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AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians) Patient Education: Sinusitis. Copyright © 2008.

AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians) Sinus infections (sinusitis): Am Fam Physician. 2011 May 1;83(9):1064-5.

Acioglu E, Yigit O, Alkan Z, Azizli E, Gelisgen R, Uzun H. The effects of corticosteroid on tissue lactoferrin in patients with nasal polyposis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26(1):e28-31.

Ammar el SM, Gameil NM, Shawky NM, Nader MA. Comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone and curcumin using an asthmatic murine model. International immunopharmacology. Dec 2011;11(12):2232-2236.

Ansari NN, Fathali M, Naghdi S, Hasson S, Jalaie S, Rastak MS. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the effects of continuous and pulsed ultrasound in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Physiotherapy theory and practice. Feb 2012;28(2):85-94.

Ansari NN, Fathali M, Naghdi S, Hasson S. Effect of pulsed ultrasound on chronic rhinosinusitis: a case report. Physiotherapy theory and practice. Nov 2010;26(8):558-563.

Balkissoon R. (2010) Chapter 43: Disorders of the Upper Airways (pg. 1047). In: Mason R. (Ed.), Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine (5th ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Bezerra TF, Padua FG, Ogawa AI, Gebrim EM, Saldiva PH, Voegels RL. Biofilm in chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps: pilot study. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. Nov-Dec 2009;75(6):788-793.

Biel MA, Sievert C, Usacheva M, Teichert M, Balcom J. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy treatment of chronic recurrent sinusitis biofilms. International forum of allergy & rhinology. Sep-Oct 2011;1(5):329-334.

Boto LR, Calado C, Vieira M, et al. [Subdural empyema due to gemella morbillorum as a complication of acute sinusitis]. Acta Med Port. 2011;24(3):475-480.

Brown CL, Graham SM, Cable BB, Ozer EA, Taft PJ, Zabner J. Xylitol enhances bacterial killing in the rabbit maxillary sinus. The Laryngoscope. Nov 2004;114(11):2021-2024.

Burton A. Fewer colds with increased vitamin E intake: Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;4(10):600.

Butt MS, Sultan MT. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Aug 2010;50(7):654-665.

Cho DY, Hwang PH, Illek B. Effect of L-ascorbate on chloride transport in freshly excised sinonasal epithelia. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009;23(3):294-299.

Cingi C, Eskiizmir G, Burukoglu D, Erdogmus N, Ural A, Unlu H. The histopathological effect of thymoquinone on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. American journal of rhinology & allergy. Nov-Dec 2011;25(6):e268-272.

Classen HG, Grober U, Low D, Schmidt J, Stracke H. [Zinc deficiency. Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and therapy]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2011;34(3):87-95.

Clinical Pharmacology. Acetylcysteine: drug monograph. 2012. NCT00924404. Xylitol Versus Saline in Chronic Sinusitis. Accessed 11/2/2012 at: K, Kozlowski Z, Durko T, Stanczyk R, Pietruszewska W. [Fungal rhinosinusitis - still unsolved problem]: Otolaryngol Pol. 2011 Sep-Oct;65(5):369-76.

Corboz MR, Rivelli MA, Mingo GG, McLeod RL, Varty L, Jia Y, Hey JA. Mechanism of decongestant activity of alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2008;21(3):449-454.

DeMuri G. (2009) Chapter 58: Sinusitis (pg. 839). In: Mandell G. (Ed.), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (7th ed). Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier

Doshi J. Rhinitis medicamentosa: what an otolaryngologist needs to know. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology: official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies. May 2009;266(5):623-625.

Ely JT. Ascorbic acid role in containment of the world avian flu pandemic. Exp Biol Med. 2007;232(7):847-851.

Ferri FF. Sinusitis. In: Ferri: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, An Imprint of Elsevier. Available at: Accessed November 2, 2012.

Fokkens W, Lund V, Bachert C, et al. EAACI position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps executive summary. Allergy. 2005;60(5):583-601.

Fort GG, Mikolich DJ. Sinusitis. Ferri: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed.: ®©Mosby, An Imprint of Elsevier 2012. Accessed 11/8/2012 at:

Friedman M, Hamilton C, Samuelson CG, et al. Dead Sea salt irrigations vs saline irrigations with nasal steroids for symptomatic treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized, prospective double-blind study. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2012;2(3):252-257.

Friedman M, Vidyasagar R, Joseph N. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study on the efficacy of dead sea salt nasal irrigations. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(6):878-882.

Gao M, Singh A, Macri K, et al. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system. Respir Res. 2011;12:92.

Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Rauchhaus U, Rode S, Haunschild J, Saalmuller A. Antiviral activity in vitro of two preparations of the herbal medicinal product Sinupret(R) against viruses causing respiratory infections. Phytomedicine. 2011;19(1):1-7.

Guarch Ibanez B, Bunuel Alvarez JC, Lopez Bermejo A, Mayol Canals L. [The role of antibiotics in acute sinusitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis]. Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003). Mar 2011;74(3):154-160.

Han JK, Hendley JO, Winther B. Bacterial pathogens of acute sinusitis in the osteomeatal complex during common colds and wellness. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1(5):356-360.

Heimer KA, Hart AM, Martin LG, Rubio-Wallace S. Examining the evidence for the use of vitamin C in the prophylaxis and treatment of the common cold. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2009;21(5):295-300.

Helms S, Miller A. Natural treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Altern Med Rev. 2006;11(3):196-207.

Hemavathi, Upadhyaya CP, Akula N, et al. Enhanced ascorbic acid accumulation in transgenic potato confers tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32(2):321-330.

Hemila H, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Kaprio J. The effect of vitamin E on common cold incidence is modified by age, smoking and residential neighborhood. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(4):332-339.

Holt S. Hype around high-dose vitamin C is unjustified: N Z Med J. 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):109-10.

Hosoien E, Lund AB, Vasseljen O. Similar effect of therapeutic ultrasound and antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: a randomised trial. Journal of physiotherapy. 2010;56(1):29-32.

Hytonen M, Suvilehto J. [Sinusitis or rhinosinusitis?]. Duodecim. 2012;128(2):230-231.

Inci M, Davarci M, Inci M, et al I. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of thymoquinone in a rat model of acute bacterial prostatitis. Human & experimental toxicology. Aug 7 2012.

Isaacs S, Fakhri S, Luong A, Citardi MJ. A meta-analysis of topical amphotericin B for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. International forum of allergy & rhinology. Jul-Aug 2011;1(4):250-254.

Jurkiewicz D, Rapiejko P. [Use of isotonic NaCl solution in patients with acute rhinosinusitis]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2011;65(1):47-53.

Karosi T, Sziklai I, Csomor P. Low-frequency ultrasound for biofilm disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis: In vitro pilot study. The Laryngoscope. Aug 14 2012.

Kehrl W, Sonnemann U, Dethlefsen U. Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Laryngoscope. 2004;114(4):738-742.

Keir J. Why do we have paranasal sinuses? J Laryngol Otol. 2009;123(1):4-8.

Kelsey NA, Wilkins HM, Linseman DA. Nutraceutical antioxidants as novel neuroprotective agents. Molecules. 2010;15(11):7792-7814.

Khalid U, Saleem T, Shah S. Therapeutic and prophylactic use of vitamin C for the common cold: J Pak Med Assoc. 2011 Dec;61(12):1252.

Leung RS, Katial R. The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic sinusitis. Prim Care. 2008;35(1):11-24.

Maggini S, Beveridge S, Suter M. A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold. J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):28-42.

Mayo Clinic. Chronic sinusitis. Causes. Available at: Last updated January 20, 2012c. Accessed November 2, 2012.

Mayo Clinic. Chronic sinusitis. Symptoms. Available at: Last updated January 20, 2012a. Accessed November 2, 2012.

Mayo Clinic. Health Information: Acute sinusitis. Updated Jan 20, 2012b. Accessed 8/20/12 at:

Medline Plus. Nasal discharge. Available at: Last updated August 12, 2011. Accessed November 2, 2012.

Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Sinusitis. Last Reviewed July 2006. Accessed on 8/19/12. Available at:

Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Sinusitis. Last Reviewed July 2008. Accessed on 8/18/12. Available at:

Mossad SB. Effect of zincum gluconicum nasal gel on the duration and symptom severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy adults. Qjm. 2003;96(1):35-43.

Naclerio RM, Bachert C, Baraniuk JN. Pathophysiology of nasal congestion. Int J Gen Med. 2010;3:47-57.

NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases). Sinusitis. Last Updated January 2012. Available at:

NIH (National institutes of Health) Medline Plus: Sinusitis. Last Updated August 8, 2012. Accessed 8/15/12. Available at:

Nriagu J. Zinc Deficiency in Human Health. In: Nriagu J, Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. University of Michigan, MI: Elsevier; 2007.

Ogle OE, Weinstock RJ, Friedman E. Surgical anatomy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America. May 2012;24(2):155-166, vii.

Oh HA, Park CS, Ahn HJ, Park YS, Kim HM. Effect of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo and rosmarinic acid on allergic inflammatory reactions. Exp Biol Med. 2011;236(1):99-106.

Onisor-Gligor F, Lung T, Pintea B, Muresan O, Pop PB, Juncar M. Maxillary odontogenic sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess--case report. Chirurgia. 2012;107(2):256-259.

Osguthorpe JD. Adult Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63(1):69-77.

Pae M, Meydani SN, Wu D. The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging. Aging Dis. 2012;3(1):91-129.

Patel ZM, Hwang PH, Chernomorsky A, Bravo DT, Nguyen BL, Nesterova K, Nayak JV. Low-frequency pulsed ultrasound in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a feasibility and distribution study. International forum of allergy & rhinology. Jul-Aug 2012;2(4):303-308.

Piccirillo JF. Clinical practice. Acute bacterial sinusitis. The New England journal of medicine. Aug 26 2004;351(9):902-910.

Pintucci JP, Corno S, Garotta M. Biofilms and infections of the upper respiratory tract. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14(8):683-690.

Psaltis AJ, Wormald PJ, Ha KR, Tan LW. Reduced levels of lactoferrin in biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2008;118(5):895-901.

PubMed Health. Sinusitis. Available at: July 30, 2012. Accessed November 2, 2012.

Puhakka T, Makela MJ, Alanen A, et al. Sinusitis in the common cold. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;102(3):403-408.

Radojicic C. Sinusitis. In: Cleveland Clinic: Current Clinical Medicine, 2nd ed. Copyright © 2010 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier. Accessed 11/2/2012 at:

Randhawa MA, Alghamdi MS. Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed) - a review. The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2011;39(6):1075-1091.

Reden J, El-Hifnawi D, Zahnert T, Hummel T. The effect of a herbal combination of primrose, gentian root, vervain, elder flowers, and sorrel on olfactory function in patients with a sinonasal olfactory dysfunction. Rhinology. 2011;49(3):342-346.

Riechelmann H. [Fungal sinusitis] [Article in German]. Laryngorhinootologie. Jun 2011;90(6):374-81.

Rosenfeld RM, Andes D, Bhattacharyya N, et al. Clinical practice guideline: adult sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137(3 Suppl):S1-31.

Rossberg E, Larsson PG, Birkeflet O, Soholt LE, Stavem K. Comparison of traditional Chinese acupuncture, minimal acupuncture at non-acupoints and conventional treatment for chronic sinusitis. Complement Ther Med. 2005;13(1):4-10.

Rossi A, Dehm F, Kiesselbach C, Haunschild J, Sautebin L, Werz O. The novel Sinupret(R) dry extract exhibits anti-inflammatory effectiveness in vivo. Fitoterapia. 2012;83(4):715-720.

Roxas M, Jurenka J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2007;12(1):25-48.

Sacks PL, Harvey RJ, Rimmer J, Gallagher RM, Sacks R. Antifungal therapy in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: a meta-analysis. American journal of rhinology & allergy. Mar-Apr 2012;26(2):141-147.

Sacks PL, Harvey RJ, Rimmer J, Gallagher RM, Sacks R. Topical and systemic antifungal therapy for the symptomatic treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2011(8):CD008263.

Sandstead HH, Prasad AS. Zinc intake and resistance to H1N1 influenza: Am J Public Health. 2010 Jun;100(6):970-1. Epub 2010 Apr 15.

Schubert MS. Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Med Mycol. 2009;47(1):27.

Shabana A, El-Menyar A, Asim M, Al-Azzeh H, Al Thani H. Cardiovascular Benefits of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa). Cardiovascular toxicology. Aug 22 2012.

Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;16(2).

Smith SR, Montgomery LG, Williams JW, Jr. Treatment of mild to moderate sinusitis. Archives of internal medicine. Mar 26 2012;172(6):510-513.

Suhaili DN, Goh BS, Gendeh BS. A ten year retrospective review of orbital complications secondary to acute sinusitis in children. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65(1):49-52.

Tesche S, Metternich F, Sonnemann U, Engelke JC, Dethlefsen U. The value of herbal medicines in the treatment of acute non-purulent rhinosinusitis. Results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265(11):1355-1359.

Umar S, Zargan J, Umar K, Ahmad S, Katiyar CK, Khan HA. Modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine response by thymoquinone in the collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Chemico-biological interactions. Apr 15 2012;197(1):40-46.

Unal M, Tamer L, Pata YS, et al. Serum levels of antioxidant vitamins, copper, zinc and magnesium in children with chronic rhinosinusitis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2004;18(2):189-192.

Weissman JD, Fernandez F, Hwang PH. Xylitol nasal irrigation in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis: a pilot study. The Laryngoscope. Nov 2011;121(11):2468-2472.

Woo CC, Kumar AP, Sethi G, Tan KH. Thymoquinone: potential cure for inflammatory disorders and cancer. Biochemical pharmacology. Feb 15 2012;83(4):443-451.

Young D, Morton R, Bartley J. Therapeutic ultrasound as treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis: preliminary observations. J Laryngol Otol. May 2010;124(5):495-499.

Zhang N, Van Crombruggen K, Holtappels G, Bachert C. A Herbal Composition of Scutellaria baicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an Ex Vivo Human Mucosal Tissue Model. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;673145:5.

Zielinska-Blizniewska H, Sitarek P, Milonski J, et al. Association of the -33C/G OSF-2 and the 140A/G LF gene polymorphisms with the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in a Polish population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39(5):5449-5457.