Glucose (2-Hour Postprandial) (serum or plasma)
Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after you eat. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin so blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. This test measures blood glucose exactly two hours after eating.
- Reference Range: 65-139 mg/dL
- LE’s Optimal Range:
- Good: 120-140 mg/dL
- Ideal: 110-125 mg/dL (or an increase of no more than 40 mg/dL over fasting baseline)
Hemoglobin A1C (whole blood)
Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) evaluates long-term blood sugar control and correlates well with the risk of complications from diabetes (Sherwani 2016). Serum glucose reacts with important proteins in the body rendering them nonfunctional in a process called glycation. HbA1C is a reflection of this detrimental reaction (Florkowski 2013). Doctors often follow this blood test in diabetics to monitor disease progression and the effects of treatment.
- Reference Range: 4.8-5.6 %
- LE’s Optimal: < 5.0 %
Fasting Insulin (serum)
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to eating carbohydrates. Insulin facilitates the transport of carbohydrates and sugars from the bloodstream into the cells. Insulin resistance, the hallmark of type II diabetes, occurs with excessive carbohydrate intake. In this case, insulin does not work optimally to drive glucose into the cells and tissues and results in high blood glucose. This test may be done fasting or 2‒6 hours after eating. Both ways provide valuable information, though 2‒6 hours after a meal provides a more realistic assessment of the state of your blood in everyday life.
- Reference Range: 2.6-24.9 µIU/mL
- LE’s Optimal Range: < 5.0 µIU/mL
Additional information about the importance of maintaining healthy blood sugar levels can be found in the Diabetes and Glucose Control protocol.