Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols



Alken J, Petriczko E, Marcus C. Effect of fasting on young adults who have symptoms of hypoglycemia in the absence of frequent meals. European journal of clinical nutrition. Jun 2008;62(6):721-726.

Alonso-Castro AJ, Miranda-Torres AC, Gonzalez-Chavez MM, Salazar-Olivo LA. Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol and its active compound, chlorogenic acid, stimulate 2-NBDglucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant 3T3 adipocytes. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Dec 8 2008;120(3):458-464.

Altuntas Y, Bilir M, Ucak S, Gundogdu S. Reactive hypoglycemia in lean young women with PCOS and correlations with insulin sensitivity and with beta cell function. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Apr 1;119(2):198-205.

Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism. 1987 Apr;36(4):351-355.

Averill MM, Bornfeldt KE. Lipids versus glucose in inflammation and the pathogenesis of macrovascular disease in diabetes. Current diabetes reports. Feb 2009;9(1):18-25.

Bajorek SA, Morello CM. Effects of dietary fiber and low glycemic index diet on glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. Nov 2010;44(11):1786-1792.

Bakatselos SO. Hypoglycemia unawareness. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Aug 2011;93 Suppl 1:S92-96.

Bavenholm PN, Efendic S. Postprandial hyperglycaemia and vascular damage--the benefits of acarbose. Diabetes & vascular disease research : official journal of the International Society of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. Sep 2006;3(2):72-79.

Bell LS, Tiglio LN, Fairchild MM. Dietary strategies in the treatment of reactive hypoglycemia. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Sep 1985;85(9):1141-1143.

Berber E, Li-Ng M, Taskin HE, Samat A. Clinical Key. First Consult. Evaluation of hypoglycemia. Available at: 2013.

Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Ethanol Alters Energy Metabolism in the Liver. In: Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Bookshelf ID: NBK22429.

BG. Hypoglycemia as a Pathological Result in Medical Praxis. Prof. David Wagner (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-788-8, InTech, 2011. Available from:

Bjelakovic G, Stojanovic, I, Jevtovic-Stoimenov T, Saranac Lj, Bjelakovic B, Pavlovic D, Kocic G, Bjelakovic

Blasio A, Steardo L, Sabino V, Cottone P. Opioid system in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates binge-

Bloomfield HE, Greer N, Newman D, MacDonald R, Carlyle M, Fitzgerald P, . . . Wilt TJ. Predictors and Consequences of Severe Hypoglycemia in Adults with Diabetes - A Systematic Review of the Evidence. VA-ESP Project #09-009;2012.

Boden G. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in health and diabetes. J Investig Med. 2004 Sep;52(6):375-378.

Bodmer M, Meier C, Krahenbuhl S, Jick SS, Meier CR. Metformin, sulfonylureas, or other antidiabetes drugs and the risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia: a nested case-control analysis. Diabetes care. Nov 2008;31(11):2086-2091.

Breton M, Farret A, Bruttomesso D, Anderson S, Magni L, Patek S, . . . Kovatchev B. Fully integrated artificial pancreas in type 1 diabetes: modular closed-loop glucose control maintains near normoglycemia. Diabetes. Sep 2012;61(9):2230-2237.

Briscoe VJ, Davis SN. Hypoglycemia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Management. Clin Diabetes 24(3): 2006; 115-121.

Briscoe VJ, Ertl AC, Tate DB, Dawling S, Davis SN. Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, on counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in healthy individuals. Diabetes. Sep 2008;57(9):2453-2460.

Brun JF, Fedou C, Mercier J. Postprandial reactive hypoglycemia. Diabetes & metabolism. Nov 2000;26(5):337-351.

Burge MR, Zeise TM, Sobhy TA, Rassam AG, Schade DS. Low-dose ethanol predisposes elderly fasted patients with type 2 diabetes to sulfonylurea-induced low blood glucose. Diabetes Care. Dec 1999;22(12):2037-2043.

Butler T, Arnold M, Islam M. Depletion of hepatic glycogen in the hypoglycaemia of fatal childhood diarrhoeal illnesses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Nov-Dec 1989;83(6):839-843.

Cahill GF, Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annual review of nutrition. 2006;26:1-22.

Cambiaso P, Schiaffini R, Pontrelli G, Carducci C, Ubertini G, Crea F, Cappa M. Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in ACTH and GH Deficient Children: Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Dec 6 2012.

Campos C. Chronic hyperglycemia and glucose toxicity: pathology and clinical sequelae. Postgraduate medicine. Nov 2012;124(6):90-97.

Carbohydrate Chemistry. 2012 (2012), Article ID 197809.

Carey M, Boucai L, Zonszein J. Impact of Hypoglycemia in Hospitalized Patients. Curr Diab Rep. Feb 2013; 13(1):107-113.

Castle JR, Engle JM, El Youssef J, Massoud RG, Ward WK. Factors influencing the effectiveness of glucagon for preventing hypoglycemia. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010 Nov 1;4(6):1305-1310.

Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, Perricone NV, Preuss HG. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci. 2007;4(1):45-52.

Cersosimo E, Mandarino LJ, DeFronzo RA. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Last updated 12/15/2011. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Cryer PE, Axelrod L, Grossman AB, Heller SR, Montori VM, Seaquist ER, Service FJ. Evaluation and management of adult hypoglycemic disorders: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Mar 2009;94(3):709-728.

Cryer PE, Gerich JE. Relevance of glucose counter-regulatory systems to patients with diabetes: critical roles of glucagon and epinephrine. Diabetes Care. 1983 Jan-Feb;6(1):95-99.

Cryer PE. Hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. Sep 2010;39(3):641-654.

Cryer PE. Hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. Sep 2010;39(3):641-654.

Cryer PE. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia as a cause of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in IDDM A vicious cycle. Diabetes. 1992 Mar;41(3):255-260.

Cryer PE. The barrier of hypoglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes. Dec 2008;57(12):3169-3176.

Cui Y, Elahi D, Andersen DK. Advances in the etiology and management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. J Gastrointest Surg. Oct 2011;15(10):1879-1888.

Derosa G, Maffioli P. Efficacy and safety profile evaluation of acarbose alone and in association with other antidiabetic drugs: a systematic review. Clinical therapeutics. Jun 2012;34(6):1221-1236.

Desouza CV, Bolli GB, Fonseca V. Hypoglycemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1389-1394.

Devenyi P. Alcoholic hypoglycemia and alcoholic ketoacidosis: sequential events of the same process?. Can Med Assoc J. 1982 Sep 15;127(6):513.

Dohm GL, Beeker RT, Israel RG, Tapscott EB. Metabolic responses to exercise after fasting. J Appl Physiol. 1986 Oct;61(4):1363-1368.

Douillard C, Mention K, Dobbelaere D, Wemeau JL, Saudubray JM, Vantyghem MC. Hypoglycaemia related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012;7:26.

Dube MC, Lavoie C, Galibois I, Weisnagel SJ. Nutritional strategies to prevent hypoglycemia at exercise in diabetic adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Aug 2012;44(8):1427-1432.

Fasano CJ, Rowden AK. Successful treatment of repaglinide-induced hypoglycemia with octreotide. Am J Emerg Med. Jul 2009;27(6):756 e753-754.

Feeney GF, Connor JP, Young RM, Tucker J, Czajkowski F. Adherence with naltrexone prescription advice in hospital outpatient alcohol rehabilitation programme. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001 Feb;26(1):73-79.

fermentability of short carbohydrates in static faecal batch cultures. International Journal of

Ferrario C, Stoll D, Boubaker A, Matter M, Yan P, Puder JJ. Diffuse nesidioblastosis with hypoglycemia mimicking an insulinoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012;6(1):332.

Gaby AR. Nutrition Medicine. Copyright © 2011 by Fritz Perlberg Publishing.

Gemen R, de Vries JF, Slavin JL. Relationship between molecular structure of cereal dietary fiber and health effects: focus on glucose/insulin response and gut health. Nutrition reviews. Jan 2011;69(1):22-33.

Gerard J, Luyckx AS, Lefebvre PJ. Acarbose in reactive hypoglycemia: a double-blind study. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology. Jan 1984;22(1):25-31.

Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC, Jr., Bigger JT, Buse JB, . . . Friedewald WT. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. Jun 12 2008;358(24):2545-2559.

Ghosh D, Bhattacharya B, et al. Role of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Biochem. 2002 Nov;13(11):690–697.

Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D'Episcopo L, Riccardi G. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. Oct 2000;23(10):1461-1466.

Gietl E, Mengerink W, de Slegte J, Gibson G, Rastall R, van den Heuvel E. Factors involved in the in vitro

Haidar A, Legault L, Dallaire M, Alkhateeb A, Coriati A, Messier V, . . . Rabasa-Lhoret R. Glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon delivery (dual-hormone artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover controlled trial. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. Jan 28 2013.

Hamdy O. Hypoglycemia: Practice Essentials. Medscape Reference: Drugs, Diseases & Procedures web page. Last updated 5/6/2013. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Hanefeld M. Cardiovascular benefits and safety profile of acarbose therapy in prediabetes and established type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular diabetology. 2007;6:20.

Hasegawa T, Yoneda M, Nakamura K, Ohnishi K, Harada H, Kyouda T, . . . Makino I. Long-term effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on late dumping syndrome. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Dec 1998;13(12):1201-1206.

Hofeldt FD. Reactive hypoglycemia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1989 Mar;18(1):185-201.

Holstein A, Hammer C, Hahn M, Kulamadayil NS, Kovacs P. Severe sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia: a problem of uncritical prescription and deficiencies of diabetes care in geriatric patients. Expert opinion on drug safety. Sep 2010;9(5):675-681.

Hovorka R, Kumareswaran K, Harris J, Allen JM, Elleri D, Xing D, . . . Evans ML. Overnight closed loop insulin delivery (artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: crossover randomised controlled studies. BMJ. 2011;342:d1855.

Hussain K, Bryan J, Christesen HT, Brusgaard K, Aguilar-Bryan L. Serum glucagon counter-regulatory hormonal response to hypoglycemia is blunted in congenital hyperinsulinism. Diabetes. 2005 Oct;54(10):2946-2951.

Ishikawa A, Yamashita H, Hiemori M, Inagaki E, Kimoto M, Okamoto M, . . . Natori Y. Characterization of inhibitors of postprandial hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology. Apr 2007;53(2):166-173.

Janssen P, Rotondo A, Mule F, Tack J. Review article: a comparison of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Jan 2013;37(1):18-36.

Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, et al. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91–97.

Kalra S, Deepak MC, Narang P, Singh V, Uvaraj MG, Agrawal N. Usage pattern, glycemic improvement, hypoglycemia, and body mass index changes with sulfonylureas in real-life clinical practice: results from OBSTACLE Hypoglycemia Study. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Feb 2013;15(2):129-135.

Kasim-Karakas SE, Cunningham WM, Tsodikov A. Relation of nutrients and hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. Mar 2007;85(3):688-694.

Kelesidis T, Canseco E. Levofloxacin-induced hypoglycemia: a rare but life-threatening side effect of a widely used antibiotic. Am J Med. Mar 2009;122(3):e3-4.

Kellogg TA, Bantle JP, Leslie DB, Redmond JB, Slusarek B, Swan T, . . . Ikramuddin S. Postgastric bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome: characterization and response to a modified diet. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Jul-Aug 2008;4(4):492-499.

Kimmig R, Mauch TJ, Kerzl W, Schwabe U, Scholz R. Actions of glucagon on flux rates in perfused rat liver 1 Kinetics of the inhibitory effect on glycolysis and the stimulatory effect on glycogenolysis. Eur J Biochem. 1983 Nov 15;136(3):609-616.

Klement J, Pais I, Strube J, Lehnert H, Peters A, Hallschmid M, Born J. NMDA receptor blockade by memantine does not prevent adaptation to recurrent hypoglycaemia in healthy men. Diabetes Obes Metab. Oct 16 2012.

Koubi HE, Desplanches D, Gabrielle C, Cottet-Emard JM, Sempore B, Favier RJ. Exercise endurance and fuel utilization: a reevaluation of the effects of fasting. Journal of applied physiology. Mar 1991;70(3):1337-1343.

Kuipers H, Fransen EJ, Keizer HA. Pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate and transient hypoglycemia during exercise. International journal of sports medicine. May 1999;20(4):227-231.

Kumar A. Naltrexone and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. 2012; Accessed 12/24/2012, 2012.

Lacherade JC, Jacqueminet S, Preiser JC. An overview of hypoglycemia in the critically ill. Journal of diabetes science and technology. Nov 2009;3(6):1242-1249.

Lager I. The insulin-antagonistic effect of the counter-regulatory hormones. J Intern Med Suppl. 1991;735:41-47.

Layer P, Zinsmeister AR, DiMagno EP. Effects of decreasing intraluminal amylase activity on starch digestion and postprandial gastrointestinal function in humans. Gastroenterology. Jul 1986;91(1):41-48.

Lee Y, Berglund ED, Wang MY, Fu X, Yu X, Charron MJ, . . . Unger RH. Metabolic manifestations of insulin deficiency do not occur without glucagon action. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep 11 2012;109(37):14972-14976.

Lee Y, Wang MY, Du XQ, Charron MJ, Unger RH. Glucagon receptor knockout prevents insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes in mice. Diabetes. Feb 2011;60(2):391-397.

like eating. Addict Biol. 2013 Jan 24;PubMed PMID: 23346966.

List JF, Whaley JM. Glucose dynamics and mechanistic implications of SGLT2 inhibitors in animals and humans. Kidney international. Supplement. Mar 2011(120):S20-27.

Marquard J, Welters A, Buschmann T, Barthlen W, Vogelgesang S, Klee D, . . . Meissner T. Association of exercise-induced hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia with MCT1-expressing insulinoma. Diabetologia. Jan 2013;56(1):31-35.

Martorella AJ. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: comparison of insulin analog premixes and human insulin premixes. Postgrad Med. 2011 Jul;123(4):7-16.

Mayo Clinic. Hypoglycemia. Causes. Last updated 2/22/2012a. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Mayo Clinic. Hypoglycemia. Tests and diagnosis. Last updated 2/22/2012b. Accessed 6/21/2013.

McCool C, Luqman W, Schmitt T, Raymundo R, Nolan S, Stephan T, Ahmad U, Danowski TS. Transient insulin increase in reactive hypoglycemia in obese and non-obese subjects. Int J Obes. 1977;1(2):179-183.

McCrimmon RJ. Update in the CNS response to hypoglycemia. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Jan 2012;97(1):1-8.

MedLinePlus. Addison's Disease. Health Topics 2011; Accessed 1/3/2013, 2013.

MedlinePlus. Anti-insulin antibody test. Available at: Accessed 6/17/2013.

MedlinePlus. Hypoglycemia. Health Topics 2012; Accessed 12/26/2012, 2012.

Meier JJ, Butler AE, Galasso R, Butler PC. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery is not accompanied by islet hyperplasia or increased beta-cell turnover. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jul;29(7):1554-1559.

Meissner T, Friedmann B, Okun JG, Schwab MA, Otonkoski T, Bauer T, . . . Mayatepek E. Massive insulin secretion in response to anaerobic exercise in exercise-induced hyperinsulinism. Horm Metab Res. Nov 2005;37(11):690-694.

Meneilly GS. Effect of repaglinide versus glyburide on postprandial glucose and insulin values in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. Jan 2011;13(1):63-65.

Merck. Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism 2012; diabetes_mellitus_and_disorders_of_carbohydrate_metabolism/hypoglycemia.html. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Merck. Hypoglycemia. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 2007; diabetes_mellitus_and_disorders_of_carbohydrate_metabolism/hypoglycemia.html#v989521. Accessed 12/30/2012, 2012.

Merck. Hypoglycemia. Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders 2006; hypoglycemia/hypoglycemia.html?qt=&sc=&alt=. Accessed 12/30/2012, 2012.

Meyer G, Hackemann A, Reusch J, Badenhoop K. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease). Diabetes Technol Ther. May 2012;14(5):386-388.

Middleton SJ, Balan K. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series. Journal of medical case reports. 2012;6(1):132.

Milman S, Leu J, Shamoon H, Vele S, Gabriely I. Magnitude of exercise-induced beta-endorphin response is associated with subsequent development of altered hypoglycemia counterregulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Feb 2012;97(2):623-631.

Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, Guidone C, Raffaelli M, Callari C, Lombardi PC, Bellantone R. Protocol for a randomised clinical study comparing the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on reactive hypoglycaemia in morbidly obese subjects. BMJ Open. 2012;2(6):pii: e002184.

Mishra A, Dave N. Norfloxacin-induced hypoglycemia and urticaria. Indian J Pharmacol. May 2012;44(3):415-416.

Mosca M, Boniglia C, Carratu B, Giammarioli S, Nera V, Sanzini E. Determination of alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of phaseolamin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in dietary supplements by HPAEC-PAD. Analytica chimica acta. Jun 9 2008;617(1-2):192-195.

Nagendran MV. Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract (GCE), High in chlorogenic acids, on glucose metabolism. Poster presentation number: 45-LB-P. Obesity 2011, the 29th annual scientific meeting of the obesity society. Orlando, Florida. October 1-5, 2011.

Ng CL. Hypoglycaemia in nondiabetic patients - an evidence. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Jun;39(6):399-404.

Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids in health and disease. 2009;8:7.

Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids in health and disease. 2005;4:12.

Nippoldt TB. Diabetes. Reactive hypoglycemia: What can I do? Mayo Clinic web page. Last upadted 5/15/2013. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, Agbor GA, Sobgui CS. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:12.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, Agbor GA, Sobgui CS. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids in health and disease. 2008;7:12.

Obiro WC, Zhang T, Jiang B. The nutraceutical role of the Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor. The British journal of nutrition. Jul 2008;100(1):1-12.

Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BK. Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of chlorogenic acid are mediated by ampk activation. Biochemical pharmacology. Feb 14 2013.

Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BK. Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718.

Osaki S, Kimura T, Sugimoto T, Hizukuri S, Iritani N. L-arabinose feeding prevents increases due to dietary sucrose in lipogenic enzymes and triacylglycerol levels in rats. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):796-799.

Ozgen AG, Hamulu F, Bayraktar F, Cetinkalp S, Yilmaz C, Tuzun M, Kabalak T. Long-term treatment with acarbose for the treatment of reactive hypoglycemia. Eating and weight disorders : EWD. Sep 1998;3(3):136-140.

Palardy J, Havrankova J, Lepage R, Matte R, Belanger R, D'Amour P, Ste-Marie LG. Blood glucose measurements during symptomatic episodes in patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia. The New England journal of medicine. Nov 23 1989;321(21):1421-1425.

Paradis, M.-E., Couture, P., and Lamarche, B. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(6):913–9.

Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies. Int J Med Sci. 2007a;4(4):196-202.

Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies. International journal of medical sciences. 2007;4(4):196-202.

Pusztai A, Grant G, Buchan WC, Bardocz S, de Carvalho AF, Ewen SW. Lipid accumulation in obese Zucker rats is reduced by inclusion of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the diet. The British journal of nutrition. Feb 1998;79(2):213-221.

Qintar M, Sibai F, Taha M. Hypoglycemia due to an adult-onset nesidioblastosis, a diagnostic and management dilemma. Avicenna J Med. Apr 2012;2(2):45-47.

Rabiee A, Magruder JT, Salas-Carrillo R, Carlson O, Egan JM, Askin FB, . . . Andersen DK. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: unraveling the role of gut hormonal and pancreatic endocrine dysfunction. J Surg Res. May 15 2011;167(2):199-205.

Raffel A, Krausch MM, Anlauf M, Wieben D, Braunstein S, Kloppel G, . . . Knoefel WT. Diffuse nesidioblastosis as a cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Surgery. Feb 2007;141(2):179-184; discussion 185-176.

Rathmann W, Kostev K, Gruenberger JB, Dworak M, Bader G, Giani G. Treatment persistence, hypoglycaemia and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and sulphonylureas: a primary care database analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. Jan 2013;15(1):55-61.

Riccardi G, Rivellese AA. Effects of dietary fiber and carbohydrate on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in diabetic patients. Diabetes care. Dec 1991;14(12):1115-1125.

Riddle MC. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Circulation. Aug 24 2010;122(8):844-846.

Roach PJ, Depaoli-Roach AA, Hurley TD, Tagliabracci VS. Glycogen and its metabolism: some new developments and old themes. The Biochemical journal. Feb 1 2012;441(3):763-787.

Roslin M, Damani T, Oren J, Andrews R, Yatco E, Shah P. Abnormal glucose tolerance testing following gastric bypass demonstrates reactive hypoglycemia. Surgical endoscopy. Jun 2011;25(6):1926-1932.

Roth JM, Bolin B, Baird RW. Evaluation of blood glucose values in critically ill patients before and after implementation of an intensive insulin infusion protocol. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2007 Jul;20(3):237-239.

Sabater-Molina M, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem. 2009 Sep;65(3):315-328.

Samann A, Lehmann T, Heller T, Muller N, Hartmann P, Wolf GB, Muller UA. A retrospective study on the incidence and risk factors of severe hypoglycemia in primary care. Fam Pract. Nov 16 2012.

Santoro LG, Grant G, Pusztai A. Effects of short-term feeding of rats with a highly purified phaseolin preparation. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 1997;51(1):61-70.

Schouwenberg BJ, Smits P, Tack CJ, de Galan BE. The effect of antecedent hypoglycaemia on beta(2)-adrenergic sensitivity in healthy participants with the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. Diabetologia. May 2011;54(5):1212-1218.

Schouwenberg BJ, Veldman BA, Spiering W, Coenen MJ, Franke B, Tack CJ, . . . Smits P. The Arg16Gly variant of the beta2-adrenergic receptor predisposes to hypoglycemia unawareness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacogenet Genomics. Apr 2008;18(4):369-372.

Seri K, Sanai K, Matsuo N, et al. L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses glycemic response after sucrose ingestion in animals. Metabolism. 1996 Nov;45(11):1368-1374.

Shrayyef MZ, Gerich JE. Normal Glucose Homeostasis. In Principles of Diabetes Mellitus. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010.

Sorensen M, Johansen OE. Idiopathic reactive hypoglycaemia - prevalence and effect of fibre on glucose excursions. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Oct 2010;70(6):385-391.

Sprague JE, Arbelaez AM. Glucose counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER. Sep 2011;9(1):463-473; quiz 474-465.

Taborsky GJ, Jr., Mundinger TO. Minireview: The role of the autonomic nervous system in mediating the glucagon response to hypoglycemia. Endocrinology. Mar 2012;153(3):1055-1062.

Thom E. The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. J. Int. Med. Res. 2007;35(6):900–908.

Toth DW, Helm KD, Jones R. Evaluation of hypoglycemia.!/ContentPlayerCtrl/doPlayContent/21-s2.0-6112101/{"scope":"all","query":"hypoglycemia"}. Last updated 6/7/2013. Accessed 6/18/2013.

Towler DA, Havlin CE, Craft S, Cryer P. Mechanism of awareness of hypoglycemia. Perception of neurogenic (predominantly cholinergic) rather than neuroglycopenic symptoms. Diabetes. Dec 1993;42(12):1791-1798.

Tsai SH, Lin YY, Hsu CW, Cheng CS, Chu DM. Hypoglycemia revisited in the acute care setting. Yonsei Med J. 2011 Nov;52(6):898-908.

Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Med Rev. Mar 2004;9(1):63-69.

UW Health. Reactive Hypoglycemia. Health Information page. Last updated 6/12/2013. Accessed 6/21/2013.

Valderas JP, Ahuad J, Rubio L, Escalona M, Pollak F, Maiz A. Acarbose improves hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass surgery without increasing glucagon-like peptide 1 levels. Obes Surg. Apr 2012;22(4):582-586.

Vanschoonbeek K, Lansink M, van Laere KM, Senden JM, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJ. Slowly digestible carbohydrate sources can be used to attenuate the postprandial glycemic response to the ingestion of diabetes-specific enteral formulas. The Diabetes educator. Jul-Aug 2009;35(4):631-640.

Vele S, Milman S, Shamoon H, Gabriely I. Opioid receptor blockade improves hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov;96(11):3424-3431.

Washburn WN. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: novel antidiabetic agents. Expert opinion on therapeutic patents. May 2012;22(5):483-494.

Watford M. Regulation of fuel utilization in response to food intake. In: Stipanuk MH, ed. Biochemical, Physiological & Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. 2 ed: Saunders; 2006:541-565.

Wursch P, Pi-Sunyer FX. The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan. Diabetes Care. Nov 1997;20(11):1774-1780.

Zumkeller W. Nesidioblastosis. Endocr Relat Cancer. 1999 Sep;6(3):421-428.