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European Therapies for Atherosclerosis, Hormones, Diabetes, Stroke, Cancer and more

The Need for European Medications | Aminoguanidine | Biostim | Centrophenoxine | Deprenyl | Ergoloid mesylates (Hydergine) | Isoprinosine | KH3 | Nimodipine | Picamilon | Piracetam | Pyritinol | Ribavirin

Many Life Extension customers use European medications as part of their antiaging program, including "smart drugs" to enhance their cognitive function, hormones, and antiaging drugs which may help to slow the onset of aging and age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, stroke and diabetes.

Most of the European drugs and hormones used by life extensionists have been used safely for decades throughout the world, although some are not approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

What follows is a description of some of the most popular of these drugs.

The Need for European Medications

Significant benefit can be obtained from products available in the United States to prevent degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and diabetes, and slow aging. There are some mechanisms of aging, however, which can only be controlled by the use of therapies not yet approved by the FDA. One dangerous mechanism of aging is the chronic elevation of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Elevated MAO levels seriously damage brain cells, especially dopamine producing cells.

In each decade over age 45, we lose about 13% of our dopamine producing neurons. Once 80% of these neurons are dead, Parkinson's disease is diagnosed and there is currently no long-term therapy to reverse Parkinson's disease.

By inhibiting MAO levels now, we can prevent much of the damage to brain cells that aging causes, thereby helping to prevent diseases like Parkinson's and other forms of senile dementia.

There is one drug that has been extensively documented to specifically inhibit the elevation of monoamine oxidase B (MAO B), a particularly dangerous form of MAO to brain cells. This MAO-inhibiting drug is called deprenyl. It has been used in Europe since the 1970s to treat various forms of age-related neurological diseases. The FDA approved deprenyl in 1989 for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, but not to prevent it.

Deprenyl is sold in 5 mg tablets and capsules. Healthy people only need one to two tablets a week to help prevent premature brain cell death.

Another mechanism of aging involves the excessive production of cortisol. High levels of cortisol suppress immune function, promote atherosclerosis, and damage and kill brain cells. Cortisol has been described by antiaging doctors as one of the "death hormones" our body produces that causes premature aging. Cancer and AIDS patients have exceptionally high levels of cortisol production, causing severe immune suppression that often leads to death.

Aging causes the disruption of normal cellular metabolism that results in the progressive decline in cell energy production throughout the body.

For cells to function, they must:

  1. Absorb serum glucose through the cell membrane to produce energy.
  2. Synthesize proteins to perform youthful cellular functions.
  3. Clear out debris so that the cell does not become clogged with lipofuscin, beta-amyloid and other waste by-products that have been linked to Alzheimer's and other age-related neurological diseases.
There are drugs used in Europe to treat a wide variety of ailments associated with reduced cellular metabolism caused by normal aging.

Two of these drugs, vinpocetine and/or Hydergine have been shown to:

  • improve blood supply to the brain.
  • increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.
  • increase oxygen use by the brain.
  • enhance metabolism in brain cells.
  • protect the brain from damage during periods of decreased and/or insufficient oxygen supply. slow the deposit of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain.
  • prevent free radical damage in brain cells.
  • increase intelligence, memory, learning, and recall.
  • enhance the use of glucose by brain cells. increase ATP levels in the brain.
  • stop blood from becoming sticky.
  • raise the brain levels of serotonin.

Vinpocetine and hydergine provide a wide range of antiaging effects in brain and other cells that you cannot easily obtain with any other therapy.


Aminoguanidine prevents destructive crosslinking of collagen and elastin fibers in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Such crosslinks are also one of the major causes of brain and muscle degeneration in the elderly. Scientists have found that the primary cause of cross linking is protein glycosylation, which is the chemical reaction of blood sugar (glucose) with body proteins.

Aminoguanidine blocks and apparently prevents crosslinking due to glycosylation. Studies in animals have shown that aminoguanidine can prevent aging of the blood vessels associated with diabetes and atherosclerosis, and molecular cross-linking in the brain. Since there has only been limited clinical experience with aminoguanidine, we suggest that it be taken under the supervision of a physician.

Healthy people usually take 300 mg a day while diabetics may take 600 mg daily.


Each biostim tablet contains 1 mg of the active ingredient which is extracted from bacteria. The product is a potent immune system stimulant that boosts all three levels of defense against infection, i.e.

  1. phagocytosis
  2. humoral reactions and
  3. cellular immunity

Biostim, by stimulating the immune system, has been shown to protect against illness caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses in both normal people and those with a depressed immune system. The effectiveness of a once yearly treatment with biostim has been proven in medical trials. It can be used to boost immunity and to avoid chronic infections of the lungs. Regular use of biostim means you lower the risk of infection and experience shorter periods of infection.


Centrophenoxine is an antiaging drug used widely to increase brain energy through increased uptake of glucose, which is essential for energy production. Centrophenoxine has been found to be very effective in the treatment of brain damage due to old age, stroke, physical injury caused by chemicals and drugs, and excessive alcohol consumption. Centrophenoxine has the ability to protect against toxic enviromental chemicals.

Centrophenoxine has extended the lifespan of laboratory animals, and has been shown to be highly effective in reducing the levels of a cellular pigmented waste product called lipofuscin found in increasing amounts in brain and muscle cells. Centrophenoxine also increases learning and memory and reduces cellular damage due to excessive free radical activity in cell membranes.

Suggested dose: Centrophenoxine can be used in doses ranging from one to four tablets daily.


Deprenyl may be one of the most effective antiaging therapies in the world. Deprenyl works by inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, thereby elevating dopamine levels in the brain and central nervous system. Elevated levels of dopamine can confer an antidepressant effect and increase libido. Deprenyl has extended maximum lifespan in animal studies. It is used clinically to slow the progression of Parkinson's disease and to improve the quality of life in patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease.

In every decade after age 45, about 13% of our dopamine producing brain cells die. Deprenyl may inhibit the death of these dopamine-producing cells while maintaining youthful levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Suggested dose: For healthy people, take 2 tablets a week. Anyone with symptoms of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease should take 10 mg of deprenyl per day under the care of a physician. The use of deprenyl is contraindicated with Prozac and opiate-based pharmaceutical anesthetic or other drugs.

Ergoloid Mesylates (Hydergine)

Hydergine is a popular "smart pill" because it works in several ways to improve memory and mental function and protect the brain from aging-related damage. Europeans routinely use Hydergine as a productivity enhancing drug. In emergencies, European doctors inject hydergine directly into the carotid artery to protect the brain. Hydergine's mechanisms of actions include the reduction in the rate of lipofuscin deposition in brain cells, increased metabolism of brain cells by improving ATP synthesis and protection to the brain from free radical damage.

Suggested dose: Europeans use 4 to 10 mg a day of Hydergine to obtain the desired results.


Since 1985, Life Extension has recommended Isoprinosine®, also known as Imunovir® as an adjuvant treatment for AIDS, cancer and age-associated immune impairment. There have been more than 60 articles published on Isoprinosine and cancer since 1972. Isoprinosine, its characteristics and its usefulness in relevant indications are discussed here. Isoprinosine is an immunomodulator and is currently (as of December 2001) approved for immunorestoration in chemotherapy in some countries. Patients on chemotherapy are particularly susceptible to different viral infections as a result of chemotherapy-induced immunodepression. Adjuvant therapy with Isoprinosine can restore the cell-mediated immune response to the individual's baseline levels. Read more about cancer patient nutrition information.

It can therefore be prescribed during chemotherapy to restore the immune response and as a prophylaxis against reactivation of latent herpes simplex or herpes varicelliform zoster (shingles) infections, or for treatment or management of other secondary viral infections.

In these instances, the dosage used is the standard 50 mg/kg/day of lean body weight, up to a maximum of 3g daily (6x 500 mg tablets), divided evenly during waking hours. Schedule of treatment depends on the type of chemotherapeutic agent used. Isoprinosine is only administered after the infusion and only when the desired immune suppression against the cancerous cells has taken effect. At that point between infusions when it is desirable for the immune system to normalise, Isoprinosine treatment is initiated in order to enhance the normal immune response recovery. The number of treatment days depends on the length of time between infusions and also the immune profile of the individual patient.

Isoprinosine can also be administered for immunorestoration after chemotherapy, surgery or radiation.

It is important to note that Isoprinosine is not approved for the treatment of the neoplasia per se. There is no data on the effect of Isoprinosine on cancer itself or the effect on the progression of the disease.

How Does Isoprinosine Work?

Isoprinosine is a synthetic purine derivative with immunomodulatory and antiviral properties, which result from an apparent in vivo enhancement of host immune responses due to the drug.

The action of Isoprinosine can be summarized as follows:

  • Normalizes the cell-mediated immunity by stimulating the differentiation of T-lymphocytes into T-cytotoxic cells and T-helper cells and increasing lymphokine production
  • Increases production of IL-1 (interleukin-1), IL-2 (interleukin-2) and IFN-γ (gamma interferon)
  • Increases NK cell (natural killer cell) function
  • Increases the humoral immune response by stimulating the differentiation of B- lymphocytes into plasma cells and by enhancing antibody production
  • Increases the number of IgG and complement surface markers
  • Potentiates neutrophil, monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis
  • Inhibits viral growth by suppressing viral RNA synthesis while potentiating depressed lympocytic RNA synthesis and translational ability

Other Benefits of Isoprinosine Treatment

Studies have documented the ability of Isoprinosine to slow the progression of AIDS in HIV-infected persons by increasing the total number and activity of T-cells, T-helper cells and NK (natural killer) cells. The largest study, which was published in The New England Journal of Medicine on June 21, 1990 found that HIV infected people with CD4 cells count over 500 experienced significant benefits from Isoprinosine therapy.

T-lymphocyte defects are common in cancer and AIDS patients according to a study in Medical Oncological Tumor Pharmacotherapy in 1989, which found that Isoprinosine and levamisole (another immune-boosting drug) mimic the actions of the thymic hormones to promote T-cell development. Combinations of Isoprinosine, low-dose Interleukin 1 and 2, and other immune-modulating hormones such as Melatonin are suggested as possibly effective cancer therapies.

Prescribing Information

The prescribing physician will ultimately decide about the details of therapy (dosing, duration, etc.). According to dosing information obtained from published references; patients with cancer can take 2000 mg to 3000 mg of Isoprinosine daily for two months (2-3g/day; 4-6 tabs of 500 mg inosine pranobex). Then they may stop taking Isoprinosine for two months, and then resume taking it at the same dose for another two months.

Ordering Imunovir® / Isoprinosine

Isoprinosine® / Imunovir® is not a licensed drug in the United States. The product is registered in 43 countries worldwide for the restoration of cell-mediated immunity in immunodepressed patients and treatment or management of other virally induced indications.

It is a "prescription only" medication, and therefore you will need a prescription from a doctor licensed in the US. The ordering procedure follows the FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs’ Guidance for Personal Importations.


KH3 has been used in more than 70 countries around the world as an antiaging drug for decades. Every KH3 capsule contains the world famous "youth" drug procaine along with a compound called hematoporphyrin, which enhances the activity of procaine.

Many studies have shown that KH3 slows down some aspects of aging, helps people cope with the pressures of life, and makes life seem worthwhile. Clinical studies have shown that KH3 can improve alertness, concentration, memory, physical coordination, and blood circulation in the brain. Though KH3 was originally used primarily to treat the elderly, it is now used by people of all ages throughout the world.

Suggested dose: Take one to two capsules daily at breakfast with a little liquid. This regimen should be continued for 5 months, after which a break of 2 to 4 weeks can be used to judge the effectiveness of KH3.


Especially recommended for head trauma victims, nimodipine (brand name Nimotop) is a calcium channel blocker specific to the central nervous system. It prevents movement of calcium into the cells of blood vessels, thereby relaxing the vessels and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen. It dramatically improves cerebral blood flow. Nimodipine is an FDA-approved drug used to prevent and treat problems caused by a burst blood vessel around the brain but has been ignored by most neurologists treating victims of stroke and other age-related neurological diseases.


Picamilon appears to be more effective than Hydergine or vinpocetin in improving blood flow to the cerebral vessels. Picamilon readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to protect neurons against the effects of diminished oxygen flow. It also produces cognitive-enhancing effects.

The combination of these effects provides an entirely new method of dealing safely with several causes of neurological aging. Picamilon is approved as a pharmaceutical product in Russia, but is really a vitamin-like compound consisting of a niacin analog (n-nicotinoyl) uniquely bonded to GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid). When niacin is bound to GABA, it creates a molecule that readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier to enhance cerebral and peripheral circulation. What enables picamilon to work so well is the synergism between the niacin and GABA molecules.

Suggested dose: One tablet, two to three times a day. If cognitive enhancing results do not occur in 30 days, double the dose.


Piracetam is a derivative of the amino acid GABA that increases the sensitivity of receptors in the brain involved in memory and learning. Piracetam is called a nootropic drug because of its ability to enhance the mind. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated that piracetam can improve memory, increase attention and cognition, improve spatial learning, and enhance motor mechanisms. Piracetam is one of the most popular "smart drugs" that is used to increase intelligence, information processing ability, concentration, memory, and creativity. It has been shown to harmonize and synchronize the spheres of the brain by anchoring information within the brain.

Suggested dose: Piracetam should be used in doses ranging from 1600 to 2400 mg a day taken first thing in the morning.


Recent evidence suggests that a European medication called Pyritinol may be an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. When compared Hydergine and placebo, Pyritinol produced continuous improvement in cognitive function, which was more pronounced than in the Hydergine group. Pyritinol is used in Europe for the treatment of a wide variety of neurologic disorders. The Pyritinol molecule is structurally similar to Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), but functions in a different way within the body. Pyritinol is not available in the U.S.


Ribavarin has antiviral activity against both RNA and DNA viruses. It is a synthetic, non-interferon inducing, antiviral agent. Robavin may exert its antiviral effect as the 5'-monophosphate by acting as an analog of inosine monophosphate (IMP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP). It is an effective inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase. Robavin, thus, apparently inhibits an early step in viral replication that leads to the synthesis of viral ribonucleic acids required for viral protein synthesis.

Each capsule or each 10 ml contains 100 mg of ribavirin.

Type A hepatitis, herpes zoster. Herpes simplex, viral respiratory infection, viral pediatric disease.

Dosage and Administration
For adults, 100 to 200 mg of ribavirin are usually administered orally every 6 to 8 hours.
For children, 10 mg/kg/day of ribavirin are usually administered orally in 3 to 4 divided doses.
Hepatitis: Administer for 10 to 14 days.
Herpes : Administer for 7 to 10 days.
Respiratory infection and pediatric disease: Administer for 5 to 7 days.

A. Contraindications

  1. Patients with extensive hepatic fibrosis
  2. Patients with renal impairment
  3. Patients with a symptom of pernicious anemia

B. Adverse Reactions

  1. Overdosage or prolonged treatment may cause symptoms of anemia. Administration should be discontinued if such symptoms develop.
  2. Elevation of S-GOT and S-GPT may occur. Administration should be discontinued if such symptoms develop.
  3. Headache, drowsiness, cramp, etc. may occasionally occur.

C. Use during Pregnancy:

  1. Safety of this product during pregnancy has not been established. The administration of this product is not recommended to pregnant patients or women suspected of being pregnant.

Store in a tight container, and dry and cool place.

3 years

How Supplied
Robavin Capsules: 60, 100, 300, 500
Robavin Syrup : 30, 60, 90, 450