Mortality in the United States." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99(21): 1594-1602.
Fung, T. T., F. B. Hu, et al. (2010). "The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and colorectal cancer." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(6): 1429-1435.
Galeone C et al. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Nov;21(11):1949-59. Epub 2010 Aug 1.
Gandini, S., M. Boniol, et al. (2011). "Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma." International Journal of Cancer 128(6): 1414-1424.
Garman, K. S., C. R. Acharya, et al. (2008). "A genomic approach to colon cancer risk stratification yields biologic insights into therapeutic opportunities." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(49): 19432-19437.
Gee Jm et al. Suppression of intestinal crypt cell proliferation and aberrant crypt foci by dietary quercetin in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):193-201.
Ghadirian, P., A. Lacroix, et al. (1997). "Nutritional factors and colon carcinoma: a case-control study involving French Canadians in Montreal, Quebec, Canada." Cancer 80(5): 858-864.
Ghadirian, P., P. Maisonneuve, et al. (2000). "A case-control study of toenail selenium and cancer of the breast, colon, and prostate." Cancer Detect Prev 24(4): 305-313.
Gibson, T. M., S. J. Weinstein, et al. (2011). "Pre- and postfortification intake of folate and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94(4): 1053-1062.
Giovannucci, E. (2002). "Epidemiologic Studies of Folate and Colorectal Neoplasia: a Review." The Journal of Nutrition 132(8): 2350S-2355S.
Giovannucci, E., J. Chen, et al. (2003). "Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Diet, and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 12(10): 970-979.
Giovannucci, E., M. J. Stampfer, et al. (1998). "Multivitamin Use, Folate, and Colon Cancer in Women in the Nurses' Health Study." Annals of Internal Medicine 129(7): 517-524.
Giovannucci, E., W. C. Willett, et al. (1994). "DIETARY FACTORS AND RISK OF COLON-CANCER." Annals of Medicine 26(6): 443-452.
Glinsky, V. V. and A. Raz (2009). "Modified citrus pectin anti-metastatic properties: one bullet, multiple targets." Carbohydr Res 344(14): 1788-1791.
Grau, M. V., J. A. Baron, et al. (2007). "Prolonged Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Risk of Colorectal Adenomas in a Randomized Trial." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99(2): 129-136.
Gupta, S. C., J. H. Kim, et al. (2011). "Role of nuclear factor kappaB-mediated inflammatory pathways in cancer-related symptoms and their regulation by nutritional agents." Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 236(6): 658-671.
Hahnfeldt P, Folkman J et al. Minimizing long-term tumor burden: the logic for metronomic chemotherapeutic dosing and its antiangiogenic basis. J Theor Biol. 2003 Feb 21;220(4):545-54.
Hall, M. N., J. E. Chavarro, et al. (2008). "A 22-year Prospective Study of Fish, n-3 Fatty Acid Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 17(5): 1136-1143.
Han, Y., T. Haraguchi, et al. (2009). "Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer." J Agric Food Chem 57(18): 8587-8590.
Hao, X., M. Bose, et al. (2007). "Inhibition of Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ Mice by Green Tea Polyphenols (Polyphenon E) and Individual Catechins." Nutrition and cancer 59(1): 62-69.
Hartman, T. J., P. S. Albert, et al. (2005). "The Association of Calcium and Vitamin D with Risk of Colorectal Adenomas." The Journal of Nutrition 135(2): 252-259.
He, Z.-Y., C.-B. Shi, et al. (2011). "Upregulation of p53 Expression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer by Administration of Curcumin." Cancer Investigation 29(3): 208-213.
Hofstad, B., K. Almendingen, et al. (1998). "Growth and recurrence of colorectal polyps: a double-blind 3-year intervention with calcium and antioxidants." Digestion 59(2): 148-156.
Hogan, F. S., N. K. Krishnegowda, et al. (2007). "Flavonoid, silibinin, inhibits proliferation and promotes cell-cycle arrest of human colon cancer." J Surg Res 143(1): 58-65.
Hope, C., K. Planutis, et al. (2008). "Low concentrations of resveratrol inhibit Wnt signal throughput in colon-derived cells: implications for colon cancer prevention." Mol Nutr Food Res 52 Suppl 1: S52-61.
Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, et al. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(14):1287-97.
Ingrassia, L., I. Camby, et al. (2006). "Anti-galectin compounds as potential anti-cancer drugs." Curr Med Chem 13(29): 3513-3527.
Irimura, T., Y. Matsushita, et al. (1991). "Increased Content of an Endogenous Lactose-binding Lectin in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Progressed to Metastatic Stages." Cancer Research 51(1): 387-393.
Issa, A., S. Volate, et al. (2007). "Green tea selectively targets initial stages of intestinal carcinogenesis in the AOM-ApcMin mouse model." Carcinogenesis 28(9): 1978 - 1984.
Issa IA, Noureddine M. Colorectal cancer screening: An updated review of the available options. World journal of gastroenterology. Jul 28 2017;23(28):5086-5096.
Jacobs, E., C. Connell, et al. (2001). "Multivitamin use and colon cancer mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II cohort (United States)." Cancer Causes and Control 12(10): 927-934.
Je Y et al. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Cancer. 2009 Apr 1;124(7):1662-8.
Jenab, M., H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita, et al. (2010). "Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations:a nested case-control study." BMJ 340.
Jiang Z et al. The mismatch repair system modulates curcumin sensitivity through induction of DNA strand breaks and activation of G2-M checkpoint. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Mar;9(3):558-68. Epub 2010 Feb 9.
Jiang, Q., I. Elson-Schwab, et al. (2000). "γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97(21): 11494-11499.
Jin H et al. The study of effect of tea polyphenols on microsatellite instability colorectal cancer and its molecular mechanism. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010 Dec;25(12):1407-15. Epub 2010 Aug 21.
Ju, J., S. C. Picinich, et al. (2010). "Cancer-preventive activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols." Carcinogenesis 31(4): 533-542.
Jubb AM, Hurwitz HI. et al. Impact of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression, thrombospondin-2 expression, and microvessel density on the treatment effect of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 10;24(2):217-27.
Jung Y, Joo YE, Kim HG, Jeon SR, Cha JM, Yang HJ, . . . Shin JE. The relationship between the endoscopic withdrawal time and adenoma/polyp detection rate in individual colonic segments: a KASID multicenter study. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sep 26 2018.
Kajiyama H, Shibata K, Mizuno M, Yamamoto E, Fujiwara S, Umezu T, . . . Kikkawa F. Postrecurrent oncologic outcome of patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma. International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society. Jun 2012;22(5):801-806.
Kaminski, B., A. Weigert, et al. (2011). "Sulforaphane potentiates oxaliplatin-induced cell growth inhibition in colorectal cancer cells via induction of different modes of cell death." Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 67(5): 1167-1178.
Kang NJ et al. Coffee phenolic phytochemicals suppress colon cancer metastasis by targeting MEK and TOPK. enesis. 2011 Jun;32(6):921-8. Epub 2011 Feb 11.
Kannappan, R., J. Ravindran, et al. (2010). "γ-Tocotrienol Promotes TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis through Reactive Oxygen Species/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/p53–Mediated Upregulation of Death Receptors." Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 9(8): 2196-2207.
Kauntz, H., S. Bousserouel, et al. (2011). "Silibinin triggers apoptotic signaling pathways and autophagic survival response in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and their derived metastatic cells." Apoptosis 16(10): 1042-1053.
Kaur, M., B. Velmurugan, et al. (2009). "Silibinin suppresses growth and induces apoptotic death of human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells in culture and tumor xenograft." Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 8(8): 2366-2374.
Kim DH et al. Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2010a Nov;21(11):1919-30. Epub 2010 Sep 5.
Kim H, Seo JY, Roh KH, Lim JW, Kim KH. Suppression of NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production by N-acetyl cysteine in pancreatic acinar cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Oct 1;29(7):674-83.
Kim, D.-H., S. Smith-Warner, et al. (2010b). "Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer." Cancer Causes and Control 21(11): 1919-1930.
Kim, S., D. P. Sandler, et al. (2010c). "Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Distal Large Bowel Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans." American Journal of Epidemiology 171(9): 969-979.
Kiremidjian-Schumacher L et al. Effect of selenium on the immunocompetence of patients with head and neck cancer and on adoptive immunotherapy of early and established lesions. Biofactors. 2001;14(1-4):161-8.
Kohno, H., T. Tanaka, et al. (2002). "Silymarin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant flavonoid, inhibits azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats." International Journal of Cancer 101(5): 461-468.
Kolar, S. S. N., R. Barhoumi, et al. (2007). "Synergy between docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate elicits p53-independent apoptosis via mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation in colonocytes." American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 293(5): G935-G943.
Kronborg, O., M. Ugstad, et al. (2000). "Faecal calprotectin levels in a high risk population for colorectal neoplasia." Gut 46(6): 795-800.
Kuan, C. Y., T. H. Walker, et al. (2011). "Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Promote Paclitaxel Cytotoxicity via Inhibition of the MDR1 Gene in the Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cell Line." J Am Coll Nutr 30(4): 265-273.
Kubecova, M., K. Kolostova, et al. (2011). "Cimetidine: An anticancer drug?" European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 42(5): 439-444.
Kumar, N., D. Shibata, et al. (2007). "Green tea polyphenols in the prevention of colon cancer." Front Biosci 12: 2309-2315.
Kumar S, Thosani N, Ladabaum U, Friedland S, Chen AM, Kochar R, Banerjee S. Adenoma miss rates associated with a 3-minute versus 6-minute colonoscopy withdrawal time: a prospective, randomized trial. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. Jun 2017;85(6):1273-1280.
Lappe, J. M., D. Travers-Gustafson, et al. (2007). "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85(6): 1586-1591.
Larsson, S. C., N. Orsini, et al. (2005). "Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97(22): 1679-1687.
Lau TN, Lo RH et al. Colorectal hepatic metastases: Role of radiofrequency ablation. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2003 Mar;32(2):212-8.
Lee JY et al. Curcumin induces EGFR degradation in lung adenocarcinoma and modulates p38 activation in intestine: the versatile adjuvant for gefitinib therapy. PLoS One. 2011a;6(8):e23756. Epub 2011 Aug 17.
Lee, J. E., H. Li, et al. (2011b). "Circulating Levels of Vitamin D and Colon and Rectal Cancer: The Physicians' Health Study and a Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies." Cancer Prevention Research 4(5): 735-743.
Leman, E. S., R. E. Schoen, et al. (2007). "Initial Analyses of Colon Cancer–Specific Antigen (CCSA)-3 and CCSA-4 as Colorectal Cancer–Associated Serum Markers." Cancer Research 67(12): 5600-5605.
Leman, E. S., R. E. Schoen, et al. (2008). "Evaluation of Colon Cancer–Specific Antigen 2 as a Potential Serum Marker for Colorectal Cancer." Clinical Cancer Research 14(5): 1349-1354.
Li, L., J. Zeng, et al. (2010). "Targeting silibinin in the antiproliferative pathway." Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 19(2): 243-255.
Liang W et al. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract. World J Gastroenterol. 2003 Mar;9(3):495-8.
Lin AY et al. Effect of KRAS mutational status in advanced colorectal cancer on the outcomes of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2011 Mar 1;10(1):63-9.
Linsalata, M., A. Orlando, et al. (2010). "Quercetin inhibits human DLD-1 colon cancer cell growth and polyamine biosynthesis." Anticancer Res 30(9): 3501-3507.
Liu, H.-Y., Z.-L. Huang, et al. (2008). "Inhibitory effect of modified citrus pectin on liver metastases in a mouse colon cancer model." World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 14(48): 7386-7391.
Luqman, S. and J. M. Pezzuto (2010). "NFkappaB: a promising target for natural products in cancer chemoprevention." Phytother Res 24(7): 949-963.
Mahmoud NN et al. Plant phenolics decrease intestinal tumors in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. genesis. 2000 May;21(5):921-7.
Mahyar-Roemer, M., H. Kohler, et al. (2002). "Role of Bax in resveratrol-induced apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells." BMC Cancer 2(1): 27.
Manfredi, S., C. Piette, et al. (2008). "Colonoscopy results of a French regional FOBT-based colorectal cancer screening program with high compliance." Endoscopy 40(5): 422-427.
Manju V et al. Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger, a naturally occurring anticarcinogen during the initiation, post-initiation stages of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Aug;358(1-2):60-7.
Manju V et al. Effect of ginger on bacterial enzymes in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced experimental colon carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006 Oct;15(5):377-83.
Matsumoto, S., Y. Imaeda, et al. (2002). "Cimetidine increases survival of colorectal cancer patients with high levels of sialyl Lewis-X and sialyl Lewis-A epitope expression on tumour cells." Br J Cancer 86(2): 161-167.
Mattar, M. C., D. Lough, et al. (2011). "Current management of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer." Gastrointest Cancer Res 4(2): 53-61.
Mayo Clinic. Digestive Diseases. Cologuard primed to change landscape of CRC screening. https://www.mayoclinic.org/medical-professionals/clinical-updates/digestive-diseases/cologuard-primed-to-change-landscape-of-crc-screening. Accessed 10/31/2018.
Melstrom LG et al. Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in colon polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibitors in vitro and in a murine model. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Oct 15;14(20):6525-30.
Meucci, G., R. D'Inca, et al. (2010). "Diagnostic value of faecal calprotectin in unselected outpatients referred for colonoscopy: A multicenter prospective study." Dig Liver Dis 42(3): 191-195.
Meyerhardt, J. A., D. Niedzwiecki, et al. (2007). "Association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and survival in patients with stage III colon cancer." Jama 298(7): 754-764.
Mikac-Devic, M., N. Vukelic, et al. (1992). "Serum selenium level in patients with colorectal cancer." Biol Trace Elem Res 33: 87-94.
Milner, J. A. (2001a). "A Historical Perspective on Garlic and Cancer." The Journal of Nutrition 131(3): 1027S-1031S.
Milner, J. A. (2001b). "Mechanisms by which garlic and allyl sulfur compounds suppress carcinogen bioactivation. Garlic and carcinogenesis." Adv Exp Med Biol 492: 69-81.
Morales E et al. Food and nutrient intakes and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Jul;61(7):641-9.
Moreira, L. and A. Castells (2010). "Cyclooxygenase as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention." Curr Drug Targets.
Morey, M. C., D. C. Snyder, et al. (2009). "Effects of Home-Based Diet and Exercise on Functional Outcomes Among Older, Overweight Long-term Cancer Survivors." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 301(18): 1883-1891.
Mosolits S et al. Therapeutic vaccination in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. A review of immunological and clinical results. Ann Oncol. 2005 Jun;16(6):847-62. Epub 2005 Apr 13.
Mountjoy KG, Finlay GJ, Holdaway IM. Effects of metformin and glibenclamide on insulin receptors in fibroblasts and tumor cells in vitro. J Endocrinol Invest. 1987 Dec;10(6):553-7.
Muraikami A et al. Multitargeted cancer prevention by quercetin. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):315-25. Epub 2008 May 7.
Murakami A et al. Zerumbone, a Southeast Asian ginger sesquiterpene, markedly suppresses free radical generation, proinflammatory protein production, and cancer cell proliferation accompanied by apoptosis: the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group is a prerequisite. Carcinogenesis. 2002 May;23(5):795-802.
Myzak, M. C. and R. H. Dashwood (2006a). "Histone deacetylases as targets for dietary cancer preventive agents: lessons learned with butyrate, diallyl disulfide, and sulforaphane." Curr Drug Targets 7(4): 443-452.
Myzak, M. C., W. M. Dashwood, et al. (2006b). "Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and suppresses tumorigenesis in Apcmin mice." The FASEB Journal.
Na, H.-K. and S. Oliynyk (2011). "Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1229(1): 176-183.
Nakahara, S., N. Oka, et al. (2005). "On the role of galectin-3 in cancer apoptosis." Apoptosis 10(2): 267-275.
Nakamura Y et al. Zerumbone, a tropical ginger sesquiterpene, activates phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. FEBS Lett. 2004 Aug 13;572(1-3):245-50.
Nangia-Makker, P., V. Hogan, et al. (2002). "Inhibition of Human Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis in Nude Mice by Oral Intake of Modified Citrus Pectin." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(24): 1854-1862.
Nautiyal J et al. Combination of dasatinib and curcumin eliminates chemo-resistant colon cancer cells. J Mol Signal. 2011 Jul 20;6:7.
NCI 2011. National Cancer Institute. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®) Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/genetics/colorectal/HealthProfessional/page1 Accessed 11/17/2011.
Nelson, M. A., A.-C. Goulet, et al. (2005). "Studies into the Anticancer Effects of Selenomethionine against Human Colon Cancer." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1059(1): 26-32.
Ng, K., D. J. Sargent, et al. (2011). "Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741." Journal of Clinical Oncology 29(12): 1599-1606.
Ngo, S. N. T., D. B. Williams, et al. (2007). "Does Garlic Reduce Risk of Colorectal Cancer? A Systematic Review." The Journal of Nutrition 137(10): 2264-2269.
Nguyen, A. V., M. Martinez, et al. (2009). "Results of a phase I pilot clinical trial examining the effect of plant-derived resveratrol and grape powder on Wnt pathway target gene expression in colonic mucosa and colon cancer." Cancer Manag Res 1: 25-37.
Niv Y et al. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of fecal occult blood testing (Hemoccult II) for colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients: a prospective study with total colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Nov;90(11):1974-7.
Nock, N. L., C. L. Thompson, et al. (2008). "Associations Between Obesity and Changes in Adult BMI Over Time and Colon Cancer Risk." Obesity 16(5): 1099-1104.
Ohwada S et al. uvant immunochemotherapy with oral Tegafur/Uracil plus PSK in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: a randomised controlled study. Br J Cancer. 2004 Mar 8;90(5):1003-10.
O'Neil BH, Goldberg RM. Novel chemotherapeutic and targeted agents in metastatic colorectal cancer: the time has arrived. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Dec;12(12):1939-49.
Origuchi T, Migita K, Nakashima T, et al. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human osteoblastic cells by N-acetyl cysteine. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 Nov;136(5):390-4.
Otsuka S, Inagaki M et al. [Radiofrequency ablation therapy combined with intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2003 Oct;30(11):1598-601.
Pan MH et al. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells via ROS production, caspase activation, and GADD 153 expression. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 May;52(5):527-37.
Pantziarka P, Sukhatme V, Bouche G, Meheus L, Sukhatme VP. Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)-itraconazole as an anti-cancer agent. Ecancermedicalscience. 2015;9:521.
Pappa, G., J. Strathmann, et al. (2007). "Quantitative combination effects between sulforaphane and 3,3'-diindolylmethane on proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro." Carcinogenesis 28(7): 1471-1477.
Park, Y., D. Spiegelman, et al. (2010). "Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies." Cancer Causes and Control 21(11): 1745-1757.
Parkin, D. M. (2004). "International variation." Oncogene 23(38): 6329-6340.
Patel BB, Sengupta R, Qazi S, et al. (2008b) “Curcumin enhances the effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in mediating growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by modulating EGFR and IGF-1R.” Int J Cancer 122(2):267-73.
Patel, B. B. and A. P. Majumdar (2009). "Synergistic role of curcumin with current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview." Nutr Cancer 61(6): 842-846.
Patel, B. B., D. Gupta, et al. (2010a). "Curcumin targets FOLFOX-surviving colon cancer cells via inhibition of EGFRs and IGF-1R." Anticancer Res 30(2): 319-325.
Patel, K. R., V. A. Brown, et al. (2010b). "Clinical Pharmacology of Resveratrol and Its Metabolites in Colorectal Cancer Patients." Cancer Research 70(19): 7392-7399.
Patel, R., A. Ingle, et al. (2008a). "Polymeric black tea polyphenols inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 227(1): 136-146.
Patel VD, Thompson WK, Lapin BR, Goldstein JL, Yen EF. Screening Colonoscopy Withdrawal Time Threshold for Adequate Proximal Serrated Polyp Detection Rate. Digestive diseases and sciences. Nov 2018;63(11):3084-3090.
Pawlik TM, Izzo F et al. Combined resection and radiofrequency ablation for advanced hepatic malignancies: results in 172 patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Nov;10(9):1059-69.
Pendyala, S., L. M. Neff, et al. (2011). "Diet-induced weight loss reduces colorectal inflammation: implications for colorectal carcinogenesis." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93(2): 234-242.
Peters, U., N. Chatterjee, et al. (2004). "Calcium intake and colorectal adenoma in a US colorectal cancer early detection program." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(5): 1358-1365.
Peters, U., N. Chatterjee, et al. (2006). "High serum selenium and reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection program." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(2): 315-320.
Platt D et al. Modulation of the lung colonization of B16-F1 melanoma cells by citrus pectin. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992 Mar 18;84(6):438-42.
Ponz de Leon, M. and L. Roncucci (1997). "Chemoprevention of colorectal tumors: role of lactulose and of other agents." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 222: 72-75.
Poullis, A., R. Foster, et al. (2004). "Bowel Inflammation as Measured by Fecal Calprotectin." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 13(2): 279-284.
Pounds R, Leonard S, Dawson C, Kehoe S. Repurposing itraconazole for the treatment of cancer. Oncology letters. Sep 2017;14(3):2587-2597.
PreGen-Plus™ Fact Sheet. Peggy Kochenbach, Kate Jennings. Available at : http://www.noaw.com/PDF/fs_pregen.pdf Accessed 12/6/2011.
Psahoulia FH et al. Quercetin mediates preferential degradation of oncogenic Ras and causes autophagy in Ha-RAS-transformed human colon cells. Carcinogenesis. 2007 May;28(5):1021-31. Epub 2006 Dec 5.
Rao, C. V., Y. Hirose, et al. (2001). "Modulation of experimental colon tumorigenesis by types and amounts of dietary fatty acids." Cancer Res 61(5): 1927-1933.
Ravindran, J., S. Prasad, et al. (2009). "Curcumin and Cancer Cells: How Many Ways Can Curry Kill Tumor Cells Selectively?" The AAPS Journal 11(3): 495-510.
Reddy, B. S., J. M. Patlolla, et al. (2005). "Prevention of colon cancer by low doses of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administered in diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids." Cancer Res 65(17): 8022-8027.
Reid, M. E., A. J. Duffield-Lillico, et al. (2008). "The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment." Nutr Cancer 60(2): 155-163.
Renehan, A. G., M. Tyson, et al. (2008). "Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies." The Lancet 371(9612): 569-578.
Reuter, S., S. Eifes, et al. (2008). "Modulation of anti-apoptotic and survival pathways by curcumin as a strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells." Biochemical Pharmacology 76(11): 1340-1351.
Rex DK et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jan;112(1):17-23.
Rhodes, J. M. and B. J. Campbell (2002). "Inflammation and colorectal cancer: IBD-associated and sporadic cancer compared." Trends in Molecular Medicine 8(1): 10-16.
Rizek R, Paszat LF, Stukel TA, Saskin R, Li C, Rabeneck L. Rates of complete colonic evaluation after incomplete colonoscopy and their associated factors: a population-based study. Medical care. Jan 2009;47(1):48-52.
Roseth, A. G., J. Kristinsson, et al. (1993). "Faecal calprotectin: a novel test for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer?" Scand J Gastroenterol 28(12): 1073-1076.
Rothwell, P. M., M. Wilson, et al. (2010). "Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials." The Lancet 376(9754): 1741-1750.
Rudolf, E. and M. Červinka (2011). "Sulforaphane induces cytotoxicity and lysosome- and mitochondria-dependent cell death in colon cancer cells with deleted p53." Toxicology in Vitro 25(7): 1302-1309.
Rudolf, E., V. Kralova, et al. (2008). "Selenium and colon cancer--from chemoprevention to new treatment modality." Anticancer Agents Med Chem 8(6): 598-602.
Sakai T et al. Immunochemotherapy with PSK and fluoropyrimidines improves long-term prognosis for curatively resected colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008 Aug;23(4):461-7.
Sakamoto, J., S. Morita, et al. (2006). "Efficacy of adjuvant Immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials." Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 55(4): 404-411.
Sanaka, M. R., N. Shah, et al. (2006). "Afternoon colonoscopies have higher failure rates than morning colonoscopies." Am J Gastroenterol 101(12): 2726-2730.
Sandur, S. K., A. Deorukhkar, et al. (2009). "Curcumin Modulates the Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Suppressing Constitutive and Inducible NF-κB Activity." International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 75(2): 534-542.
Sangeetha, N., S. Aranganathan, et al. (2010). "Oral supplementation of silibinin prevents colon carcinogenesis in a long term preclinical model." Eur J Pharmacol 643(1): 93-100.
Santandreu, F. M., A. Valle, et al. (2011). "Resveratrol potentiates the cytotoxic oxidative stress induced by chemotherapy in human colon cancer cells." Cell Physiol Biochem 28(2): 219-228.
Satia, J. A., A. Littman, et al. (2009). "Associations of Herbal and Specialty Supplements with Lung and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 18(5): 1419-1428.
Schernhammer, E. S., F. Laden, et al. (2003). "Night-Shift Work and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95(11): 825-828.
Schneider, Y., B. Duranton, et al. (2001). "Resveratrol inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis and modulates host-defense-related gene expression in an animal model of human familial adenomatous polyposis." Nutr Cancer 39(1): 102-107.
Schoeppner, H. L., A. Raz, et al. (1995). "Expression of an endogenous galactose-binding lectin correlates with neoplastic progression in the colon." Cancer 75(12): 2818-2826.
Sengottuvelan, M. and N. Nalini (2006). "Dietary supplementation of resveratrol suppresses colonic tumour incidence in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats by modulating biotransforming enzymes and aberrant crypt foci development." Br J Nutr 96(1): 145-153.
Shah, H. A., L. F. Paszat, et al. (2007). "Factors associated with incomplete colonoscopy: a population-based study." Gastroenterology 132(7): 2297-2303.
Shimizu, M., Y. Fukutomi, et al. (2008). "Green Tea Extracts for the Prevention of Metachronous Colorectal Adenomas: A Pilot Study." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 17(11): 3020-3025.
Shukla Y et al. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 May;45(5):683-90. Epub 2006 Nov 12.
Simon K. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening. Clinical interventions in aging. 2016;11:967-976.
Singh, B. N., S. Shankar, et al. (2011). "Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications." Biochem Pharmacol.
Singh, R. P., M. Gu, et al. (2008). "Silibinin Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Tumor Cell Proliferation and Angiogenesis." Cancer Research 68(6): 2043-2050.
Sinha, R., D. E. Anderson, et al. (2003). "Cancer risk and diet in India." J Postgrad Med 49(3): 222-228.
Slagsvold, J. E., C. H. Pettersen, et al. (2010). "DHA alters expression of target proteins of cancer therapy in chemotherapy resistant SW620 colon cancer cells." Nutr Cancer 62(5): 611-621.
Smith P. “Michael F. Holick, PhD, MD The Pioneer of Vitamin D Research.” Life Extension Magazine. Sept. 2010.
Spencer, L., C. Mann, et al. (2009). "The effect of omega-3 FAs on tumour angiogenesis and their therapeutic potential." European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 45(12): 2077-2086.
Stone, W. L. and A. M. Papas (1997). "Tocopherols and the Etiology of Colon Cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89(14): 1006-1014.
Subramaniam, D., S. Ramalingam, et al. (2010). "Cancer stem cells: a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment." Mini Rev Med Chem 10(5): 359-371.
Sun, C., J. Yuan, et al. (2006). "Green tea, black tea and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies." Carcinogenesis 27(7): 1310 - 1315.
Suzman DL, Antonarakis ES. High-dose itraconazole as a noncastrating therapy for a patient with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Clinical genitourinary cancer. Apr 2014;12(2):e51-53.
Takahashi, H. K., T. Watanabe, et al. (2006). "Cimetidine Induces Interleukin-18 Production through H2-Agonist Activity in Monocytes." Molecular Pharmacology 70(2): 450-453.
Takenaka, Y., T. Fukumori, et al. (2004). "Galectin-3 and metastasis." Glycoconj J 19(7-9): 543-549.
Tanaka, S., K. Haruma, et al. (2006). "Aged Garlic Extract Has Potential Suppressive Effect on Colorectal Adenomas in Humans." The Journal of Nutrition 136(3): 821S-826S.
Terzić, J., S. Grivennikov, et al. (2010). "Inflammation and Colon Cancer." Gastroenterology 138(6): 2101-2114.e2105.
Tessitore, L., A. Davit, et al. (2000). "Resveratrol depresses the growth of colorectal aberrant crypt foci by affecting bax and p21CIP expression." Carcinogenesis 21(8): 1619-1622.
Thompson C et al. Promising targets and drugs in development for colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol. 2011 Aug;38(4):588-97.
Tong L, Yi L, Liu P, Abeysekera IR, Hai L, Li T, . . . Yang X. Tumour cell dormancy as a contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients who received standard therapy. Oncology reports. Jul 2018;40(1):463-471.
Tonnesen H, Knigge U, Bulow S, et al. Effect of cimetidine on survival after gastric cancer. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):990-2.
Tournigand C, Andre T et al. FOLFIRI followed by FOLFOX6 or the reverse sequence in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized GERCOR study. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jan 15;22(2):229-37.
Touvier, M., D. S. M. Chan, et al. (2011). "Meta-Analyses of Vitamin D Intake, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Colorectal Cancer Risk." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 20(5): 1003-1016.
Tremblay PL et al. Mechanisms by which E-selectin regulates diapedesis of colon cancer cells under flow conditions. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5167-76.
Tsubamoto H, Sonoda T, Yamasaki M, Inoue K. Impact of combination chemotherapy with itraconazole on survival for patients with recurrent or persistent ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Anticancer research. Apr 2014;34(4):2007-2014.
Tsubamoto H, Ueda T, Inoue K, Sakata K, Shibahara H, Sonoda T. Repurposing itraconazole as an anticancer agent. Oncology letters. Aug 2017;14(2):1240-1246.
Turvill J, Aghahoseini A, Sivarajasingham N, et al. Faecal calprotectin in patients with suspected colorectal cancer: a diagnostic accuracy test. Br J Gen Pract. 2016;66(648):e499-e506.
USPSTF. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Colorectal Cancer: Screening. Recommendation Summary. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/colorectal-cancer-screening2. 6/2016. Accessed 10/31/2018.
Van Dijk AE et al. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun;32(6):1023-5. Epub 2009 Mar 26.
Vanamala, J., S. Radhakrishnan, et al. (2011). "Resveratrol suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via targeting the pentose phosphate and the talin-FAK signaling pathways-A proteomic approach." Proteome Science 9(1): 49.
Villa NA, Pannala R, Pasha SF, Leighton JA. Alternatives to Incomplete Colonoscopy. Current gastroenterology reports. Nov 2015;17(11):43.
Volate, S. R., D. M. Davenport, et al. (2005). "Modulation of aberrant crypt foci and apoptosis by dietary herbal supplements (quercetin, curcumin, silymarin, ginseng and rutin)." Carcinogenesis 26(8): 1450-1456.
Walgenbach-Brunagel, G., B. Burger, et al. (2008). "The use of a colon cancer associated nuclear antigen CCSA-2 for the blood based detection of colon cancer." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 104(1): 286-294.
Wang, B. M., C. Y. Zhai, et al. (2009). "[The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the proliferation of HT-29 colonic cancer cell induced by deoxycholic acid]." Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 48(9): 760-763.
Wang, D. and R. N. DuBois (2008). "Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and progression of colorectal cancer." Cancer letters 267(2): 197-203.
Wark PA et al. Diet, lifestyle and risk of K-ras mutation-positive and -negative colorectal adenomas. Int J Cancer. 2006 Jul 15;119(2):398-405.
Wei, M. Y., C. F. Garland, et al. (2008). "Vitamin D and Prevention of Colorectal Adenoma: A Meta-analysis." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 17(11): 2958-2969.
Weingarten, M. A., A. Zalmanovici, et al. (2008). "Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps." Cochrane Database Syst Rev(1): CD003548.
White, E., J. S. Shannon, et al. (1997). "Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 6(10): 769-774.
Whitley, A. C., D. H. Sweet, et al. (2005). "THE DIETARY POLYPHENOL ELLAGIC ACID IS A POTENT INHIBITOR OF hOAT1." Drug Metabolism and Disposition 33(8): 1097-1100.
Winawer, S. J., A. G. Zauber, et al. (1993). "Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Colonoscopic Polypectomy." New England Journal of Medicine 329(27): 1977-1981.
Wolf AMD, Fontham ETH, Church TR, Flowers CR, Guerra CE, LaMonte SJ, . . . Smith RA. Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk adults: 2018 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. Jul 2018;68(4):250-281.
Wolter, F. and J. Stein (2002). "Resveratrol enhances the differentiation induced by butyrate in caco-2 colon cancer cells." J Nutr 132(7): 2082-2086.
Wu, K., W. C. Willett, et al. (2002). "Calcium Intake and Risk of Colon Cancer in Women and Men." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(6): 437-446.
Xue G, Wang X, Yang Y, et al. Colon Cancer-Specific Antigen-2 May Be Used as a Detecting and Prognostic Marker in Colorectal Cancer: A Preliminary Observation. PloS One. 2014;9(4):e94252.
Yadav AS, Pandey PR, Butti R, Radharani NNV, Roy S, Bhalara SR, . . . Kumar D. The Biology and Therapeutic Implications of Tumor Dormancy and Reactivation. Frontiers in oncology. 2018;8:72.
Yadav VR et al. Boswellic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human colorectal cancer in orthotopic mouse model by downregulating inflammatory, proliferative, invasive and angiogenic biomarkers. Int J Cancer. 2011 Jun 23. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26251. [Epub ahead of print]
Yamagishi S, Nakamura K, Inoue H, Kikuchi S, Takeuchi M. Possible participation of advanced glycation end products in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer in diabetic patients. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(6):1208-10.
Yamashita, K., A. Ougolkov, et al. (2007). "Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy with Protein-Bound Polysaccharide K for Colon Cancer in Relation to Oncogenic β-Catenin Activation." Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 50(8): 1169-1181.
Yan GR et al. Global phosphoproteomic effects of natural tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, on signaling pathways. Proteomics. 2010 Mar;10(5):976-86.
Yang, C. S., G. Lu, et al. (2010). "Inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the lung and colon by tocopherols." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1203(1): 29-34.
Yang, C. S., H. Wang, et al. (2011). "Cancer prevention by tea: Evidence from laboratory studies." Pharmacological Research 64(2): 113-122.
Yang, C. S., J. D. Lambert, et al. (2007). "Tea and cancer prevention: Molecular mechanisms and human relevance." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 224(3): 265-273.
Yang, C. S., P. Maliakal, et al. (2002). "INHIBITION OF CARCINOGENESIS BY TEA*." Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 42(1): 25-54.
Yang, S. H., J. K. Lin, et al. (2003). "Anti-angiogenic effect of silymarin on colon cancer LoVo cell line." J Surg Res 113(1): 133-138.
Yoshimatsu, K., K. Ishibashi, et al. (2006). "[Can the survival of patients with recurrent disease after curative resection of colorectal cancer be prolonged by the administration of cimetidine?]." Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 33(12): 1730-1732.
Yoshino K, Enomoto T, Fujita M, Ueda Y, Kimura T, Kobayashi E, . . . Kimura T. Salvage chemotherapy for recurrent or persistent clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a single-institution experience for a series of 20 patients. International journal of clinical oncology. Feb 2013;18(1):148-153.
Yu, Y., S. S. Kanwar, et al. (2009). "Elimination of Colon Cancer Stem-Like Cells by the Combination of Curcumin and FOLFOX." Transl Oncol 2(4): 321-328.
Yuhara, H., C. Steinmaus, et al. (2011). "Is Diabetes Mellitus an Independent Risk Factor for Colon Cancer and Rectal Cancer[quest]." Am J Gastroenterol.
Zakikhani M, Dowling RJ, Sonenberg N, Pollak MN. The effects of adiponectin and metformin on prostate and colon neoplasia involve activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2008 Oct;1(5):369-75.
Zaniboni A, Torri V et al. Neoadjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. An Italian survey. Tumori. 2005 Sep;91(5):383-7.
Zauber AG. The Impact of Screening on Colorectal Cancer Mortality and Incidence ‒ Has It Really Made a Difference? Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60(3):681-691.
Zeng Z, Cohen AM et al. Serosal cytologic study to determine free mesothelial penetration of intraperitoneal colon cancer. Cancer. 1992 Aug 15;70(4):737-40.
Zhang ZJ, Zheng ZJ, Kan H, et al. Reduced risk of colorectal cancer with metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2323-8.
Zick SM et al. Phase II Study of the Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Eicosanoids in Colon Mucosa in People at Normal Risk for Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Nov;4(11):1929-37. Epub 2011 Oct 11.
Zykova, T. A., F. Zhu, et al. (2008). "Resveratrol directly targets COX-2 to inhibit carcinogenesis." Mol Carcinog 47(10): 797-805.