Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Surgery - Preparation and Recovery


Abdeshahi SK, Hashemipour MA, Mesgarzadeh V, Shahidi Payam A, Halaj Monfared A. Effect of hypnosis on induction of local anaesthesia, pain perception, control of haemorrhage and anxiety during extraction of third molars: a case-control study. Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Jun 2013;41(4):310-315.

Abraham E. Nuclear factor-kappaB and its role in sepsis-associated organ failure. The Journal of infectious diseases. Jun 15 2003;187 Suppl 2:S364-369.

Afkhamizadeh M, Aboutorabi R, Ravari H, Fathi Najafi M, Ataei Azimi S, Javadian Langaroodi A, . . . Sahebkar A. Topical propolis improves wound healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized controlled trial. Natural product research. Aug 22 2017:1-4.

Aggarwal K, Goutam M, Singh M, Kharat N, Singh V, Vyas S, Singh HP. Prophylactic Use of Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol in Patients Undergoing Dental Extractions Following Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer. Nigerian journal of surgery: official publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society. Jul-Dec 2017;23(2):130-133.

Aghajanian P, Hall S, Wongworawat MD, Mohan S. The Roles and Mechanisms of Actions of Vitamin C in Bone: New Developments. J Bone Miner Res. Nov 2015;30(11):1945-1955.

Agrawal K, Chauhan N. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics. Indian journal of plastic surgery: official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. May 2012;45(2):244-254.

AHA. American Heart Association. Types of Replacement Heart Valves. 5/2016. Accessed 5/31/2018.

Ahmed OS, Rogers AC, Bolger JC, Mastrosimone A, Robb WB. Meta-Analysis of Enhanced Recovery Protocols in Bariatric Surgery. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery: official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Feb 27 2018.

Aibinder WR, Sanchez-Sotelo J. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Shoulder Surgery. The Orthopedic clinics of North America. Apr 2018;49(2):257-263.

Aiello Bowles EJ, Larson EB, Pong RP, Walker RL, Anderson ML, Yu O, . . . Dublin S. Anesthesia Exposure and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: A Prospective Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. Mar 2016;64(3):602-607.

Aiko S, Yoshizumi Y, Tsuwano S, Shimanouchi M, Sugiura Y, Maehara T. The effects of immediate enteral feeding with a formula containing high levels of omega-3 fatty acids in patients after surgery for esophageal cancer. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. May-Jun 2005;29(3):141-147.

Akaberi M, Sobhani Z, Javadi B, Sahebkar A, Emami SA. Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Dec 2016;84:759-772.

Akbari H, Younessi Heravi M. Designing and constructing blood flow monitoring system to predict pressure ulcers on heel. Journal of biomedical physics & engineering. Jun 2014;4(2):61-68.

Akgul A, Guner B, Cirak M, Celik D, Hergunsel O, Bedirhan S. The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study. The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. Oct 2016;64(7):581-588.

Akhtar A, Macfarlane RJ, Waseem M. Pre-operative assessment and post-operative care in elective shoulder surgery. The open orthopaedics journal. 2013;7:316-322.

Albaugh VL, Pinzon-Guzman C, Barbul A. Arginine-Dual roles as an onconutrient and immunonutrient. Journal of surgical oncology. Mar 2017;115(3):273-280.

Alexander JW, Supp DM. Role of Arginine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Wound Healing and Infection. Advances in wound care. Nov 01 2014;3(11):682-690.

Alias D, Ruiz-Tovar J, Moreno A, Manso B, Diaz G, Duran M, Garcia-Olmo D. Effect of Subcutaneous Sterile Vitamin E Ointment on Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Elective Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery. Surg Infect (Larchmt). Apr 2017;18(3):287-292.

Alleva R, Nasole E, Di Donato F, Borghi B, Neuzil J, Tomasetti M. alpha-Lipoic acid supplementation inhibits oxidative damage, accelerating chronic wound healing in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Jul 29 2005;333(2):404-410.

Ambrosi N, Arrosagaray V, Guerrieri D, Uva PD, Petroni J, Herrera MB, . . . Casadei DH. alpha-Lipoic Acid Protects Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Simultaneous Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation. Transplantation. Apr 2016;100(4):908-915.

Ambrosi N, Guerrieri D, Caro F, Sanchez F, Haeublein G, Casadei D, . . . Chuluyan E. Alpha Lipoic Acid: A Therapeutic Strategy that Tend to Limit the Action of Free Radicals in Transplantation. International journal of molecular sciences. Jan 4 2018;19(1).

American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration: Application to Healthy Patients Undergoing Elective Procedures: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration. Anesthesiology. Mar 2017;126(3):376-393.

Andre-Levigne D, Modarressi A, Pepper MS, Pittet-Cuenod B. Reactive Oxygen Species and NOX Enzymes Are Emerging as Key Players in Cutaneous Wound Repair. International journal of molecular sciences. Oct 15 2017;18(10).

Angele MK, Chaudry IH. Surgical trauma and immunosuppression: pathophysiology and potential immunomodulatory approaches. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie. Aug 2005;390(4):333-341.

Arya S, Kim SI, Duwayri Y, Brewster LP, Veeraswamy R, Salam A, Dodson TF. Frailty increases the risk of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and failure to rescue after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair independent of age and comorbidities. J Vasc Surg. Feb 2015;61(2):324-331.

ASRA. American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Regional anesthesia for surgery. Copyright 2018. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Atala A. Tissue engineering of artificial organs. Journal of endourology. Feb 2000;14(1):49-57.

Atkinson RA, Cullum NA. Interventions for pressure ulcers: a summary of evidence for prevention and treatment. Spinal cord. Mar 2018;56(3):186-198.

Attia EA, Belal DM, El Samahy MH, El Hamamsy MH. A pilot trial using topical regular crystalline insulin vs. aqueous zinc solution for uncomplicated cutaneous wound healing: Impact on quality of life. Wound Repair Regen. Jan-Feb 2014;22(1):52-57.

Attias S, Keinan Boker L, Arnon Z, Ben-Arye E, Bar'am A, Sroka G, . . . Schiff E. Effectiveness of integrating individualized and generic complementary medicine treatments with standard care versus standard care alone for reducing preoperative anxiety. Journal of clinical anesthesia. Mar 2016;29:54-64.

Avidan MS, Evers AS. The Fallacy of Persistent Postoperative Cognitive Decline. Anesthesiology. 2016;124(2):255-258.

Awad S, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in elective surgery. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Feb 2013;32(1):34-44.

Ayik C, Ozden D. The effects of preoperative aromatherapy massage on anxiety and sleep quality of colorectal surgery patients: A randomized controlled study. Complementary therapies in medicine. Feb 2018;36:93-99.

Ayyadhah Alanazi A. Reducing anxiety in preoperative patients: a systematic review. British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing). Apr 10-23 2014;23(7):387-393.

Azadgoli B, Baker RY. Laser applications in surgery. Annals of translational medicine. Dec 2016;4(23):452.

Baker WL, Coleman CI. Meta-analysis of ascorbic acid for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP: official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Dec 15 2016;73(24):2056-2066.

Barker LA, Gout BS, Crowe TC. Hospital malnutrition: prevalence, identification and impact on patients and the healthcare system. International journal of environmental research and public health. Feb 2011;8(2):514-527.

Barrie A, Freeman AH, Lyon L, Garcia C, Conell C, Abbott LH, . . . Powell CB. Classification of Postoperative Complications in Robotic-assisted Compared With Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology. Nov - Dec 2016;23(7):1181-1188.

Barrientos S, Stojadinovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H, Tomic-Canic M. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound repair and regeneration: official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. Sep-Oct 2008;16(5):585-601.

Becker DE, Haas DA. Management of complications during moderate and deep sedation: respiratory and cardiovascular considerations. Anesthesia progress. Summer 2007;54(2):59-68; quiz 69.

Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, . . . Hosoi M. Diabetic ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with pycnogenol. Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. Jul 2006;12(3):318-323.

Bell BR, Bastien PE, Douketis JD. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) setting: an evidence-based review. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. Feb 2015;62(2):194-202.

Benhidjeb T, Kosmas IP, Hachem F, Mynbaev O, Stark M, Benhidjeb I. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery cholecystectomy: results of a prospective comparative single-center study. Gastrointest Endosc. Feb 2018;87(2):509-516.

Berger M, Nadler J, Browndyke J, Posunammy V, Cohen HJ, Whitson HE, Mathew JP. Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: Minding the Gaps in our Knowledge of A Common Postoperative Complication in the Elderly. Anesthesiology clinics. Sep 2015;33(3):517-550.

Berger MM, Baines M, Raffoul W, Benathan M, Chiolero RL, Reeves C, . . . Shenkin A. Trace element supplementation after major burns modulates antioxidant status and clinical course by way of increased tissue trace element concentrations. The American journal of clinical nutrition. May 2007;85(5):1293-1300.

Beverly A, Kaye AD, Ljungqvist O, Urman RD. Essential Elements of Multimodal Analgesia in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Guidelines. Anesthesiology clinics. Jun 2017;35(2):e115-e143.

Bharadwaj S, Trivax B, Tandon P, Alkam B, Hanouneh I, Steiger E. Should perioperative immunonutrition for elective surgery be the current standard of care? Gastroenterology report. May 2016;4(2):87-95.

Bhutani S, Vishwanath G. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing. Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. May 2012;45(2):316-324.

Bihorac A, Ozrazgat-Baslanti T, Ebadi A, Motaei A, Madkour M, Pardalos PM, . . . Momcilovic P. MySurgeryRisk: Development and Validation of a Machine-learning Risk Algorithm for Major Complications and Death After Surgery. Ann Surg. Feb 27 2018.

Binet A, Braik K, Lengelle F, Laffon M, Lardy H, Amar S. Laparoscopic one port appendectomy: Evaluation in pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. Dec 27 2017.

Blazso G, Gabor M, Schonlau F, Rohdewald P. Pycnogenol accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation. Phytother Res. Jul 2004;18(7):579-581.

Boer C, Meesters MI, Milojevic M, Benedetto U, Bolliger D, von Heymann C, . . . Pagano D. 2017 EACTS/EACTA Guidelines on patient blood management for adult cardiac surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. Feb 2018;32(1):88-120.

Bogunovic L, Kim AD, Beamer BS, Nguyen J, Lane JM. Hypovitaminosis D in patients scheduled to undergo orthopaedic surgery: a single-center analysis. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. Oct 6 2010;92(13):2300-2304.

Boniakowski AE, Kimball AS, Jacobs BN, Kunkel SL, Gallagher KA. Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in Normal and Diabetic Wound Healing. J Immunol. Jul 1 2017;199(1):17-24.

Boos CJ, Anderson RA, Lip GY. Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory disorder? European heart journal. Jan 2006;27(2):136-149.

Bormann KH, Weber K, Kloppenburg H, Staude P, Koch A, Meiser P, Gellrich NC. Perioperative Bromelain Therapy after Wisdom Teeth Extraction - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Three-Armed, Cross-Over Dose-Finding Study. Phytotherapy research : PTR. Dec 2016;30(12):2012-2019.

Botney R. Improving patient safety in anesthesia: a success story? International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;71(1 Suppl):S182-186.

Bourke CD, Berkley JA, Prendergast AJ. Immune Dysfunction as a Cause and Consequence of Malnutrition. Trends in immunology. Jun 2016;37(6):386-398.

Boyko TV, Longaker MT, Yang GP. Review of the Current Management of Pressure Ulcers. Advances in wound care. Feb 1 2018;7(2):57-67.

Brocki BC, Andreasen JJ, Langer D, Souza DS, Westerdahl E. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. May 2016;49(5):1483-1491.

Brown GM. Light, melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN. Nov 1994;19(5):345-353.
Bryson DJ, Morris DL, Shivji FS, Rollins KR, Snape S, Ollivere BJ. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery: difficult decisions in an era of evolving antibiotic resistance. The bone & joint journal. Aug 2016;98-b(8):1014-1019.

Calder PC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man. Biochemical Society transactions. Oct 15 2017;45(5):1105-1115.

Calder PC, Adolph M, Deutz NE, Grau T, Innes JK, Klek S, . . . Singer P. Lipids in the intensive care unit: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Feb 2018;37(1):1-18.

Carabini LM, Moreland NC, Vealey RJ, Bebawy JF, Koski TR, Koht A, . . . Avram MJ. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Reduce Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Complex Multilevel Spine Fusion Surgery. World neurosurgery. Feb 2018;110:e572-e579.

Carr AJ, Robertsson O, Graves S, Price AJ, Arden NK, Judge A, Beard DJ. Knee replacement. Lancet. Apr 7 2012;379(9823):1331-1340.
Celik JB, Gezginc K, Ozcelik K, Celik C. The role of immunonutrition in gynecologic oncologic surgery. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2009;30(4):418-421.

Cereda E, Klersy C, Serioli M, Crespi A, D'Andrea F. A nutritional formula enriched with arginine, zinc, and antioxidants for the healing of pressure ulcers: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. Feb 3 2015;162(3):167-174.

Cetin EO, Yesil-Celiktas O, Cavusoglu T, Demirel-Sezer E, Akdemir O, Uyanikgil Y. Incision wound healing activity of pine bark extract containing topical formulations: a study with histopathological and biochemical analyses in albino rats. Die Pharmazie. Jan 2013;68(1):75-80.

Chambers AC, Leaper DJ. Role of oxygen in wound healing: a review of evidence. Journal of wound care. Apr 2011;20(4):160-164.

Chandra S, Romero MJ, Shatanawi A, Alkilany AM, Caldwell RB, Caldwell RW. Oxidative species increase arginase activity in endothelial cells through the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. British journal of pharmacology. Jan 2012;165(2):506-519.

Chang SH, Krupnick AS. Perioperative antibiotics in thoracic surgery. Thoracic surgery clinics. Feb 2012;22(1):35-45, vi.

Childers CP, Siletz AE, Singer ES, Faltermeier C, Hu QL, Ko CY, . . . Maggard-Gibbons M. Surgical Technical Evidence Review for Elective Total Joint Replacement Conducted for the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery. Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation. 2018;9:2151458518754451.

Chow O, Barbul A. Immunonutrition: Role in Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration. Advances in wound care. Jan 1 2014;3(1):46-53.

Correa FR, Schanuel FS, Moura-Nunes N, Monte-Alto-Costa A, Daleprane JB. Brazilian red propolis improves cutaneous wound healing suppressing inflammation-associated transcription factor NFkappaB. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Feb 2017;86:162-171.

Cox J, Rasmussen L. Enteral nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in adult critical care patients. Critical care nurse. Dec 2014;34(6):15-27; quiz 28.

Crawford TC, Magruder JT, Fraser C, Suarez-Pierre A, Alejo D, Bobbitt J, . . . Salenger R. Less Is More: Results of a Statewide Analysis of the Impact of Blood Transfusion on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Outcomes. The Annals of thoracic surgery. Jan 2018;105(1):129-136.

D'Andrilli A, Rendina EA. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and fast-track in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy: preoperative optimisation and care-plans. Journal of visualized surgery. 2018;4:4.

Dasi LP, Simon HA, Sucosky P, Yoganathan AP. Fluid mechanics of artificial heart valves. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. Feb 2009;36(2):225-237.

Davidson F, Snow S, Hayden JA, Chorney J. Psychological interventions in managing postoperative pain in children: a systematic review. Pain. Sep 2016;157(9):1872-1886.

de Almeida EPM, de Almeida JP, Landoni G, Galas F, Fukushima JT, Fominskiy E, . . . Hajjar LA. Early mobilization programme improves functional capacity after major abdominal cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. British journal of anaesthesia. Nov 1 2017;119(5):900-907.

de Frutos F, Gea A, Hernandez-Estefania R, Rabago G. Prophylactic treatment with coenzyme Q10 in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: could an antioxidant reduce complications? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. Feb 2015;20(2):254-259.

de Smet GHJ, Kroese LF, Menon AG, Jeekel J, van Pelt AWJ, Kleinrensink GJ, Lange JF. Oxygen therapies and their effects on wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. Aug 2017;25(4):591-608.

Deger KC, Seker A, Ozer I, Bostanci EB, Dalgic T, Akmansu M, . . . Akoglu M. The effects of Pycnogenol((R)) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation. International journal of surgery (London, England). 2013;11(9):983-988.

Deichmann R, Lavie C, Andrews S. Coenzyme q10 and statin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The Ochsner journal. Spring 2010;10(1):16-21.

Delanian S, Depondt J, Lefaix JL. Major healing of refractory mandible osteoradionecrosis after treatment combining pentoxifylline and tocopherol: a phase II trial. Head & neck. Feb 2005;27(2):114-123.

Demling RH. Nutrition, anabolism, and the wound healing process: an overview. Eplasty. 2009;9:e9.

Deng Y, Pisklak PV, Lee VV, Tolpin DA, Collard CD, Elayda MA, . . . Pan W. Association Between Preoperative Aspirin-dosing Strategy and Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Ann Surg. Dec 2015;262(6):1150-1156.

Di Bella C, Duchi S, O'Connell CD, Blanchard R, Augustine C, Yue Z, . . . Choong PF. In situ handheld three-dimensional bioprinting for cartilage regeneration. Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Mar 2018;12(3):611-621.

Dikmen Y, Onur A. Perioperative hyperoxia: perhaps a malady in disguise. Romanian journal of anaesthesia and intensive care. Apr 2017;24(1):53-56.

Dinic VD, Stojanovic MD, Markovic D, Cvetanovic V, Vukovic AZ, Jankovic RJ. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018;5:14.

DiNicolantonio JJ, Bhutani J, McCarty MF, O'Keefe JH. Coenzyme Q10 for the treatment of heart failure: a review of the literature. Open heart. 2015;2(1):e000326.

Diodato A, Brancadoro M, De Rossi G, Abidi H, Dall'Alba D, Muradore R, . . . Cianchetti M. Soft Robotic Manipulator for Improving Dexterity in Minimally Invasive Surgery. Surg Innov. Feb 2018;25(1):69-76.

Doenst T, Diab M, Sponholz C, Bauer M, Farber G. The Opportunities and Limitations of Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Nov 17 2017;114(46):777-784.

Dogan E, Yanmaz L, Gedikli S, Ersoz U, Okumus Z. The Effect of Pycnogenol on Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats. Ostomy/wound management. Apr 2017;63(4):41-47.

Dokkedal U, Hansen TG, Rasmussen LS, Mengel-From J, Christensen K. Cognitive Functioning after Surgery in Middle-aged and Elderly Danish Twins. Anesthesiology. 2016;124(2):312-321.

Donadon M, Molinari AF, Corazzi F, Rocchi L, Zito P, Cimino M, . . . Torzilli G. Pharmacological Modulation of Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury during Pringle Maneuver in Hepatic Surgery. A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study. World journal of surgery. Sep 2016;40(9):2202-2212.

Dryden M, Cooke J, Salib R, Holding R, Pender SLF, Brooks J. Hot topics in reactive oxygen therapy: Antimicrobial and immunological mechanisms, safety and clinical applications. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance. Mar 2017;8:194-198.

Duggan EW, Klopman MA, Berry AJ, Umpierrez G. The Emory University Perioperative Algorithm for the Management of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes in Non-cardiac Surgery Patients. Current diabetes reports. Mar 2016;16(3):34.

Dunnill C, Patton T, Brennan J, Barrett J, Dryden M, Cooke J, . . . Georgopoulos NT. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and wound healing: the functional role of ROS and emerging ROS-modulating technologies for augmentation of the healing process. International wound journal. Feb 2017;14(1):89-96.

Dunschede F, Erbes K, Kircher A, Westermann S, Seifert J, Schad A, . . . Theodor J. Reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury after liver resection and hepatic inflow occlusion by alpha-lipoic acid in humans. World journal of gastroenterology. Nov 14 2006;12(42):6812-6817.

Duparc-Alegria N, Tiberghien K, Abdoul H, Dahmani S, Alberti C, Thiollier AF. Assessment of a short hypnosis in a paediatric operating room in reducing postoperative pain and anxiety: A randomised study. J Clin Nurs. Jan 2018;27(1-2):86-91.

Dwaich KH, Al-Amran FG, Al-Sheibani BI, Al-Aubaidy HA. Melatonin effects on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: Impact on the outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. International journal of cardiology. Oct 15 2016;221:977-986.

Dziedzic D, Orlowski T. The Role of VATS in Lung Cancer Surgery: Current Status and Prospects for Development. Minimally invasive surgery. 2015;2015:938430.

Eide IA, Asberg A, Svensson M, Ueland T, Mollnes TE, Hartmann A, . . . Jenssen T. Plasma Levels of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids Are Inversely Correlated With Proinflammatory Markers sTNFR1 and IL-6 in Renal Transplant Recipients. Journal of renal nutrition: the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation. May 2017;27(3):161-168.

Elbuluk AM, Kim KY, Chen KK, Anoushiravani AA, Schwarzkopf R, Iorio R. Respiratory Synchronized Versus Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Orthopedic clinics of North America. Apr 2018;49(2):123-133.

Ellinger S. Micronutrients, Arginine, and Glutamine: Does Supplementation Provide an Efficient Tool for Prevention and Treatment of Different Kinds of Wounds? Advances in wound care. Nov 1 2014;3(11):691-707.

Ellis LM, Copeland EM, 3rd, Souba WW. Perioperative nutritional support. The Surgical clinics of North America. Jun 1991;71(3):493-507.

Elsabrout K, Orbacz E, McMahon LA, Apold S. Large-Scale Hospital Mattress Switch-Out Leads to Reduction Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers: Operationalization of a Multidisciplinary Task Force. Worldviews on evidence-based nursing. Mar 8 2018.

Engelen M, Klimberg VS, Allasia A, Deutz NEP. Major surgery diminishes systemic arginine availability and suppresses nitric oxide response to feeding in patients with early stage breast cancer. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Aug 5 2017.

ERAS Society. ERAS Society. ERAS / Patient Info. 2016. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Erdil N, Eroglu T, Akca B, Disli OM, Yetkin O, Colak MC, . . . Battaloglu B. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on pulmonary functions in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery surgery: a double blind placebo controlled study. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2016;20(1):180-187.

Eskicioglu C, Forbes SS, Aarts MA, Okrainec A, McLeod RS. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs for patients having colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of gastrointestinal surgery: official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Dec 2009;13(12):2321-2329.

Esteban-Zubero E, Garcia-Gil FA, Lopez-Pingarron L, Alatorre-Jimenez MA, Inigo-Gil P, Tan DX, . . . Reiter RJ. Potential benefits of melatonin in organ transplantation: a review. The Journal of endocrinology. Jun 2016;229(3):R129-146.

Evans DC, Martindale RG, Kiraly LN, Jones CM. Nutrition optimization prior to surgery. Nutr Clin Pract. Feb 2014;29(1):10-21.

Evered L, Scott DA, Silbert B. Cognitive decline associated with anesthesia and surgery in the elderly: does this contribute to dementia prevalence? Current opinion in psychiatry. May 2017;30(3):220-226.

Fan CJ, Chien HL, Weiss MJ, He J, Wolfgang CL, Cameron JL, . . . Makary MA. Minimally invasive versus open surgery in the Medicare population: a comparison of post-operative and economic outcomes. Surgical endoscopy. Feb 26 2018.

Fan L, Feng Y, Chen GC, Qin LQ, Fu CL, Chen LH. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacological research: the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. May 2017;119:128-136.

Fan Y, Yuan L, Ji M, Yang J, Gao D. The effect of melatonin on early postoperative cognitive decline in elderly patients undergoing hip arthroplasty: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of clinical anesthesia. Jun 2017;39:77-81.

Favaro-Moreira NC, Krausch-Hofmann S, Matthys C, Vereecken C, Vanhauwaert E, Declercq A, . . . Duyck J. Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature Based on Longitudinal Data. Adv Nutr. May 2016;7(3):507-522.

Finnerty CC, Mabvuure NT, Ali A, Kozar RA, Herndon DN. The surgically induced stress response. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Sep 2013;37(5 Suppl):21s-29s.

Francis A, Baynosa R. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury and hyperbaric oxygen pathways: a review of cellular mechanisms. Diving and hyperbaric medicine. Jun 2017;47(2):110-117.

Franco L, Blanck TJ, Dugan K, Kline R, Shanmugam G, Galotti A, . . . Wajda M. Both lavender fleur oil and unscented oil aromatherapy reduce preoperative anxiety in breast surgery patients: a randomized trial. Journal of clinical anesthesia. Sep 2016;33:243-249.

Galindo RJ, Fayfman M, Umpierrez GE. Perioperative Management of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes in Cardiac Surgery Patients. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. Mar 2018;47(1):203-222.

Ganry L, Hersant B, SidAhmed-Mezi M, Dhonneur G, Meningaud JP. Using virtual reality to control preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A pilot study in maxillofacial and plastic surgery. Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. Jan 6 2018.

Gennari C. Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public health nutrition. Apr 2001;4(2b):547-559.

Gharaee-Kermani M, Phan SH. Role of cytokines and cytokine therapy in wound healing and fibrotic diseases. Current pharmaceutical design. Jul 2001;7(11):1083-1103.

Ghensi P, Cucchi A, Creminelli L, Tomasi C, Zavan B, Maiorana C. Effect of Oral Administration of Bromelain on Postoperative Discomfort After Third Molar Surgery. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. Mar 2017;28(2):e191-e197.

Giancarelli A, Birrer KL, Alban RF, Hobbs BP, Liu-DeRyke X. Hypocalcemia in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. The Journal of surgical research. May 1 2016;202(1):182-187.

Gillis C, Loiselle SE, Fiore JF, Jr., Awasthi R, Wykes L, Liberman AS, . . . Carli F. Prehabilitation with Whey Protein Supplementation on Perioperative Functional Exercise Capacity in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection for Cancer: A Pilot Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. May 2016;116(5):802-812.

Gogenur I, Kucukakin B, Panduro Jensen L, Reiter RJ, Rosenberg J. Melatonin reduces cardiac morbidity and markers of myocardial ischemia after elective abdominal aortic aneurism repair: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Journal of pineal research. Aug 2014;57(1):10-15.

Gomes MB, Negrato CA. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome. 2014;6(1):80.

Gottrup F, Dissemond J, Baines C, Frykberg R, Jensen PO, Kot J, . . . Longobardi P. Use of Oxygen Therapies in Wound Healing. Journal of wound care. May 1 2017;26(Sup5):S1-s43.

Grant MC, Sommer PM, He C, Li S, Page AJ, Stone AB, . . . Wu CL. Preserved Analgesia With Reduction in Opioids Through the Use of an Acute Pain Protocol in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Open Hepatectomy. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Jul/Aug 2017;42(4):451-457.

Grether-Beck S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Krutmann J. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol(R)) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2016;29(1):13-17.

Grey JE, Harding KG, Enoch S. Pressure ulcers. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Feb 25 2006;332(7539):472-475.

Gruen D. Wound healing and nutrition: going beyond dressings with a balanced care plan. The journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists. Sep 2010;2(3):46-49.

Guo S, Dipietro LA. Factors affecting wound healing. Journal of dental research. Mar 2010;89(3):219-229.

Gupta R, Senagore A. Immunonutrition within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS): an unresolved matter. Perioperative medicine (London, England). 2017;6:24.

Hadjibalassi M, Lambrinou E, Papastavrou E, Papathanassoglou E. The effect of guided imagery on physiological and psychological outcomes of adult ICU patients: A systematic literature review and methodological implications. Aust Crit Care. Mar 2018;31(2):73-86.

Hale LP, Chichlowski M, Trinh CT, Greer PK. Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. Dec 2010;16(12):2012-2021.

Hall JC, Heel K, McCauley R. Glutamine. The British journal of surgery. Mar 1996;83(3):305-312.

Halpin LS, Speir AM, CapoBianco P, Barnett SD. Guided imagery in cardiac surgery. Outcomes management. Jul-Sep 2002;6(3):132-137.

Hammad A, Kaido T, Aliyev V, Mandato C, Uemoto S. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation. Nutrients. Oct 16 2017;9(10).

Hanania M, Kitain E. Melatonin for treatment and prevention of postoperative delirium. Anesthesia and analgesia. Feb 2002;94(2):338-339, table of contents.

Hartmann RM, Licks F, Schemitt EG, Colares JR, do Couto Soares M, Zabot GP, . . . Marroni NP. Protective effect of glutamine on the main and adjacent organs damaged by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Protoplasma. Nov 2017;254(6):2155-2168.

Hassani S, Alipour A, Darvishi Khezri H, Firouzian A, Emami Zeydi A, Gholipour Baradari A, . . . Ebrahim Zadeh P. Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology. Mar 2015;232(5):843-850.

Heller AR, Rossel T, Gottschlich B, Tiebel O, Menschikowski M, Litz RJ, . . . Koch T. Omega-3 fatty acids improve liver and pancreas function in postoperative cancer patients. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. Sep 10 2004;111(4):611-616.

Henshaw FR, Bolton T, Nube V, Hood A, Veldhoen D, Pfrunder L, . . . Twigg SM. Topical application of the bee hive protectant propolis is well tolerated and improves human diabetic foot ulcer healing in a prospective feasibility study. Journal of diabetes and its complications. Nov-Dec 2014;28(6):850-857.

Hermann R, Mungo J, Cnota PJ, Ziegler D. Enantiomer-selective pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and sex effects of various alpha-lipoic acid dosage forms. Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications. 2014;6:195-204.

Hernandez-Palazon J, Fuentes-Garcia D, Falcon-Arana L, Roca-Calvo MJ, Burguillos-Lopez S, Domenech-Asensi P, Jara-Rubio R. Assessment of Preoperative Anxiety in Cardiac Surgery Patients Lacking a History of Anxiety: Contributing Factors and Postoperative Morbidity. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. Feb 2018;32(1):236-244.

Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its' Effects on Human Health. Foods. Oct 22 2017;6(10).

Hobson R. Vitamin E and wound healing: an evidence-based review. International wound journal. Jun 2016;13(3):331-335.

Hodges RE, Minich DM. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2015;2015:760689.

Holecek M. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation and skeletal muscle in healthy and muscle-wasting conditions. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle. Aug 2017;8(4):529-541.

Holubar SD, Hedrick T, Gupta R, Kellum J, Hamilton M, Gan TJ, . . . Miller TE. American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) joint consensus statement on prevention of postoperative infection within an enhanced recovery pathway for elective colorectal surgery. Perioperative medicine (London, England). 2017;6:4.

Hu X, Yuan L, Wang H, Li C, Cai J, Hu Y, Ma C. Efficacy and safety of vitamin C for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials. International journal of surgery (London, England). Jan 2017;37:58-64.

Huang KH, Carter SC, Shih YC, Hu JC. Robotic and standard open radical prostatectomy: oncological and quality-of-life outcomes. Journal of comparative effectiveness research. May 2013;2(3):293-299.

Ibrahim N, Khamis MF, Mod Yunoh MF, Abdullah S, Mohamed N, Shuid AN. Targeted delivery of lovastatin and tocotrienol to fracture site promotes fracture healing in osteoporosis model: micro-computed tomography and biomechanical evaluation. PloS one. 2014;9(12):e115595.

Ilic D, Evans SM, Allan CA, Jung JH, Murphy D, Frydenberg M. Laparoscopic and robotic-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy for the treatment of localised prostate cancer. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Sep 12 2017;9:Cd009625.

Inoue T, Ku K, Kaneda T, Zang Z, Otaki M, Oku H. Cardioprotective effects of lowering oxygen tension after aortic unclamping on cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation journal: official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. Aug 2002;66(8):718-722.

Ip HY, Abrishami A, Peng PW, Wong J, Chung F. Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology. Sep 2009;111(3):657-677.

Isaac-Lowry OJ, Okamoto S, Pedram SA, Woo R, Berkelman P. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation. The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery: MRCAS. Dec 2017;13(4).

Ivry M, Goitein D, Welly W, Berkenstadt H. Melatonin premedication improves quality of recovery following bariatric surgery - a double blind placebo controlled prospective study. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Mar 2017;13(3):502-506.

Iyyam Pillai S, Palsamy P, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M. Wound healing properties of Indian propolis studied on excision wound-induced rats. Pharmaceutical biology. Nov 2010;48(11):1198-1206.

Jacob BP, Gagner M. Robotics and general surgery. The Surgical clinics of North America. Dec 2003;83(6):1405-1419.

Jakutis G, Norkiene I, Ringaitiene D, Jovaisa T. Severity of hyperoxia as a risk factor in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. Acta medica Lituanica. 2017;24(3):153-158.

Jankowski CJ. Preparing the Patient for Enhanced Recovery After Surgery. International anesthesiology clinics. Fall 2017;55(4):12-20.

Jenkinson MD, Barone DG, Bryant A, Vale L, Bulbeck H, Lawrie TA, . . . Watts C. Intraoperative imaging technology to maximise extent of resection for glioma. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Jan 22 2018;1:Cd012788.

Jiang J, Dong Y, Huang W, Bao M. General anesthesia exposure and risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Oncotarget. July 2017;8(35):59628-59637.

Jiang X-M, Hu J-H, Wang L-L, Ma C, Wang X, Liu X-L. Effects of ulinastatin on global ischemia via brain pro-inflammation signal. Translational Neuroscience. 2016;7(1):158-163.

Jordan I, Balaguer M, Esteban ME, Cambra FJ, Felipe A, Hernandez L, . . . Esteban E. Glutamine effects on heat shock protein 70 and interleukines 6 and 10: Randomized trial of glutamine supplementation versus standard parenteral nutrition in critically ill children. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Feb 2016;35(1):34-40.

Kaplan B, Gonul B, Dincer S, Dincer Kaya FN, Babul A. Relationships between tensile strength, ascorbic acid, hydroxyproline, and zinc levels of rabbit full-thickness incision wound healing. Surgery today. 2004;34(9):747-751.

Karahan A, AAbbasoglu AA, Isik SA, Cevik B, Saltan C, Elbas NO, Yalili A. Factors Affecting Wound Healing in Individuals With Pressure Ulcers: A Retrospective Study. Ostomy/wound management. Feb 2018;64(2):32-39.

Karkela J, Vakkuri O, Kaukinen S, Huang WQ, Pasanen M. The influence of anaesthesia and surgery on the circadian rhythm of melatonin. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. Jan 2002;46(1):30-36.

Keith M, Errett L. Myocardial metabolism and improved outcomes after high risk heart surgery. Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. Jun 2005;9(2):167-171.

Kendall F, Abreu P, Pinho P, Oliveira J, Bastos P. The role of physiotherapy in patients undergoing pulmonary surgery for lung cancer. A literature review. Revista portuguesa de pneumologia. Nov - Dec 2017;23(6):343-351.

Kendrick C, Sliwinski J, Yu Y, Johnson A, Fisher W, Kekecs Z, Elkins G. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review. The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis. 2016;64(1):75-115.

Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, Christian LM. Omega-3 fatty acids and stress-induced immune dysregulation: implications for wound healing. Military medicine. Nov 2014;179(11 Suppl):129-133.

Kim HJ, Choi GS, Park JS, Park SY, Yang CS, Lee HJ. The impact of robotic surgery on quality of life, urinary and sexual function following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: a propensity score-matched analysis with laparoscopic surgery. Colorectal disease: the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Feb 20 2018.

Kogan S, Sood A, Garnick MS. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications. Wounds: a compendium of clinical research and practice. Apr 2017;29(4):102-106.

Komatsu S, Yokoyama Y, Nagino M. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation in digestive surgery: the impact of probiotics. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie. May 2017;402(3):401-416.

Kratzing C. Pre-operative nutrition and carbohydrate loading. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Aug 2011;70(3):311-315.

Krell ES, Ippolito JA, Montemurro NJ, Lim PH, Vincent RA, Hreha J, . . . Lin SS. Local Zinc Chloride Release From a Calcium Sulfate Carrier Enhances Fracture Healing. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. Mar 2017;31(3):168-174.

Kruger EA, Pires M, Ngann Y, Sterling M, Rubayi S. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: current concepts and future trends. The journal of spinal cord medicine. Nov 2013;36(6):572-585.

Kukimoto Y, Ooe N, Ideguchi N. The Effects of Massage Therapy on Pain and Anxiety after Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pain Manag Nurs. Dec 2017;18(6):378-390.

Langer NB, Argenziano M. Minimally Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery: Incisions and Approaches. Methodist DeBakey cardiovascular journal. Jan-Mar 2016;12(1):4-9.

Langlois PL, Hardy G, Manzanares W. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiac surgery patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Jun 2017;36(3):737-746.

Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. Jan-Feb 2007;15(1):2-16.

Lassen K, Soop M, Nygren J, Cox PB, Hendry PO, Spies C, . . . Dejong CH. Consensus review of optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Group recommendations. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960). Oct 2009;144(10):961-969.

Lee CH, Liu JT, Lin SC, Hsu TY, Lin CY, Lin LY. Effects of Educational Intervention on State Anxiety and Pain in People Undergoing Spinal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pain Manag Nurs. Nov 15 2017.

Lee J, Chin JH, Kim JI, Lee EH, Choi IC. Association between red blood cell transfusion and long-term mortality in patients with cancer of the esophagus after esophagectomy. Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus / I.S.D.E. Feb 1 2018;31(2).

Lei L, Liu Y. Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in patients with cardiac failure: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. BMC cardiovascular disorders. Jul 24 2017;17(1):196.

Li F, Huang X, Wang K, Luo B, Zhang F, Chen Z, . . . Shen H. Preparation and Assessment of an Individualized Navigation Template for Lower Cervical Anterior Transpedicular Screw Insertion Using a Three-Dimensional Printing Technique. Spine. Mar 15 2018;43(6):E348-e356.

Li Q, Dai B, Xu J, Yao Y, Song K, Zhang H, . . . Jiang Q. Can patients with femoral neck fracture benefit from preoperative thromboprophylaxis?: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Medicine. Jul 2017;96(29):e7604.

Lin PH, Sermersheim M, Li H, Lee PHU, Steinberg SM, Ma J. Zinc in Wound Healing Modulation. Nutrients. Dec 24 2017;10(1).

Lin SY, Huang HA, Lin SC, Huang YT, Wang KY, Shi HY. The effect of an anaesthetic patient information video on perioperative anxiety: A randomised study. European journal of anaesthesiology. Feb 2016;33(2):134-139.

Liu D, Yu Z, Yin J, Chen Y, Zhang H, Xin F, . . . Wan B. Effect of ulinastatin combined with thymosin alpha1 on sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Chinese and Indian patients. Journal of critical care. Jun 2017;39:259-266.

Liu HT, Cheng SB, Huang YC, Huang YT, Lin PT. Coenzyme Q10 and Oxidative Stress: Inflammation Status in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Surgery. Nutrients. Jan 04 2017;9(1).

Liu HT, Huang YC, Cheng SB, Huang YT, Lin PT. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on antioxidant capacity and inflammation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. Oct 6 2016;15(1):85.

Liu P, Shen WQ, Chen HL. Efficacy of arginine-enriched enteral formulas for the healing of pressure ulcers: a systematic review. Journal of wound care. Jun 2 2017;26(6):319-323.

Liu PC, Yan YK, Ma YJ, Wang XW, Geng J, Wang MC, . . . Zhang YC. Probiotics Reduce Postoperative Infections in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Gastroenterology research and practice. 2017;2017:6029075.

Liu S, Li Z, Liu Z, Hu Z, Zheng G. Blood transfusion and risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Medicine. Mar 2018;97(10):e9700.

Livesay JJ, Cooley DA. Laser coronary endarterectomy: proposed treatment for diffuse coronary atherosclerosis. Texas Heart Institute journal. Sep 1984;11(3):276-279.

Ljungqvist O, Scott M, Fearon KC. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: A Review. JAMA surgery. Mar 1 2017;152(3):292-298.

Lorenz KJ, Schallert R, Daniel V. Immunonutrition - the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery. GMS Interdisciplinary plastic and reconstructive surgery DGPW. 2015;4:Doc15.

Lunardi AC, Miranda CS, Silva KM, Cecconello I, Carvalho CR. Weakness of expiratory muscles and pulmonary complications in malnourished patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). Jan 2012;17(1):108-113.

Lussi C, Frotzler A, Jenny A, Schaefer DJ, Kressig RW, Scheel-Sailer A. Nutritional blood parameters and nutritional risk screening in patients with spinal cord injury and deep pressure ulcer-a retrospective chart analysis. Spinal cord. Feb 2018;56(2):168-175.

Lv ZT, Huang JM, Zhang JM, Zhang JM, Guo JF, Chen AM. Effect of Ulinastatin in the Treatment of Postperative Cognitive Dysfunction: Review of Current Literature. BioMed research international. 2016;2016:2571080.

Ma CJ, Wu JM, Tsai HL, Huang CW, Lu CY, Sun LC, . . . Wang JY. Prospective double-blind randomized study on the efficacy and safety of an n-3 fatty acid enriched intravenous fat emulsion in postsurgical gastric and colorectal cancer patients. Nutr J. Jan 21 2015;14:9.

Ma X, Ma C, Yun Y, Zhang Q, Zheng X. Safety and efficacy outcomes of preoperative aspirin in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. Jan 2014;19(1):97-113.

Ma YJ, Liu L, Xiao J, Cao BW. Perioperative omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgical Patients: A Systematic Evaluation. Nutrition and cancer. May-Jun 2016;68(4):568-576.

Mabey T, Singhatanadgige W, Yingsakmongkol W, Limthongkul W, Honsawek S. Vitamin D and spine surgery. World journal of orthopedics. Nov 18 2016;7(11):726-730.

Macchi MM, Bruce JN. Human pineal physiology and functional significance of melatonin. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. Sep-Dec 2004;25(3-4):177-195.

Maheshwari RK, Singh AK, Gaddipati J, Srimal RC. Multiple biological activities of curcumin: a short review. Life sciences. Mar 27 2006;78(18):2081-2087.

Mainini C, Rebelo PF, Bardelli R, Kopliku B, Tenconi S, Costi S, . . . Fugazzaro S. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence? SAGE open medicine. 2016;4:2050312116673855.

Majid OW, Al-Mashhadani BA. Perioperative bromelain reduces pain and swelling and improves quality of life measures after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Jun 2014;72(6):1043-1048.

Makhija N, Sendasgupta C, Kiran U, Lakshmy R, Hote MP, Choudhary SK, . . . Abraham R. The role of oral coenzyme Q10 in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. Dec 2008;22(6):832-839.

Malafarina V, Uriz-Otano F, Malafarina C, Martinez JA, Zulet MA. Effectiveness of nutritional supplementation on sarcopenia and recovery in hip fracture patients. A multi-centre randomized trial. Maturitas. Jul 2017;101:42-50.

Maniar RN, Patil AM, Maniar AR, Gangaraju B, Singh J. Effect of Preoperative Vitamin D Levels on Functional Performance after Total Knee Arthroplasty. Clinics in orthopedic surgery. Jun 2016;8(2):153-156.

Marik PE, Khangoora V, Rivera R, Hooper MH, Catravas J. Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C, and Thiamine for the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Retrospective Before-After Study. Chest. Jun 2017;151(6):1229-1238.

Marshall GD, Jr. The adverse effects of psychological stress on immunoregulatory balance: applications to human inflammatory diseases. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America. Feb 2011;31(1):133-140.

Martin DS, Grocott MP. Oxygen therapy and anaesthesia: too much of a good thing? Anaesthesia. May 2015;70(5):522-527.

Mayo Clinic. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT). 2018a. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Mayo Clinic. Minimally invasive surgery. 2017. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Mayo Clinic. Robotic surgery 2018b. Accessed 5/30/2018.

McGilvray K, Easley J, Seim HB, Regan D, Berven SH, Hsu WK, . . . Puttlitz CM. Bony ingrowth potential of 3D printed porous titanium alloy: a direct comparison of interbody cage materials in an in vivo ovine lumbar fusion model. The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. Feb 26 2018.

Melloul E, Hubner M, Scott M, Snowden C, Prentis J, Dejong CH, . . . Demartines N. Guidelines for Perioperative Care for Liver Surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society Recommendations. World journal of surgery. Oct 2016;40(10):2425-2440.

Merry AF, Cooper JB, Soyannwo O, Wilson IH, Eichhorn JH. International Standards for a Safe Practice of Anesthesia 2010. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. Nov 2010;57(11):1027-1034.

Michalek P, Miller DM. Airway management evolution - in a search for an ideal extraglottic airway device. Prague medical report. 2014;115(3-4):87-103.

Millett CR, Gooding LF. Comparing Active and Passive Distraction-Based Music Therapy Interventions on Preoperative Anxiety in Pediatric Patients and Their Caregivers. Journal of music therapy. Jan 13 2018;54(4):460-478.

Moffatt-Bruce SD, Hilligoss B, Gonsenhauser I. ERAS: Safety checklists, antibiotics, and VTE prophylaxis. Journal of surgical oncology. Oct 2017;116(5):601-607.

Molazem Z, Mohseni F, Younesi M, Keshavarzi S. Aloe vera gel and cesarean wound healing; a randomized controlled clinical trial. Global journal of health science. Aug 31 2014;7(1):203-209.

Moores J. Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing. Dec 2013;Suppl:S6, s8-11.

Moreno-Eutimio MA, Espinosa-Monroy L, Orozco-Amaro T, Torres-Ramos Y, Montoya-Estrada A, Jose Hicks J, . . . Cueto-Garcia J. Enhanced healing and anti-inflammatory effects of a carbohydrate polymer with zinc oxide in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers: preliminary results. Archives of medical science: AMS. Mar 2018;14(2):336-344.

Mortezaee K, Khanlarkhani N. Melatonin application in targeting oxidative-induced liver injuries: A review. J Cell Physiol. May 2018;233(5):4015-4032.

Mosquera C, Spaniolas K, Fitzgerald TL. Impact of frailty on surgical outcomes: The right patient for the right procedure. Surgery. Aug 2016;160(2):272-280.

Muhammad ZA, Ahmad T. Therapeutic uses of pineapple-extracted bromelain in surgical care - A review. J Pak Med Assoc. Jan 2017;67(1):121-125.

Musallam KM, Rosendaal FR, Zaatari G, Soweid A, Hoballah JJ, Sfeir PM, . . . Jamali FR. Smoking and the risk of mortality and vascular and respiratory events in patients undergoing major surgery. JAMA surgery. Aug 2013;148(8):755-762.

Mutalik S. How to make local anesthesia less painful. Journal of cutaneous and aesthetic surgery. Jan 2008;1(1):37-38.

Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat C. Operative laparoscopy (minimally invasive surgery): state of the art. Journal of gynecologic surgery. Fall 1992;8(3):111-141.

Nieves C, Jr., Langkamp-Henken B. Arginine and immunity: a unique perspective. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Dec 2002;56(10):471-482.

Nimmo SM, Foo ITH, Paterson HM. Enhanced recovery after surgery: Pain management. Journal of surgical oncology. Oct 2017;116(5):583-591.

Nishizaki K, Ikegami H, Tanaka Y, Imai R, Matsumura H. Effects of supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate, L-arginine, and L-glutamine on postoperative recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;24(3):412-420.

Norred CL. Minimizing preoperative anxiety with alternative caring-healing therapies. AORN journal. Nov 2000;72(5):838-840, 842-833.

O'Connor S, Murphy S. Chronic venous leg ulcers: is topical zinc the answer? A review of the literature. Advances in skin & wound care. Jan 2014;27(1):35-44; quiz 45-36.

Ochoa JB, Bernard AC, Mistry SK, Morris SM, Jr., Figert PL, Maley ME, . . . Kearney PA. Trauma increases extrahepatic arginase activity. Surgery. Apr 2000;127(4):419-426.

Ocon Breton MJ, Luengo Perez LM, Virizuela JA, Alvarez Hernandez J, Jimenez Fonseca P, Cervera Peris M, . . . Camblor Alvarez M. Nutritional support and parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: An expert consensus report. Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion. Dec 29 2017.

Olveira G, Olveira C, Dona E, Palenque FJ, Porras N, Dorado A, . . . Martin-Valero R. Oral supplement enriched in HMB combined with pulmonary rehabilitation improves body composition and health related quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis (Prospective, Randomised Study). Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Oct 2016;35(5):1015-1022.

Onk D, Ozcelik F, Onk OA, Gunay M, Akarsu Ayazoglu T, Unver E. Assessment of Renal and Hepatic Tissue-Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine via Ammonia Metabolism: A Prospective Randomized Study. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. Mar 15 2018;24:1540-1546.

Onyekwelu O, Seaward J, Beale V. Should We Give Routine Postoperative Intravenous Fluids After Cleft Surgery? The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal: official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. Mar 2016;53(2):e18-22.

Opferman J, Leonard S, Decker R, Uebele N, Bayne C, Joshi A, Krieger A. Semiautonomous Electrosurgery for Tumor Resection Using a Multi-Degree of Freedom Electrosurgical Tool and Visual Servoing. 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems; September 24–28, 2017, 2017; Vancouver, BC.

Oryan A, Alemzadeh E, Moshiri A. Potential role of propolis in wound healing: Biological properties and therapeutic activities. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Feb 2018;98:469-483.

Osaki T, Saito H, Fukumoto Y, Kono Y, Murakami Y, Shishido Y, . . . Fujiwara Y. Risk and incidence of perioperative deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. Surgery today. Dec 12 2017.

Palma-Milla S, Lopez-Plaza B, Santamaria B, de Arriba-Sanchez A, Bermejo LM, Gomez-Candela C. New, Immunomodulatory, Oral Nutrition Formula for Use Prior to Surgery in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: An Exploratory Study. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Feb 2018;42(2):371-379.

Panahi Y, Alishiri GH, Parvin S, Sahebkar A. Mitigation of Systemic Oxidative Stress by Curcuminoids in Osteoarthritis: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(2):209-220.

Panahi Y, Hosseini MS, Khalili N, Naimi E, Majeed M, Sahebkar A. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Dec 2015;34(6):1101-1108.

Panahi Y, Khalili N, Sahebi E, Namazi S, Karimian MS, Majeed M, Sahebkar A. Antioxidant effects of curcuminoids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Inflammopharmacol. Feb 2017;25(1):25-31.

Paone G, Likosky DS, Brewer R, Theurer PF, Bell GF, Cogan CM, Prager RL. Transfusion of 1 and 2 units of red blood cells is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The Annals of thoracic surgery. Jan 2014;97(1):87-93; discussion 93-84.

Park MH, Hong JT. Roles of NF-kappaB in Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases and Their Therapeutic Approaches. Cells. Mar 29 2016;5(2).

Pavan R, Jain S, Shraddha, Kumar A. Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: a review. Biotechnology research international. 2012;2012:976203.

Pechan I, Olejarova I, Danova K, Fischer V, Minarova H, Dobisova A, . . . Gabauer I. Antioxidant status of patients after on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Bratislavske lekarske listy. 2004;105(2):45-50.

Pereira RF, Bartolo PJ. Traditional Therapies for Skin Wound Healing. Advances in wound care. May 01 2016;5(5):208-229.

Peters BS, Armijo PR, Krause C, Choudhury SA, Oleynikov D. Review of emerging surgical robotic technology. Surgical endoscopy. Apr 2018;32(4):1636-1655.

Pimenta GP, de Aguilar-Nascimento JE. Prolonged preoperative fasting in elective surgical patients: why should we reduce it? Nutr Clin Pract. Feb 2014;29(1):22-28.

Poh ZX, Goh KP. A current update on the use of alpha lipoic acid in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets. Dec 2009;9(4):392-398.

Polymeropoulos E, Bagos P, Papadimitriou M, Rizos I, Patsouris E, Tauoumpoulis I. Vitamin C for the Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis. Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin. Jun 2016;6(2):243-250.

Powers J. Changing Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting. Critical care nurse. Feb 2017;37(1):76-77.

Probst P, Ohmann S, Klaiber U, Huttner FJ, Billeter AT, Ulrich A, . . . Diener MK. Meta-analysis of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery. The British journal of surgery. Nov 2017;104(12):1594-1608.

Raffetto JD, Mannello F. Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease. Int Angiol. Jun 2014;33(3):212-221.

Ramachandran A, Jaeschke H. Acetaminophen Toxicity: Novel Insights Into Mechanisms and Future Perspectives. Gene expression. Mar 21 2018;18(1):19-30.

Ramsay G, Baggaley A, Vaughan Shaw PG, Soltanmohammadi E, Ventham N, Guat Shi N, . . . Kumar M. Variability in the prescribing of intravenous fluids: A cross sectional multicentre analysis of clinical practice. International journal of surgery (London, England). Mar 2018;51:199-204.

Robinson SM, Saif R, Sen G, French JJ, Jaques BC, Charnley RM, . . . White SA. N-acetylcysteine administration does not improve patient outcome after liver resection. HPB: the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. Jun 2013;15(6):457-462.

Rodrigo C. The effects of cigarette smoking on anesthesia. Anesthesia progress. Winter 2000;47(4):143-150.

Rodriguez WJ, Gromelski J. Vitamin d status and spine surgery outcomes. ISRN orthopedics. 2013;2013:471695.

Ross JW, Preston MR. Update on laparoscopic, robotic, and minimally invasive vaginal surgery for pelvic floor repair. Minerva ginecologica. Jun 2009;61(3):173-186.

Rostan EF, DeBuys HV, Madey DL, Pinnell SR. Evidence supporting zinc as an important antioxidant for skin. Int J Dermatol. Sep 2002;41(9):606-611.

Rundshagen I. Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Feb 2014;111(8):119-125.

Russell L. The importance of patients' nutritional status in wound healing. British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing). Mar 2001;10(6 Suppl):S42, s44-49.

Sadeghpour A, Alizadehasl A, Kyavar M, Sadeghi T, Moludi J, Gholizadeh F, . . . Ghadrdoost B. Impact of vitamin C supplementation on post-cardiac surgery ICU and hospital length of stay. Anesthesiology and pain medicine. Feb 2015;5(1):e25337.

Safaei N, Babaei H, Azarfarin R, Jodati AR, Yaghoubi A, Sheikhalizadeh MA. Comparative effect of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) and ascorbic acid in oxidative stress induced by on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. Jan-Mar 2017;20(1):45-51.

Sahbaz A, Aynioglu O, Isik H, Gun BD, Cengil O, Erol O. Pycnogenol prevents peritoneal adhesions. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. Dec 2015;292(6):1279-1284.

Saini R. Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences. Jul 2011;3(3):466-467.

Salem JF, Gummadi S, Marks JH. Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches to Colon Cancer. Surgical oncology clinics of North America. Apr 2018;27(2):303-318.

Sandrucci S, Beets G, Braga M, Dejong K, Demartines N. Perioperative nutrition and enhanced recovery after surgery in gastrointestinal cancer patients. A position paper by the ESSO task force in collaboration with the ERAS society (ERAS coalition). European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. Jan 12 2018.

Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Getting a Knack for NAC: N-Acetyl-Cysteine. Innovations in clinical neuroscience. Jan 2011;8(1):10-14.

Sarin A, Chen LL, Wick EC. Enhanced recovery after surgery-Preoperative fasting and glucose loading-A review. Journal of surgical oncology. Oct 2017;116(5):578-582.

Scarpa M, Kotsafti A, Fassan M, Scarpa M, Cavallin F, Nardi T, . . . Castoro C. Immunonutrition before esophagectomy: Impact on immune surveillance mechanisms. Tumour biology: the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. Oct 2017;39(10):1010428317728683.

Schenning KJ, Murchison CF, Mattek NC, Silbert LC, Kaye JA, Quinn JF. Surgery is associated with ventricular enlargement as well as cognitive and functional decline. Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. May 2016;12(5):590-597.

Schindler R, Berndt S, Schroeder P, Oster O, Rave G, Sievers HH. Plasma vitamin E and A changes during cardiopulmonary bypass and in the postoperative course. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie. Jan 2003;387(9-10):372-378.

Schmitt B, Vicenzi M, Garrel C, Denis FM. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study. Redox biology. Dec 2015;6:198-205.

Schnittker R, Marshall SD. Safe anaesthetic care: further improvements require a focus on resilience. British journal of anaesthesia. Nov 2015;115(5):643-645.

Scislo L, Pach R, Nowak A, Walewska E, Gadek M, Brandt P, . . . Kulig J. The Impact of Postoperative Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Complications and Survival in Gastric Cancer Patients - Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrition and cancer. Mar 13 2018:1-7.

Sederino MG, Casamassima G, Laforgia R, Balducci G, Carbotta G, Tromba A. Intermittent pneumatic compression in laparoscopic surgery for prevention of deep vein thrombosis and cellular damage from iatrogenic compartment syndrome. Annali italiani di chirurgia. 2016;87:281-286.

Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull. Jul 2004;130(4):601-630.

Seo EJ, Fischer N, Efferth T. Phytochemicals as inhibitors of NF-kappaB for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacological research: the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. Mar 2018;129:262-273.

Sepehrvand N, Ezekowitz JA. Oxygen Therapy in Patients With Acute Heart Failure: Friend or Foe? JACC. Heart failure. Oct 2016;4(10):783-790.

Sepsis Alliance. Fact Sheet on Sepsis. 2017. Accessed 5/22/2018.

Serraes B, van Leen M, Schols J, Van Hecke A, Verhaeghe S, Beeckman D. Prevention of pressure ulcers with a static air support surface: A systematic review. International wound journal. Mar 5 2018.

Shademan A, Decker RS, Opfermann JD, Leonard S, Krieger A, Kim PC. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery. Science translational medicine. May 4 2016;8(337):337ra364.

Shah A, Amini-Nik S. The Role of Phytochemicals in the Inflammatory Phase of Wound Healing. International journal of molecular sciences. May 16 2017;18(5).

Sheen MJ, Chang FL, Ho ST. Anesthetic premedication: new horizons of an old practice. Acta anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: official journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists. Sep 2014;52(3):134-142.

Shen CL, Klein A, Chin KY, Mo H, Tsai P, Yang RS, . . . Ima-Nirwana S. Tocotrienols for bone health: a translational approach. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Aug 2017;1401(1):150-165.

Shoar S, Naderan M, Aghajani M, Sahimi-Izadian E, Hosseini-Araghi N, Khorgami Z. Prevalence and Determinants of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Surgical Patients. Oman medical journal. May 2016;31(3):176-181.

Singh JA, Hawn M, Campagna EJ, Henderson WG, Richman J, Houston TK. Mediation of smoking-associated postoperative mortality by perioperative complications in veterans undergoing elective surgery: data from Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP)--a cohort study. BMJ open. 2013;3(4).

Sivakumar T, Amizhthu RA. Transoral endoscopic total thyroidectomy vestibular approach: A case series and literature review. Journal of minimal access surgery. Apr-Jun 2018;14(2):118-123.

Skidmore RA, Patterson JD, Tomsick RS. Local anesthetics. Dermatologic surgery: official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. Jun 1996;22(6):511-522; quiz 523-514.

Skvarc DR, Dean OM, Byrne LK, Gray LJ, Ives K, Lane SE, . . . Marriott AJ. The Post-Anaesthesia N-acetylcysteine Cognitive Evaluation (PANACEA) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. Aug 9 2016;17:395.

Smith MD, McCall J, Plank L, Herbison GP, Soop M, Nygren J. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment for enhancing recovery after elective surgery. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Aug 14 2014(8):Cd009161.

Smith TD, Nagalla RR, Chen EY, Liu WF. Harnessing macrophage plasticity for tissue regeneration. Advanced drug delivery reviews. May 15 2017;114:193-205.

Sobouti F, Khatami M, Heydari M, Barati M. The role of low-level laser in periodontal surgeries. J Lasers Med Sci. Spring 2015;6(2):45-50.

Sogaard KK, Schmidt M, Pedersen L, Horvath-Puho E, Sorensen HT. 30-year mortality after venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study. Circulation. Sep 2 2014;130(10):829-836.

Sole MJ, Jeejeebhoy KN. Conditioned nutritional requirements: therapeutic relevance to heart failure. Herz. Mar 2002;27(2):174-178.

Song GM, Liu XL, Bian W, Wu J, Deng YH, Zhang H, Tian X. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different enteral immunonutrition formulas in patients underwent gastrectomy. Oncotarget. Apr 4 2017;8(14):23376-23388.

Sood A, Ghosh P, Jeong W, Khanna S, Das J, Bhandari M, . . . Menon M. Minimally invasive kidney transplantation: perioperative considerations and key 6-month outcomes. Transplantation. Feb 2015;99(2):316-323.

Sorensen LT. Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review. Ann Surg. Jun 2012;255(6):1069-1079.

Souyoul SA, Saussy KP, Lupo MP. Nutraceuticals: A Review. Dermatology and therapy. Mar 2018;8(1):5-16.

Sprague S, Madden K, Slobogean G, Petrisor B, Adachi JDR, Bogoch E, . . . Bhandari M. A Missed Opportunity in Bone Health: Vitamin D and Calcium Use in Elderly Femoral Neck Fracture Patients Following Arthroplasty. Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation. Dec 2017;8(4):215-224.

Sprague S, Slobogean GP, Bogoch E, Petrisor B, Garibaldi A, O'Hara N, Bhandari M. Vitamin D Use and Health Outcomes After Surgery for Hip Fracture. Orthopedics. Oct 1 2017;40(5):e868-e875.

Stammes MA, Bugby SL, Porta T, Pierzchalski K, Devling T, Otto C, . . . Mieog JSD. Modalities for image- and molecular-guided cancer surgery. The British journal of surgery. Jan 2018;105(2):e69-e83.

Stanford Health Care. Laparoscopy. 2017a. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Methods of surgery. 2017b. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Outpatient surgery. 2017c. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Recovery after surgery. 2017d. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Surgery setting. 2017e. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Surgery statistics. 2017f. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Tests performed before surgery. 2017g. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Types of anesthesia. 2017h. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stanford Health Care. Your surgical care team. 2017i. Accessed 5/30/2018.

Stechmiller JK. Understanding the role of nutrition and wound healing. Nutrition in clinical practice: official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Feb 2010;25(1):61-68.

Steenhagen E. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: It's Time to Change Practice! Nutr Clin Pract. Feb 2016;31(1):18-29.

Steinmetz MDJ, Christensen PDKarl B, Lund PDT, Lohse MDPDN, Rasmussen MDDMSPDLars S. Long-term Consequences of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Anesthesiology. 2009;110(3):548-555.

Stoneham MD, Von Kier S, Harvey L, Murphy M. Effects of a targeted blood management programme on allogeneic blood transfusion in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). Dec 15 2017.

Sun X, Zhang H, Zhu K, Wang C. Patient-specific three-dimensional printing for Kommerell's diverticulum. International journal of cardiology. Mar 15 2018;255:184-187.

Sweeney RM, McKendry RA, Bedi A. Perioperative intravenous fluid therapy for adults. The Ulster medical journal. Sep 2013;82(3):171-178.

Taylor C. Importance of nutrition in preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Nursing older people. Jun 30 2017;29(6):33-39.

Taylor KA, Pugh N. The contribution of zinc to platelet behaviour during haemostasis and thrombosis. Metallomics. Feb 2016;8(2):144-155.

Theilla M, Schwartz B, Cohen J, Shapiro H, Anbar R, Singer P. Impact of a nutritional formula enriched in fish oil and micronutrients on pressure ulcers in critical care patients. American journal of critical care: an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Jul 2012;21(4):e102-109.

Thiruvenkatarajan V, Pruett A, Adhikary SD. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period. Indian journal of anaesthesia. Sep 2014;58(5):565-572.

Thompson T, Keogh E, French CC, Davis R. Anxiety sensitivity and pain: generalisability across noxious stimuli. Pain. Jan 2008;134(1-2):187-196.

Thomsen T, Villebro N, Moller AM. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Mar 27 2014(3):Cd002294.

Thornblade LW, Varghese TK, Jr., Shi X, Johnson EK, Bastawrous A, Billingham RP, . . . Flum DR. Preoperative Immunonutrition and Elective Colorectal Resection Outcomes. Diseases of the colon and rectum. Jan 2017;60(1):68-75.

Tibullo D, Li Volti G, Giallongo C, Grasso S, Tomassoni D, Anfuso CD, . . . Bramanti V. Biochemical and clinical relevance of alpha lipoic acid: antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, molecular pathways and therapeutic potential. Inflammation research: official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]. Nov 2017;66(11):947-959.

Toledo RR, Santos M, Schnaider TB. Effect of Pycnogenol on the Healing of Venous Ulcers. Annals of vascular surgery. Jan 2017;38:212-219.

Tringale KR, Pang J, Nguyen QT. Image-guided surgery in cancer: A strategy to reduce incidence of positive surgical margins. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine. Feb 23 2018.

Trussell J, Gerkin R, Coates B, Brandenberger J, Tibi P, Keuth J, . . . Ferrara J. Impact of a patient care pathway protocol on surgical site infection rates in cardiothoracic surgery patients. American journal of surgery. Dec 2008;196(6):883-889; discussion 889.

Tsai TL, Sands LP, Leung JM. An Update on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Advances In Anesthesia. 2010;28(1):269-284.

Tsekos E, Reuter C, Stehle P, Boeden G. Perioperative administration of parenteral fish oil supplements in a routine clinical setting improves patient outcome after major abdominal surgery. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Jun 2004;23(3):325-330.

Tulgar S, Boga I, Piroglu MD, Ates NG, Bombaci E, Can T, . . . Kose HC. Preoperative Anxiety before Spinal Anesthesia: Does Internet-based Visual Information/Multimedia Research Decrease Anxiety and Information Desire? A Prospective Multicentered Study. Anesthesia, essays and researches. Apr-Jun 2017;11(2):390-396.

Turan A, Mascha EJ, Roberman D, Turner PL, You J, Kurz A, . . . Saager L. Smoking and perioperative outcomes. Anesthesiology. Apr 2011;114(4):837-846.

Turner AG, Anderson PH, Morris HA. Vitamin D and bone health. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. Supplementum. 2012;243:65-72.

Tusek D, Church JM, Fazio VW. Guided imagery as a coping strategy for perioperative patients. AORN journal. Oct 1997;66(4):644-649.

Valle-Giner I, Marti-Bonmati E, Alegria-Toran A, Montero A, Morcillo EJ. Changes in alpha-tocopherol and retinol levels during cardiopulmonary bypass correlate with maximal arterial partial pressure of oxygen. Free radical research. Sep 2007;41(9):1061-1067.

van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M, . . . Bouillon R. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. Nov 8 2001;345(19):1359-1367.

Ventro GJ, Yang Y, Chen M, Harmon CM. The molecular impact of omega 3 fatty acids on hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. J Pediatr Surg. Jun 2017;52(6):1020-1025.

Wahal C, Kumar A, Pyati S. Advances in regional anaesthesia: A review of current practice, newer techniques and outcomes. Indian journal of anaesthesia. Feb 2018;62(2):94-102.

Wang KY, Yang QY, Tang P, Li HX, Zhao HW, Ren XB. Effects of ulinastatin on early postoperative cognitive function after one-lung ventilation surgery in elderly patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Metabolic brain disease. Apr 2017;32(2):427-435.

Wang Q, Hu M, Xu H, Yang X. Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Effects of N-3 PUFA in Cancers: Structures and Mechanisms. Current topics in medicinal chemistry. 2016;16(8):888-894.

Wang S, Shi N, You L, Dai M, Zhao Y. Minimally invasive surgical approach versus open procedure for pancreaticoduodenectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine. Dec 2017;96(50):e8619.

Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L, Laviano A, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P, . . . Vestweber KH. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Apr 2006;25(2):224-244.

Weisel JW. Fibrinogen and fibrin. Advances in protein chemistry. 2005;70:247-299.

Whitlock EL, Vannucci A, Avidan MS. POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM. Minerva anestesiologica. 2011;77(4):448-456.

Wild T, Rahbarnia A, Kellner M, Sobotka L, Eberlein T. Basics in nutrition and wound healing. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Sep 2010;26(9):862-866.

Wischmeyer PE, Carli F, Evans DC, Guilbert S, Kozar R, Pryor A, . . . Fiore JF, Jr. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Nutrition Screening and Therapy Within a Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathway. Anesthesia and analgesia. Jan 23 2018.

Wongkietkachorn A, Wongkietkachorn N, Rhunsiri P. Preoperative Needs-Based Education to Reduce Anxiety, Increase Satisfaction, and Decrease Time Spent in Day Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. World journal of surgery. Mar 2018;42(3):666-674.

Wotman M, Levinger J, Leung L, Kallush A, Mauer E, Kacker A. The Efficacy of Lavender Aromatherapy in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Ambulatory Surgery Patients Undergoing Procedures in General Otolaryngology. Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology. Dec 2017;2(6):437-441.

Xiong H, Wang J, Jia Y, Ye C, Lu Y, Chen C, . . . Zhou J. Laparoscopic surgery versus open resection in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of surgery. Sep 2017;214(3):538-546.

Xu G, Zheng W, Guo Z, Zhu Y, Chen C. Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery upper left bronchial sleeve lobectomy. Journal of thoracic disease. Aug 2013;5 Suppl 3:S298-300.

Xu J, Sun X, Xin Q, Cheng Y, Zhan Z, Zhang J, Wu J. Effect of immunonutrition on colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery: a meta-analysis. International journal of colorectal disease. Mar 2018;33(3):273-283.

Xu P, Fu X, Xiao N, Guo Y, Pei Q, Peng Y, . . . Yao M. Involvements of gammadeltaT Lymphocytes in Acute and Chronic Skin Wound Repair. Inflammation. Aug 2017;40(4):1416-1427.

Xu X, Zheng C, Zhao Y, Chen W, Huang Y. Enhanced recovery after surgery for pancreaticoduodenectomy: Review of current evidence and trends. International journal of surgery (London, England). Feb 2018;50:79-86.

Yang WF, Choi WS, Leung YY, Curtin JP, Du R, Zhang CY, . . . Su YX. Three-dimensional printing of patient-specific surgical plates in head and neck reconstruction: A prospective pilot study. Oral oncology. Mar 2018;78:31-36.

Yang Z, Wu Q, Liu Y, Fan D. Effect of Perioperative Probiotics and Synbiotics on Postoperative Infections After Gastrointestinal Surgery: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Aug 2017;41(6):1051-1062.

Yasar NF, Badak B, Canik A, Bas SS, Uslu S, Oner S, Ates E. Effects of Sleep Quality on Melatonin Levels and Inflammatory Response after Major Abdominal Surgery in an Intensive Care Unit. Molecules. Sep 12 2017;22(9).

Yin YQ, Luo AL, Guo XY, Li LH, Huang YG. Postoperative neuropsychological change and its underlying mechanism in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Chin Med J (Engl). Nov 20 2007;120(22):1951-1957.

Yu J, Liu L, Zhang Y, Wei J, Yang F. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC cancer. Apr 14 2017;17(1):271.

Zampieri N, Zuin V, Burro R, Ottolenghi A, Camoglio FS. A prospective study in children: Pre- and post-surgery use of vitamin E in surgical incisions. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery: JPRAS. Sep 2010;63(9):1474-1478.

Zhai J, Bo Y, Lu Y, Liu C, Zhang L. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Markers of Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2017;12(1):e0170172.

Zhang B, Wei G, Li R, Wang Y, Yu J, Wang R, . . . Chen XP. n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition improves postoperative recovery for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). Oct 2017;36(5):1239-1244.

Zhao HQ, Liu HR, Xiao L, Zheng F, Li WM. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients: an evaluation of immunity. Aging clinical and experimental research. Dec 2015;27(6):927-933.

Zhou Z, Wang L, Feng P, Yin L, Wang C, Zhi S, . . . Peng J. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-alpha Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1468.

Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Breederveld RS, Kreis RW. Can vitamin C prevent complex regional pain syndrome in patients with wrist fractures? A randomized, controlled, multicenter dose-response study. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. Jul 2007;89(7):1424-1431.