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Raynaud's Phenomenon


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Choi WS, Choi CJ, Kim KS, et al. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin. Rheumatol. 2009 May;28(5):553-9.

Chung L, Shapiro L, Fiorentino D, et al. MQX-503, a novel formulation of nitroglycerin, improves the severity of Raynaud's phenomenon: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60(3):870-7. (a) Efficacy Study of PDE-5 Inhibitor and Calcium Channel Inhibitor for the Treatment of Secondary Raynaud Phenomenon. NCT01280266. 2012; Accessed December 26, 2012. (b) PF-00489791 For The Treatment Of Raynaud's. NCT01090492 . 2012; Accessed December 26, 2012.

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Coleiro B, Marshall SE, Denton CP, et al. Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40(9):1038-43.

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Eid AH, Maiti K, Mitra S, et al. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2007;293(3):H1955-H61.

Fava A, Wung PK, Wigley FM, et al. Efficacy of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Arthritis Care Res. (Hoboken). 2012;64(6):925-929.

Fraenkel L, Zhang Y, Chaisson CE, et al. The association of estrogen replacement therapy and the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998 Aug 1;129(3):208-11.

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Gabbay E, Fraser J, McNeil K. Review of bosentan in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):887-900.

Gliddon AE, Dore CJ, Black CM, et al. Prevention of vascular damage in scleroderma and autoimmune Raynaud's phenomenon: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(11):3837-46.

Gokce N, Keaney JF, Jr., Frei B, et al. Long-term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999;99(25):3234-3240.

Goundry B, Bell L, Langtree M, Moorthy A. Diagnosis and management of Raynaud's phenomenon. BMJ. 2012;344:e289.

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Harvard School of Public Health. The Nutrition Source: Omega-3 Fatty Acids. 2012; Accessed December 26, 2012.

Helou J, Moutran R, Maatouk I, Haddad F. Raynaud's phenomenon and vitamin D. Rheumatol. Int. 2012.

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Herrick AL. Contemporary management of Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ischaemic complications. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 2011;23(6):555-61.

Herrick AL. Pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon. Rheumatology. 2005;44(5):587-96.

Herrick AL. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. Nature reviews. Rheumatology. Aug 2012;8(8):469-479.

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Hummers LK, Dugowson CE, Dechow FJ, et al. A multi-centre, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based study of MQX-503, a novel topical gel formulation of nitroglycerine, in patients with Raynaud phenomenon. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2012. [Epub ahead of print]

Iorio ML, Masden DL, Higgins JP. Botulinum toxin A treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a review. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;41(4):599-603

Kamanna VS, Ganji SH, Kashyap ML. The mechanism and mitigation of niacin-induced flushing. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2009 Sep;63(9):1369-77

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Lambova SN, Muller-Ladner U. New lines in therapy of Raynaud's phenomenon. Rheumatol. Int. 2009;29(4):355-363.

Leppert J, Aberg H, Levin K, Ringqvist I, Jonason T. The concentration of magnesium in erythrocytes in female patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon; fluctuation with the time of year. Angiology. 1994a;45(4):283-288.

Leppert J, Aberg H, Levin K, Ringqvist I. Lower serum magnesium level after exposure to cold in women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. J. Intern. Med. 1990;228(3):235-9.

Leppert J, Myrdal U, Hedner T, Edvinsson L, Tracz Z, Ringqvist I. Effect of magnesium sulfate infusion on circulating levels of noradrenaline and neuropeptide-Y-like immunoreactivity in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Angiology. 1994b;45(7):637-645.

Leppert J, Myrdal U, Hedner T, Edvinsson L, Tracz Z, Ringqvist I. Magnesium sulphate increases plasma noradrenaline and neuropeptide-Y-like immunoreactivity. Lancet. 1995;346(8985):1307-1308.

Levien TL. Advances in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:167-177.

Malenfant D, Summers K, Seney S, et al. Results of a Pilot Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon with St. John's Wort: Detecting Changes in Angiogenic Cytokines When Raynaud’s phenomenon Improves. ISRN Rheumatol. 2011;2011:580704.

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MediQuest Therapeutics 2008. MQX-503 Findings to be Presented at International Scleroderma Conference. Available at: Last reviewed January 31, 2013

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