Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Jun 2015

Stop The Fat Cycle

Fat cells in obese people behave differently from those in lean individuals because of decreased function of a fat-removing enzyme called hormone-sensitive lipase. Studies show a blend of Mediterranean citrus and South American seed extracts restores activity of this vital enzyme in overweight persons. The result is a reduction of body fat by as much as 15.6%.

By Marcus Phillips.

Fat cells in obese people behave differently from those in lean individuals.

In the obese, fat cells have less-than-optimal functioning of an enzyme that is required to help break down stored fat and burn it for energy.1,2

As individuals become more overweight, the less effective their cells are at removing stored fat, making it harder for them to lose weight.3 This is likely to feel familiar to anyone who’s ever tried to permanently shed fat pounds.

A series of discoveries reveal that biologically active flavonoids from a blend of Mediterranean citrus fruit and South American seed extracts initiate a chain of events that help support the function of a fat-removing enzyme called hormone-sensitive lipase.4,5

In one human study, those taking the blend of this citrus fruit/seed extract saw body fat reduction of 15.6% and weight loss averaging almost 12 pounds.4

In another human study, citrus fruit/seed extract-supplemented subjects shed 9.73% of their white abdominal fat stores, compared with baseline. This nearly 10% loss of inflammation-generating abdominal fat led to remarkable drops in markers of inflammation in the blood.

Data from these human trials demonstrate healthy weight loss, especially from difficult-to-lose belly fat stores.4 Proper use of these nutrients can help jump-start a weight-loss program and reduce the chronic inflammation induced by surplus fat cells.4,5

How Fat Produces Inflammation And Decreases Insulin Sensitivity

Fat cells, especially the “white adipose tissue” found in abdominal fat, are a massive factory for inflammatory signaling molecules.6-8

The steady outpouring of these molecules from belly fat cells results in low-grade body-wide inflammation,9,10 which is a primary instigator of chronic “age-related” disorders.11,12

Pro-inflammatory molecules emitted from fat cells interfere with normal insulin function, which results in the state known as insulin resistance.6 Resistance to insulin increases the amount of glucose in the blood, where it further damages tissues and eventually contributes to still greater problems managing weight.

It has recently been discovered that the white adipose tissue in obese people behaves differently from that in lean individuals. Obese people’s fat cells have less than optimal functioning of hormone-sensitive lipase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down complex fat molecules and freeing them for burning for energy.1,3,13

Without sufficient hormone-sensitive lipase activity, obese people may have more trouble getting access to the energy stored in their fat cells, possibly making it more difficult to lose weight.

A ray of hope has recently emerged from the endless cycle of more and more obesity. A blend from Mediterranean citrus fruit and a South American seed has been shown to increase hormone-sensitive lipase activity in white adipose tissue cells, restoring their ability to free up—and burn off—their stores of excess energy. (Note: Fat is often medically defined as “stored energy.”)

Lethal Impact Of Surplus Body Fat
Lethal Impact Of Surplus Body Fat

This year, 400,000 Americans are expected to die from the effects of excess body fat.22 That’s almost as much as tobacco-related deaths.

Excess body fat is a leading contributor to cardiovascular and liver disease, diabetes, and cancer.22

If you look at 10 average American adults today, three of them are obese.23 That works out to about 100 million people whose health is threatened purely by the amount of unnecessary and dangerous body fat they carry.23,24

This problem is not limited to adults; 17% of children and teens are obese in the US,24 indicating that the problem extends well into the next generations.

Repairing The Broken Biology Of Obesity

Scientists familiar with the inner workings of human fat tissue have developed a novel approach, one that shifts the impaired biology of fat cells in obesity back to its normal function, as found in lean people.

Rather than relying on side effect-laden drugs, this discovery utilizes extracts derived from citrus and guarana fruit seeds to exert beneficial effects on fat metabolism.1,4 The end result has been shown to be the shrinking of white adipose (fat) tissue.11,12,14,15

The impact of these beneficial biochemical changes can be seen in a number of animal and laboratory studies. When human white fat cells in culture were exposed to this citrus/guarana seed extract, their rate of fat breakdown (lipolysis), was 6-fold that of untreated control cells.4

In animal models, citrus flavonoid supplements thwarted fatty liver disease, blood liver disturbances, and insulin resistance by preventing new fat production and storage in the liver, while increasing fat breakdown and fat burning.14

These extracts promote significant weight loss in obese laboratory rats and mice, accompanied by reductions in fasting blood sugar and blood lipids, which are risk indicators for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.16-21

What You Need To Know
Stopping The Fat Cycle

Stopping The Fat Cycle

  • If you are an adult American, you face a three-in-10 chance of being overweight or obese.
  • Fat tissue, especially the white adipose tissue found in abdominal fat stores, pumps out a massive flow of inflammation-promoting substances that leads to life-shortening chronic diseases.
  • Fat cells in obese people cannot process fat normally, leaving them to accumulate it much more extensively than lean people, while being unable to burn it off.
  • Flavonoids derived from citrus fruit and guarana seed extracts are capable of making fat cells from obese individuals function more like those of lean people, which can shed fat and burn it for energy.
  • Laboratory and clinical studies confirm that consuming these extracts as a nutritional supplement not only reduces body weight, but more importantly, shrinks body fat stores in the crucial abdominal region.
  • Furthermore, as weight and fat are shed, inflammation-promoting disease markers also fall away, further improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other chronic disorders.

Normalizing Fat Cell Behavior

It has long been suspected that citrus fruit and guarana carry benefits in relation to excess body fat. A large-scale, epidemiological study of Brazilians who regularly consumed guarana showed that they had lower rates of obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome than did those who never consumed it.25 In fact, men who consumed guarana regularly had lower waist circumferences than non-consumers, while women had lower total and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol compared with controls.

Two human studies have illustrated the weight-loss impact of utilizing standardized extracts from these plants.

In the first study of overweight volunteers, half received a placebo while the other half received the citrus/guarana extract blend. The supplement was standardized to contain 20% total flavanones.4 Subjects used the supplement for four and 12 weeks at a dose of 1.4 grams per day.

After four weeks, the supplemented group’s total body fat content had fallen by 5.53%, and average weight loss was 6.6 pounds. By 12 weeks, there was a 15.6% reduction in body fat and 12 pounds of weight lost. Placebo recipients had no significant losses of either body fat content or body weight.

In a second study, 47 people received the flavanone-rich supplement, at 450 mg, twice daily (at breakfast and lunch) for 12 weeks, while 48 control subjects received a placebo.5 Placebo subjects lost no significant amount of body weight or body fat, whereas the supplemented group lost 5.8 pounds from baseline. Supplemented people lost 6.6% of their total body fat, a significant difference from the placebo group.

This study demonstrated improvements in other parameters associated with long-term, fat-related disease risks. Mean waist and hip circumference, which are strongly correlated with cardiovascular risk, fell about two inches from baseline in the supplemented group. The supplemented subjects also shed 9.73% of their white abdominal fat stores, compared to when they started (baseline).

In response to this reduced abdominal fat mass, there were significant reductions in inflammatory blood markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) dropped by nearly 23% and fibrinogen fell nearly 20% from baseline. When compared to the placebo group, these changes amounted to 85% reduction in CRP and 18% reduction in fibrinogen.

It is very difficult to lower these inflammatory markers in obese individuals. Yet study subjects using this citrus/guarana-based supplement daily for three months lost nearly 7% of their total body fat, nearly 10% of abdominal white adipose tissue, and saw meaningful reductions in their inflammatory parameters.

We don’t yet have long-term results on these individuals, but it is safe to assume that such dramatic changes in their fundamental biology will lead to longer, healthier, more productive, and more active lives.

Defining Overweight And Obesity
Defining Overweight And Obesity

Carrying too much body fat is bad for you; it produces massive outflows of inflammation,26 stresses your joints,27 and overworks your heart, kidneys, and other organs.28 In order to study these problems, scientists have developed specific definitions, using the body mass index (BMI) as a standard measure. BMI is derived from a simple formula that includes both weight and height.29

By definition, a person is overweight if their BMI exceeds 25, and obese when BMI exceeds 30. Thus, every obese person is also overweight. In practical use, however, the term “overweight” generally indicates people with a BMI of 25 to 30.30

While “overweight” is a better place to be than obese, don’t make the mistake of thinking that you are protected if you are “only” overweight. Your body still has far too much white adipose tissue, and you are being exposed to far too much chronic inflammation. Overweight or obese—if you meet either definition, it’s time to get control of your body fat.

Summary

Being overweight and/or obese is now an undeniable global health problem, which scientists are calling “globesity.” These conditions are now recognized as genuine disease entities, not as failures of self-control or character flaws, because of their tremendously complicated biology and their major contributions to chronic disease and premature death.

Breakthroughs in molecular biology have revealed that the white adipose (fat) tissue cells of obese people behave differently from those in lean individuals. Obese people’s fat cells simply cannot liberate their massive fat contents to be used for energy; as a result, those cells continue to accumulate fat, with all of its inflammation-promoting properties.

Flavonoid components of citrus fruit and guarana seeds, however, act synergistically to counteract this obesity-induced defect. By restoring ailing fat cells to the healthier, more responsive functions of lean tissue, these extracts help normalize those cells and give them the ability to release and burn off excess fat, rather than continuing to accumulate it.

Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate both the mechanisms and effects of these extracts. In clinical studies, obese subjects not only shed significant body weight of up to one pound per week, but also reduced total body fat content by up to nearly 16%,4 with concomitant reductions in known disease risk factors such as waist and hip circumference, as well as blood markers of inflammation.

Almost everyone past the prime of their youth carries excess white body fat, and suffers the consequences of its massive outpouring of inflammatory mediators.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.

References

  1. Ray H, Pinteur C, Frering V, Beylot M, Large V. Depot-specific differences in perilipin and hormone-sensitive lipase expression in lean and obese. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:58.
  2. Kern PA, Di Gregorio G, Lu T, Rassouli N, Ranganathan G. Perilipin expression in human adipose tissue is elevated with obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Mar;89(3):1352-8.
  3. Large V, Reynisdottir S, Langin D, et al. Decreased expression and function of adipocyte hormone-sensitive lipase in subcutaneous fat cells of obese subjects. J Lipid Res. 1999 Nov;40(11):2059-66.
  4. Dallas C, Gerbi A, Tenca G, Juchaux F, Bernard FX. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). Phytomedicine. 2008 Oct;15(10):783-92.
  5. Dallas C, Gerbi A, Elbez Y, Caillard P, Zamaria N, Cloarec M. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals. Phytother Res. 2014 Feb;28(2):212-8.
  6. Van Greevenbroek MM, Schalkwijk CG, Stehouwer CD. Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: causes and consequences. Neth J Med. 2013 May;71(4):174-87.
  7. Aguilar-Valles A, Inoue W, Rummel C, Luheshi GN. Obesity, adipokines and neuroinflammation. Neuropharmacology. 2015 Jan 10.
  8. Masoodi M, Kuda O, Rossmeisl M, Flachs P, Kopecky J. Lipid signaling in adipose tissue: Connecting inflammation & metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Apr;1851(4):503-18.
  9. Shen M, Kumar SP, Shi H. Estradiol regulates insulin signaling and inflammation in adipose tissue. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2014 Feb;17(2):99-107.
  10. Tahergorabi Z, Khazaei M. The relationship between inflammatory markers, angiogenesis, and obesity. ARYA Atheroscler. 2013 Jun;9(4):247-53.
  11. Candore G, Caruso C, Jirillo E, Magrone T, Vasto S. Low grade inflammation as a common pathogenetic denominator in age-related diseases: novel drug targets for anti-ageing strategies and successful ageing achievement. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(6):584-96.
  12. Tchkonia T, Morbeck DE, von Zglinicki T, et al. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence. Aging Cell. 2010 Oct;9(5):667-84.
  13. Langin D, Dicker A, Tavernier G, et al. Adipocyte lipases and defect of lipolysis in human obesity. Diabetes. 2005 Nov;54(11):3190-7.
  14. Assini JM, Mulvihill EE, Huff MW. Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013 Feb;24(1):34-40.
  15. Tsujita T, Takaku T. Lipolysis induced by segment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshu Mark). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007 Dec;53(6):547-51.
  16. Adeneye AA. Methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad lowers blood glucose, lipids and cardiovascular disease risk indices in normal Wistar rats. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2008 Jan-Mar;18(1):16-20.
  17. Lu Y, Xi W, Ding X, et al. Citrange fruit extracts alleviate obesity-associated metabolic disorder in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mouse. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(12):23736-50.
  18. Titta L, Trinei M, Stendardo M, et al. Blood orange juice inhibits fat accumulation in mice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar;34(3):578-88.
  19. Onat A, Aydın M, Can G, et al. Impaired fasting glucose: Pro-diabetic, “atheroprotective” and modified by metabolic syndrome. World J Diabetes. 2013 Oct 15;4(5):210-8.
  20. Aguilera CM, Gil-Campos M, Cañete R, Gil A. Alterations in plasma and tissue lipids associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Feb;114(3):183-93.
  21. Huang PL. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2009 May-Jun;2(5-6):231-7.
  22. Hurt RT, Frazier TH, McClave SA, Kaplan LM. Obesity epidemic: overview, pathophysiology, and the intensive care unit conundrum. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011 Sep;35(5 Suppl):4s-13s.
  23. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014 Feb 26;311(8):806-14.
  24. Lopez KN, Knudson JD. Obesity: from the agricultural revolution to the contemporary pediatric epidemic. Congenit Heart Dis. 2012 Mar-Apr;7(2):189-99.
  25. Krewer Cda C, Ribeiro EE, Ribeiro EA, et al. Habitual intake of guarana and metabolic morbidities: an epidemiological study of an elderly Amazonian population. Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1367-74.
  26. Fantuzzi G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 May;115(5):911-9.
  27. Vincent HK, Heywood K, Connelly J, Hurley RW. Obesity and weight loss in the treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis. PM R. 2012 May;4(5 Suppl):S59-67.
  28. Sowers JR. The heart and the kidneys: partners in disease? Cardiorenal Med. 2011 Jan;1(1):1-2.
  29. Frontini MG, Bao W, Elkasabany A, Srinivasan SR, Berenson G. Comparison of weight-for-height indices as a measure of adiposity and cardiovascular risk from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;54(8):817-22.
  30. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/defining.html. Accessed March 17, 2015.

Subscribe to Life Extension Magazine®

Subscribe Now

Advertise in Life Extension Magazine®

Learn More