Cystatin C (serum or plasma)
Cystatin-C is an indicator of kidney function (Murty 2013). It has been suggested that cystatin-C might predict patients with “preclinical” kidney dysfunction and patients with chronic kidney disease who are at a higher risk of complications (Shlipak 2006; Peralta 2011). Moreover, it can predict the risk of death and cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (Vigil 2014).
- Reference Range: 0.53-0.95 mg/L
- LE’s Optimal Range: <0.91 mg/L
Liver Enzymes: Alanine Transaminase (ALT/SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/SGOT), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
These liver enzymes are used to evaluate liver function. Both ALT and AST are abundant in the liver, and their levels increase with liver disease and sometimes with intense exercise (Giannini 2005). Personalized reference ranges are listed on laboratory results as they vary according to age and sex.
- Reference Range:
- ALT/SGPT: 0-44 IU/L
- AST/SGOT: 0-40 IU/L
- Women: 119-226 IU/L (over 17 years)
- Men: 121-224 IU/L (over 17 years)
Total Serum Protein
Total proteins are decreased in people with abnormal loss from the digestive tract, malnutrition, certain kidney diseases, or poor liver function.
- Reference range: 6.0-8.5 g/dL