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Erectile Dysfunction


Aoki H, Nagao J, Ueda T, et al. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol(R) and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother Res. 2012;26(2):204-7.

AUA (American Urological Association) Managing Your Peyronie’s Disease. In: Ferri’s Netter Patient Advisor (pg. 988) Copyright 2012 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Balayssac S, Gilard V, Zedde C, Martino R, Malet-Martino M. Analysis of herbal dietary supplements for sexual performance enhancement: first characterization of propoxyphenyl-thiohydroxyhomosildenafil and identification of sildenafil, thiosildenafil, phentolamine and tetrahydropalmatine as adulterants. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;63:135-150.

Berookhim BM, Bar-Chama N. Medical implications of erectile dysfunction. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95(1):213-221.

Burnett A. (2011) Chapter 24: Evaluation and Management of Erectile Dysfunction (pg 721). In: Wein A. (Ed.), Campbell-Walsh Urology (10th ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Cattabiani C, Basaria S, Ceda GP, Luci M, Vignali A, Lauretani F, . . . Maggio M. Relationship between testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular risk and mortality in adult men. Journal of endocrinological investigation. Jan 2012;35(1):104-120.

Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, Modenini F, Biagiotti G. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004;63(4):641-646.

Cellerino A, Jannini EA. Why humans need type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Int J Androl. 2005;2:14-17.

Chan SW. Panax ginseng, Rhodiolarosea and Schisandrachinensis.Int J Food SciNutr. 2012;1:75-81.

Chaturapanich G, Chaiyakul S, Verawatnapakul V, Pholpramool C. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats. Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Oct 2008;136(4):515-522.

Chaturapanich G, Chaiyakul S, Verawatnapakul V, Yimlamai T, Pholpramool C. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training. Andrologia. May 2012;44 Suppl 1:323-328.

Chung E, Brock GB. Emerging and novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.CurrUrol Rep. 2011;12(6):432-43.

Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998;24(2):139-143.

Cormio L, De Siati M, Lorusso F, et al. Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction. Urology. 2011;77(1):119-22.

Costabile RA, Mammen T, Hwang K.An overview and expert opinion on the use of alprostadil in the treatment of sexual dysfunction.Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. Jun 2008;9(8):1421-1429.

Csupor D, Szekeres A, Kecskemeti A, et al. [Dietary supplements on the domestic market adulterated with sildenafil and tadalafil].OrvHetil. 2010;151(43):1783-1789.

Cybulska-Heinrich AK, Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. Ginkgo biloba: an adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2012;18:390-402.

de Andrade E, de Mesquita AA, Claro Jde A, et al. Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl. 2007;9(2):241-244.

Demizu Y, Wakana D, Kamakura H, Kurihara M, Okuda H, Goda Y. Identification of mutaprodenafil in a dietary supplement and its subsequent synthesis. Chem Pharm Bull. 2011;59(10):1314-1316.

Dinsmore WW. Available and future treatments for erectile dysfunction.Clin Cornerstone. 2005;7(1):37-45.

EBDR (European Bulletin of Drug Research). 2005;13(1): 7–13.

Ernst E, Pittler MH. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 1998;159(2):433-436.

Ernst E, Posadzki P, Lee MS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction in older men and women: an overview of systematic reviews. Maturitas. 2011;70(1):37-41.

Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, et al. Mediterranean diet improves erectile function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18(4):405-410.

Esposito K, Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Giugliano D. Dietary factors, Mediterranean diet and erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2010;7(7):2338-2345.

Ewane KA, Lin HC, Wang R. Should patients with erectile dysfunction be evaluated for cardiovascular disease? Asian J Androl. 2012;14(1):138-144.

Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. The Journal of urology. Jan 1994;151(1):54-61.

Fortney L. (2012) Chapter 60: Erectile Dysfunction (pg 560). In: Rakel D. (Ed.), Integrative Medicine (3rd ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Gandaglia G, Salonia A, Passoni N, Montorsi P, Briganti A, Montorsi F. Erectile dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes. Endocrine. Sep 5 2012.

Garcia-Cruz E, Piqueras M, Gosalbez D, Perez-Marquez M, Peri L, Izquierdo L, . . . Alcaraz A. [Erectile dysfunction and its severity are related to the number of cardiovascular risk factors]. Actasurologicasespanolas. May 2012;36(5):291-295.

Gentile V, Antonini G, AntonellaBertozzi M, et al. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes.Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(9):2223-8.

Gentile V, Vicini P, Prigiotti G, Koverech A, Di Silverio F. Preliminary observations on the use of propionyl-L-carnitine in combination with sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction and diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20(9):1377-1384.

Gianfrilli D, Lauretta R, Di Dato C, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical approach to erectile dysfunction. Andrologia. 2012;1:600-604.

Giles TD. Aspects of nitric oxide in health and disease: a focus on hypertension and cardiovascular disease. J ClinHypertens. 2006;8(12 Suppl 4):2-16.

Ginsberg TB. Male sexuality.ClinGeriatr Med. 2010;26(2):185-195.

Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes. J Sex Med. 2010;7(5):1911-1917.

Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, et al. Effect of Lepidiummeyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 2002;34(6):367-372.

Gruenwald I, Appel B, Vardi Y. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy--a novel effective treatment for erectile dysfunction in severe ED patients who respond poorly to PDE5 inhibitor therapy. The journal of sexual medicine. Jan 2012;9(1):259-264.

Gupta BP, Murad MH, Clifton MM, Prokop L, Nehra A, Kopecky SL. The effect of lifestyle modification and cardiovascular risk factor reduction on erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of internal medicine. Nov 14 2011;171(20):1797-1803.

Hackett G. Testosterone measurement - mandatory in ALL men with ED. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2012;66(1):113-113.

Hackett G. The burden and extent of comorbid conditions in patients with erectile dysfunction.Int J ClinPract. 2009;63(8):1205-1213.

Hannan JL, Maio MT, Komolova M, Adams MA.Beneficial impact of exercise and obesity interventions on erectile function and its risk factors. J Sex Med. 2009;3:254-261.

Heidelbaugh JJ. Management of erectile dysfunction. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(3):305-312.

Helmy MM, Senbel AM.Evaluation of vitamin E in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in aged rats. Life Sci. 2012;90(13-14):489-494.

Ho CC, Tan HM. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.CurrUrol Rep. 2011;12(6):470-478.

Hudson T. Maca: new insights on an ancient plant. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal 2008;7(6):54-57.

Jackson G, Rosen RC, Kloner RA, Kostis JB. The second Princeton consensus on sexual dysfunction and cardiac risk: new guidelines for sexual medicine. J Sex Med. 2006;3(1):28-36.

Jang DJ, Lee MS, Shin BC, Lee YC, Ernst E. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Br J ClinPharmacol. 2008;66(4):444-450.

Jankowska EA, Rozentryt P, Ponikowska B, Hartmann O, Kustrzycka-Kratochwil D, Reczuch K, . . . Ponikowski P. Circulating estradiol and mortality in men with systolic chronic heart failure. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. May 13 2009;301(18):1892-1901.

Kellis JT, Jr., Vickery LE.Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones.Science. Sep 7 1984;225(4666):1032-4.

Kernohan AF, McIntyre M, Hughes DM, Tam SW, Worcel M, Reid JL. An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects. Br J ClinPharmacol. 2005;59(1):85-93.

Khan MA, Thompson CS, Emsley AM, Mumtaz FH, Mikhailidis DP, Angelini GD, . . . Jeremy JY. The interaction of homocysteine and copper markedly inhibits the relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum: new risk factors for angiopathic erectile dysfunction? BJU international. Oct 1999;84(6):720-724.

Kim TH, Jeon SH, Hahn EJ, et al. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl. 2009;11(3):356-361.

Kolodny L. (2011) Chapter 17: Men’s Health: Erectile Dysfunction (pg. 971). In: Bope E., Kellerman R. (Eds.), Conn's Current Therapy (1st ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Kondoh N, Higuchi Y, Maruyama T, Nojima M, Yamamoto S, Shima H. Salvage therapy trial for erectile dysfunction using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vitamin E: preliminary report. Aging Male. 2008;11(4):167-170.

La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D'Agata R, Calogero AE. Physical activity and erectile dysfunction in middle-aged men.J Androl. 2012;33(2):154-161.

Lea AP, Bryson HM, Balfour JA.Intracavernousalprostadil.A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential in erectile dysfunction.Drugs & aging. Jan 1996;8(1):56-74.

Ledda A, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Schonlau F. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU Int. 2010;106(7):1030-3.

Lee HM, Lee BJ. A novel approach to simultaneous screening and confirmation of regulated pharmaceutical compounds in dietary supplements by LC/MS/MS with an information-dependent acquisition method. Food AdditContam Part AChem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28(4):396-407.

Liu T, Xin H, Li WR, et al. Effects of icariin on improving erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Sex Med. 2011;8(10):2761-2772.

Liu WJ, Xin ZC, Xin H, Yuan YM, Tian L, Guo YL.Effects of icariin on erectile function and expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in castrated rats.Asian J Androl. 2005;7(4):381-388.

Lombardo F, Tsamatropoulos P, Piroli E, et al. Treatment of erectile dysfunction due to C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene with vitamin B6 and folic acid in patients non responders to PDE5i. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 1):216-223.

Ma H, He X, Yang Y, Li M, Hao D, Jia Z. The genus Epimedium: an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(3):519-541.

MacKay D. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(1):4-16.

Maggi M, Buvat J, Corona G, Guay A, Torres LO.Hormonal Causes of Male Sexual Dysfunctions and Their Management (Hyperprolactinemia, Thyroid Disorders, GH Disorders, and DHEA). J Sex Med. 2012;23(10):1743-6109.

Malaguarnera M. Carnitine derivatives: clinical usefulness. CurrOpinGastroenterol. 2012;28(2):166-176.

Martin S, Atlantis E, Wilson D, et al. Clinical and Biopsychosocial Determinants of Sexual Dysfunction in Middle-Aged and Older Australian Men. J Sex Med. 2012;3(10):1743-6109.

Masuda H. Significance of nitric oxide and its modulation mechanisms by endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase in the micturition disorders and erectile dysfunction.Int J Urol. 2008;15(2):128-134.

Mathers MJ, Brandt AS, Rundstedt F, Roth S, Sommer F, Klotz T. [Metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) and arginine: significance for male health]. Aktuelle Urol. 2009;40(4):235-241.

McVary KT. Clinical practice.Erectile dysfunction.The New England journal of medicine. Dec 13 2007;357(24):2472-2481.

MD Consult. Alprostadil. Available at: Revised 8/27/2010. Accessed 10/8/2012.

MD Consult. Erectile Dysfunction. Available at: Updated: 2/10/2012a. Accessed 10/5/2012.

MD Consult. Ferri: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Peyronie’s Disease. 2012b. Accessed 10/8/12. Available at:

MD Consult. Papaverine. Available at: 12/2/2009b. Accessed 10/8/2012.

MD Consult. Phentolamine. Available at: Last updated 10/3/2009a. Accessed 10/8/2012.

Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Ignarro LJ. Lifestyle and metabolic approaches to maximizing erectile and vascular health.Int J Impot Res. 2012;24(2):61-68.

Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Meldrum DA, Esposito K, Ignarro LJ. The link between erectile and cardiovascular health: the canary in the coal mine. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(4):599-606.

Melnik T, Soares BG, Nasello AG. The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: systematic review and meta-analysis, including comparisons to sildenafil treatment, intracavernosal injection, and vacuum devices. The journal of sexual medicine. Nov 2008;5(11):2562-2574.

Metz D, Weston P, Barker D. Case report of vasculitic rash induced by Ginkgo biloba and/or Horny Goat Weed. BMJ Case Rep. 2009;17:17.

Mingorance C, Rodriguez-Rodriguez R, Justo ML, Herrera MD, de Sotomayor MA. Pharmacological effects and clinical applications of propionyl-L-carnitine.Nutr Rev. 2011;69(5):279-290.

Morales A. Androgens are fundamental in the maintenance of male sexual health. CurrUrol Rep. 2011;12(6):453-460.

Morales A., Condra M, Owen JA, Surridge DH, Fenemore J, Harris C. Is yohimbine effective in the treatment of organic impotence? Results of a controlled trial. J Urol. 1987;137(6):1168-1172.

Moyad MA. Dietary supplements and other alternative medicines for erectile dysfunction. What do I tell my patients? UrolClin North Am. 2002;29(1):11-22.

Nair R, Sellaturay S, Sriprasad S. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE). Indian J Urol. 2012;28(1):15-20.

Nehra A, Jackson G, Miner M, et al. The Princeton III Consensus Recommendations for the Management of Erectile Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(8):766-778.

Ng CF, Lee CP, Ho AL, Lee VW.Effect of niacin on erectile function in men suffering erectile dysfunction and dyslipidemia. J Sex Med. 2011;8(10):2883-2893.

NIH (National Institutes of Health) Impotence.NIH Consens Statement. 1992;10(4):1-33.

NIH (National institutes of Health) MESH Terms: Arginine. Accessed 8/6/12. Available at:

Nikolova V, Stanislavov R, Vatev I, Nalbanski B, Punevska M. [Sperm parameters in male idiopathic infertility after treatment with prelox]. AkushGinekol. 2007;46(5):7-12.

Nunes KP, Labazi H, Webb RC. New insights into hypertension-associated erectile dysfunction.CurrOpinNephrolHypertens. 2012;21(2):163-170.

Nunes KP, Toque HA, Caldwell RB, Caldwell RW, Webb RC. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibition decreases arginase activity and improves corpora cavernosal relaxation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. J Sex Med. 2011;8(12):3335-44.

Oloyo AK, Sofola OA, Nair RR, Harikrishnan VS, Fernandez AC. Testosterone relaxes abdominal aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats by opening potassium (K(+)) channel and blockade of calcium (Ca(2+)) channel. Pathophysiology. 2011;18(3):247-253.

Palmieri A, Imbimbo C, Creta M, Verze P, Fusco F, Mirone V. Tadalafil once daily and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction: results from a prospective randomized trial. International journal of andrology. Apr 2012;35(2):190-195.

Paroni R, Barassi A, Ciociola F, et al. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and L-arginine in patients with arteriogenic and non-arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. Int J Androl. 2012;20(10):1365-2605.

Petroczi A, Taylor G, Naughton DP. Mission impossible?Regulatory and enforcement issues to ensure safety of dietary supplements.Food ChemToxicol. 2011;49(2):393-402.

Pinsky MR, Chawla A, Hellstrom WJ.Intracavernosal therapy and vacuum devices to treat erectile dysfunction.Archivosespanoles de urologia. Oct 2010;63(8):717-725.

Porst H. The future of erectile dysfunction (ED). Arch Esp Urol. 2010;63(8):740-747.

Pushkar D, Segal AS, Bagaev AG, Nosovitskii PB.[Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile dysfunction].Urologiia. 2002;6:34-7.

Rashid A. The efficacy and safety of PDE5 inhibitors.Clinical Cornerstone. 2005;7(1):47-55.

Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urology. 1999;53(3):590-594.

Reiter WJ, Schatzl G, Mark I, ZeinerA, Pycha A, Marberger M. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with different organic etiologies. Urol Res. 2001;29(4):278-281.

Ritchie R, Sullivan M. Endothelins& erectile dysfunction. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63(6):496-501.

Rooney M, Pfister W, Mahoney M, Nelson M, Yeager J, Steidle C. Long-term, multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of topical alprostadil cream in male patients with erectile dysfunction. The journal of sexual medicine. Feb 2009;6(2):520-534.

Rowland DL, Tai W. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003;29(3):185-205.

Sadeghi-Nejad H, Brison D, Dogra V. Male Erectile Dysfunction. Ultrasound Clinics. 2007;2(1):57-71.

Saokaew S, Wilairat P, Raktanyakan P, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, . . . Chaiyakunapruk N. Clinical Effects of Krachaidum (Kaempferia parviflora): A Systematic Review. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine. Sep 30 2016.

Segal R, Burnett AL. Avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.Drugs Today. 2012;48(1):7-15.

Shamloul R. Natural aphrodisiacs. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 1):39-49.

Shin BC, Lee MS, Yang EJ, Lim HS, Ernst E. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:44.

Shindel AW, Xin ZC, Lin G, et al. Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo. J Sex Med. 2010;7(4 Pt 1):1518-1528.

Sorenson M, Grant WB. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction? Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(2):128-136.

Srinivasan K. Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Crit Rev Food SciNutr. 2007;47(8):735-48.

Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20(2):173-180.

Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Phytother Res. 2009;23(3):297-302.

Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003;29(3):207-213.

Stein RI. Clinical Trial of Kaempferia parviflora extract for mild erectile dysfunction. Manuscript Under Review. 2018.

Stroberg P, Hedelin H, Bergstrom A. [Sex--only for the rich and healthy?PDE5 inhibitors too expensive for low income men].Lakartidningen. 2006;103(39):2865-2867.

Tamler R, Mechanick JI. Dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in the management of andrologic disorders.EndocrinolMetabClin North Am. 2007;36(2):533-552.

Tanweer MS, Fatima A, Rahimnajjad MK. Yohimbine can be the new promising therapy for erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetics: J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Nov;60(11):980.

Temkitthawon P, Hinds TR, Beavo JA, Viyoch J, Suwanborirux K, Pongamornkul W, . . . Ingkaninan K. Kaempferia parviflora, a plant used in traditional medicine to enhance sexual performance contains large amounts of low affinity PDE5 inhibitors. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Oct 11 2011;137(3):1437-1441.

Tep-Areenan P, Sawasdee P, Randall M. Possible mechanisms of vasorelaxation for 5,7-dimethoxyflavone from Kaempferia parviflora in the rat aorta. Phytotherapy research: PTR. Oct 2010;24(10):1520-1525.

Tharyan P, Gopalakrishanan G. Erectile dysfunction. ClinEvid. 2006;15(51):1227-1251.

Traish A, Kim NN, Moreland RB, Goldstein I. Role of alpha adrenergic receptors in erectile function. Int J Impot Res. 2000;12(1):S48-63.

Traish AM, Goldstein I, Kim NN. Testosterone and erectile function: from basic research to a new clinical paradigm for managing men with androgen insufficiency and erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol. 2007;52(1):54-70.

Ushiyama M, Kuramochi T, Yagi S, Katayama S. Antioxidant treatment with alpha-tocopherol improves erectile function in hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res. 2008;31(5):1007-1013.

Vardi Y, Appel B, Kilchevsky A, Gruenwald I. Does low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy have a physiological effect on erectile function? Short-term results of a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled study. The Journal of urology. May 2012;187(5):1769-1775.

Walle T, Otake Y, Brubaker JA, Walle UK, Halushka PV. Disposition and metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin in normal volunteers.Br J ClinPharmacol. 2001 Feb;51(2):143-6.

Wang CH, Huang YF. [Hyperhomocysteinemia and erectile dysfunction: an update]. Zhonghua Nan KeXue. 2011;17(11):1019-1022.

Wang X, Chu S, Qian T, Chen J, Zhang J. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves male copulatory behavior via nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. J Sex Med. 2010;7(2 Pt 1):743-750.

Wannanon P, Wattanathorn J, Tong-Un T, Pangphukiew P, Muchimapura S, Sripanidkulchai B, Phachonpai W. EFFICACY ASSESSMENT OF KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION. OnLine J. of Biological Sciences: OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012;12(4):149-155.

Wattanathorn J, Pangphukiew P, Muchimapura S, Sripanidkulchai K, Sripanidkulchai B. Aphrodisiac Activity of Kaempferia parviflora. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 2012;7(2):114-120.

Wolfe SM. There have been inadequate warnings that erectile dysfunction drugs can cause blindness: MedGenMed. 2005 Dec 5;7(4):61.

Xin ZC, Kim EK, Lin CS, et al. Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities.Asian J Androl. 2003;5(1):15-18.

Yeh KY, Pu HF, Kaphle K, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract enhances male copulatory behavior and reduces serum prolactin levels in rats. HormBehav. 2008;53(1):225-231.

Zenico T, Cicero AFG, Valmorri L, Mercuriali M, Bercovich E. Subjective effects of Lepidiummeyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 2009;41(2):95-99.

Zhang J, Wang YB, Ma CG, et al. Icarisid II, a PDE5 inhibitor from Epimediumwanshanense, increases cellular cGMP by enhancing NOS in diabetic ED rats corpus cavernosum tissue. Andrologia. 2012;1:87-93.

Zhang Q, Radisavljevic ZM, Siroky MB, Azadzoi KM. Dietary antioxidants improve arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. Int J Androl. 2011;34(3):225-235.

Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH, et al. Effect of a lipidic extract from lepidiummeyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats.Urology. 2000;55(4):598-602.