Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Brain Tumor


Abbruzzese C, Matteoni S, Signore M, Cardone L, Nath K, Glickson JD, Paggi MG. Drug repurposing for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR. Nov 28 2017;36(1):169.

Abrigo JM, Fountain DM, Provenzale JM, Law EK, Kwong JS, Hart MG, Tam WWS. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Jan 22 2018;1:Cd011551.

ABTA. American Brain Tumor Association. Brain Tumor Statistics. Copyright 2014a. Accessed 12/29/2017.

ABTA. American Brain Tumor Association. Diet and nutrition during treatment. Copyright 2014b. Accessed 3/6/2018.

Abubakar IB, Lim KH, Kam TS, Loh HS. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of combined delta-tocotrienol and jerantinine B on human brain and colon cancers. Journal of ethnopharmacology. May 26 2016;184:107-118.

Abubakar IB, Lim KH, Loh HS. Alkaloid extracts of Ficus species and palm oil-derived tocotrienols synergistically inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells. Natural product research. 2015;29(22):2137-2140.

ACS. American Cancer Society. Benefits of good nutrition during cancer treatment. Last updated 7/15/2015. Accessed 3/6/2018.

Adeberg S, Bernhardt D, Ben Harrabi S, Bostel T, Mohr A, Koelsche C, . . . Debus J. Metformin influences progression in diabetic glioblastoma patients. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]. Dec 2015;191(12):928-935.

Adeberg S, Bernhardt D, Harrabi SB, Nicolay NH, Horner-Rieber J, Konig L, . . . Rieken S. Metformin Enhanced in Vitro Radiosensitivity Associates with G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Elevated Adenosine-5'-monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase Levels in Glioblastoma. Radiology and oncology. Dec 2017;51(4):431-437.

Ahmed N, Brawley V, Hegde M, Bielamowicz K, Kalra M, Landi D, . . . Gottschalk S. HER2-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Virus-Specific T Cells for Progressive Glioblastoma: A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial. JAMA oncology. Aug 1 2017;3(8):1094-1101.

Albatany M, Li A, Meakin S, Bartha R. Dichloroacetate induced intracellular acidification in glioblastoma: in vivo detection using AACID-CEST MRI at 9.4 Tesla. Journal of neuro-oncology. Jan 2018;136(2):255-262.

Aldea MD, Petrushev B, Soritau O, Tomuleasa CI, Berindan-Neagoe I, Filip AG, . . . Kacso G. Metformin plus sorafenib highly impacts temozolomide resistant glioblastoma stem-like cells. Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology. Apr-Jun 2014;19(2):502-511.

Alexander BM, Cloughesy TF. Adult Glioblastoma. Journal of clinical oncology: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Jul 20 2017;35(21):2402-2409.

Andersen L, Friis S, Hallas J, Ravn P, Kristensen BW, Gaist D. Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of glioma among younger women: a nationwide case-control study. British journal of clinical pharmacology. Apr 2015;79(4):677-684.

Anjum K, Shagufta BI, Abbas SQ, Patel S, Khan I, Shah SAA, . . . Hassan SSU. Current status and future therapeutic perspectives of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy: A review. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Aug 2017;92:681-689.

Annabi B, Lachambre MP, Bousquet-Gagnon N, Page M, Gingras D, Beliveau R. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate inhibits MMP-2 secretion and MT1-MMP-driven migration in glioblastoma cells. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Jan 30 2002;1542(1-3):209-220.

Arcella A, Biagioni F, Antonietta Oliva M, Bucci D, Frati A, Esposito V, . . . Fornai F. Rapamycin inhibits the growth of glioblastoma. Brain research. Feb 7 2013;1495:37-51.

Arevalo AST, Erices JI, Uribe DA, Howden J, Niechi I, Munoz S, . . . Monras CAQ. Current Therapeutic Alternatives and New Perspectives in Glioblastoma Multiforme. Current medicinal chemistry. 2017;24(25):2781-2795.

Awad AW, Karsy M, Sanai N, Spetzler R, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Mahan MA. Impact of removed tumor volume and location on patient outcome in glioblastoma. Journal of neuro-oncology. Oct 2017;135(1):161-171.

Baan R, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, . . . Straif K. Carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The Lancet. Oncology. Jul 2011;12(7):624-626.

Bak DH, Kang SH, Choi DR, Gil MN, Yu KS, Jeong JH, . . . Han SY. Autophagy enhancement contributes to the synergistic effect of vitamin D in temozolomide-based glioblastoma chemotherapy. Experimental and therapeutic medicine. Jun 2016;11(6):2153-2162.

Bannink F, Larok R, Kirabira P, Bauwens L, van Hove G. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The Pan African medical journal. 2015;20:90.

Barami K. Oncomodulatory mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus in gliomas. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2010;17(7):819-823.

Baskar R, Dai J, Wenlong N, Yeo R, Yeoh KW. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment. Frontiers in molecular biosciences. 2014;1:24.

Batash R, Asna N, Schaffer P, Francis N, Schaffer M. Glioblastoma Multiforme, Diagnosis and Treatment; Recent Literature Review. Current medicinal chemistry. 2017;24(27):3002-3009.

Beatty GL, Gladney WL. Immune escape mechanisms as a guide for cancer immunotherapy. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Feb 15 2015;21(4):687-692.

Belkaid A, Currie JC, Desgagnes J, Annabi B. The chemopreventive properties of chlorogenic acid reveal a potential new role for the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate translocase in brain tumor progression. Cancer cell international. Mar 27 2006;6:7.

Berg J. A Paradigm Shift in Glioblastoma Treatment and Research: A Multi-mechanistic, Multi-agent Approach to Target Glioblastoma Multiforme. JAMSAT. 2016;2(4).

Bhattacharjee R, Devi A, Mishra S. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies reveal structural basis of inhibition and selectivity of inhibitors EGCG and OSU-03012 toward glucose regulated protein-78 (GRP78) overexpressed in glioblastoma. Journal of molecular modeling. Oct 2015;21(10):272.

Bianco J, Bastiancich C, Jankovski A, des Rieux A, Preat V, Danhier F. On glioblastoma and the search for a cure: where do we stand? Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS. Jul 2017;74(13):2451-2466.

Bielecka-Wajdman AM, Lesiak M, Ludyga T, Sieron A, Obuchowicz E. Reversing glioma malignancy: a new look at the role of antidepressant drugs as adjuvant therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. Jun 2017;79(6):1249-1256.

Blom HJ, Smulders Y. Overview of homocysteine and folate metabolism. With special references to cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. Journal of inherited metabolic disease. Feb 2011;34(1):75-81.

Bock HC, Puchner MJ, Lohmann F, Schutze M, Koll S, Ketter R, . . . Giese A. First-line treatment of malignant glioma with carmustine implants followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy: a multicenter experience. Neurosurgical review. Oct 2010;33(4):441-449.

Bondy ML, Scheurer ME, Malmer B, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Davis FG, Il'yasova D, . . . Buffler PA. Brain tumor epidemiology: consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer. Oct 1 2008;113(7 Suppl):1953-1968.

Boussiotis VA, Charest A. Immunotherapies for malignant glioma. Oncogene. Mar 2018;37(9):1121-1141.

Brandes AA, Tosoni A, Spagnolli F, Frezza G, Leonardi M, Calbucci F, Franceschi E. Disease progression or pseudoprogression after concomitant radiochemotherapy treatment: pitfalls in neurooncology. Neuro-oncology. Jun 2008;10(3):361-367.

Brown CE, Aguilar B, Starr R, Yang X, Chang WC, Weng L, . . . Forman SJ. Optimization of IL13Ralpha2-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy against Glioblastoma. Molecular therapy: the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Jan 3 2018;26(1):31-44.

Brown CE, Alizadeh D, Starr R, Weng L, Wagner JR, Naranjo A, . . . Badie B. Regression of Glioblastoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy. The New England journal of medicine. Dec 29 2016;375(26):2561-2569.

Brown CE, Badie B, Barish ME, Weng L, Ostberg JR, Chang WC, . . . Jensen MC. Bioactivity and Safety of IL13Ralpha2-Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Recurrent Glioblastoma. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Sep 15 2015;21(18):4062-4072.

Brown MC, Dobrikova EY, Dobrikov MI, Walton RW, Gemberling SL, Nair SK, . . . Gromeier M. Oncolytic polio virotherapy of cancer. Cancer. Nov 1 2014;120(21):3277-3286.

Brown MC, Gromeier M. Cytotoxic and immunogenic mechanisms of recombinant oncolytic poliovirus. Current opinion in virology. Aug 2015;13:81-85.

Brown MC, Holl EK, Boczkowski D, Dobrikova E, Mosaheb M, Chandramohan V, . . . Nair SK. Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific CTLs. Science translational medicine. Sep 20 2017;9(408).

Burgert A, Schlegel J, Becam J, Doose S, Bieberich E, Schubert-Unkmeir A, Sauer M. Characterization of Plasma Membrane Ceramides by Super-Resolution Microscopy. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). May 22 2017;56(22):6131-6135.

Burkewitz K, Zhang Y, Mair WB. AMPK at the nexus of energetics and aging. Cell metabolism. Jul 1 2014;20(1):10-25.

Campos B, Wan F, Farhadi M, Ernst A, Zeppernick F, Tagscherer KE, . . . Herold-Mende C. Differentiation therapy exerts antitumor effects on stem-like glioma cells. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. May 15 2010;16(10):2715-2728.

Carlberg M, Hardell L. Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones. International journal of environmental research and public health. Oct 16 2014;11(10):10790-10805.

Carlberg M, Hardell L. Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation. BioMed research international. 2017;2017:9218486.

Carmichael SL, Gonzalez-Feliciano AG, Ma C, Shaw GM, Cogswell ME. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy. Nutrition journal. Oct 6 2011;10:105.

Carmignani M, Volpe AR, Aldea M, Soritau O, Irimie A, Florian IS, . . . Valle G. Glioblastoma stem cells: a new target for metformin and arsenic trioxide. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. Jan-Mar 2014;28(1):1-15.

Carpenter RL, Lo HW. STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers. Cancers. Apr 16 2014;6(2):897-925.

Catuogno S, Esposito CL. Aptamer Cell-Based Selection: Overview and Advances. Biomedicines. Aug 14 2017;5(3).

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection. Last updated 6/5/2017. Accessed 3/6/2018.

Chakrabarti M, Ray SK. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo. Apoptosis: an international journal on programmed cell death. Mar 2016;21(3):312-328.

Chakrabarti M, Ray SK. Synergistic anti-tumor actions of luteolin and silibinin prevented cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma SNB19 cells and glioblastoma stem cells. Brain research. Dec 10 2015;1629:85-93.

Champ CE, Palmer JD, Volek JS, Werner-Wasik M, Andrews DW, Evans JJ, . . . Shi W. Targeting metabolism with a ketogenic diet during the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology. Mar 2014;117(1):125-131.

Chen C, Shi Y, Li Y, He ZC, Zhou K, Zhang XN, . . . Bian XW. A glycolysis-based ten-gene signature correlates with the clinical outcome, molecular subtype and IDH1 mutation in glioblastoma. Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao. Nov 20 2017;44(11):519-530.

Chen SE, Choi SS, Rogers JE, Lei X, De Groot JF. Isotretinoin maintenance therapy for glioblastoma: a retrospective review. Journal of oncology pharmacy practice: official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners. Apr 2014;20(2):112-119.

Chen TC, Wang W, Golden EB, Thomas S, Sivakumar W, Hofman FM, . . . Schonthal AH. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate enhances therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide in orthotopic mouse glioblastoma models. Cancer letters. Mar 28 2011;302(2):100-108.

Chen X, Hao A, Li X, Du Z, Li H, Wang H, . . . Fang Z. Melatonin inhibits tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem-like cells via the AKT-EZH2-STAT3 signaling axis. Journal of pineal research. Sep 2016;61(2):208-217.

Cheng Y, Sk UH, Zhang Y, Ren X, Zhang L, Huber-Keener KJ, . . . Yang JM. Rational incorporation of selenium into temozolomide elicits superior antitumor activity associated with both apoptotic and autophagic cell death. PloS one. 2012;7(4):e35104.

Cheng YC, Hueng DY, Huang HY, Chen JY, Chen Y. Magnolol and honokiol exert a synergistic anti-tumor effect through autophagy and apoptosis in human glioblastomas. Oncotarget. May 17 2016;7(20):29116-29130.

Chheda MG, Wen PY, Hochberg FH, Chi AS, Drappatz J, Eichler AF, . . . Batchelor TT. Vandetanib plus sirolimus in adults with recurrent glioblastoma: results of a phase I and dose expansion cohort study. Journal of neuro-oncology. Feb 2015;121(3):627-634.

Chu C, Deng J, Man Y, Qu Y. Green Tea Extracts Epigallocatechin-3-gallate for Different Treatments. BioMed research international. 2017;2017:5615647.

Chu QS, Sangha R, Spratlin J, Vos LJ, Mackey JR, McEwan AJ, . . . Michelakis ED. A phase I open-labeled, single-arm, dose-escalation, study of dichloroacetate (DCA) in patients with advanced solid tumors. Investigational new drugs. Jun 2015;33(3):603-610.

Clark PA, Bhattacharya S, Elmayan A, Darjatmoko SR, Thuro BA, Yan MB, . . . Kuo JS. Resveratrol targeting of AKT and p53 in glioblastoma and glioblastoma stem-like cells to suppress growth and infiltration. Journal of neurosurgery. May 2017;126(5):1448-1460. 2018;

Cloughesy TF, Yoshimoto K, Nghiemphu P, Brown K, Dang J, Zhu S, . . . Sawyers CL. Antitumor activity of rapamycin in a Phase I trial for patients with recurrent PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. PLoS medicine. Jan 22 2008;5(1):e8.

Colombo MC, Giverso C, Faggiano E, Boffano C, Acerbi F, Ciarletta P. Towards the Personalized Treatment of Glioblastoma: Integrating Patient-Specific Clinical Data in a Continuous Mechanical Model. PloS one. 2015;10(7):e0132887.

Comitato R, Ambra R, Virgili F. Tocotrienols: A Family of Molecules with Specific Biological Activities. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland). Nov 18 2017;6(4).

Costa RB, Costa R, Kaplan J, Cruz MR, Shah H, Matsangou M, Carneiro B. A Rare Case of Glioblastoma Multiforme with Osseous Metastases. Case reports in oncological medicine. 2017;2017:2938319.

Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Manno M, Gallinger S, Okey A, Harper P. Dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk. The Journal of nutrition. Dec 2006;136(12):3046-3053.

Das A, Banik NL, Ray SK. Flavonoids activated caspases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells but not in human normal astrocytes. Cancer. Jan 1 2010;116(1):164-176.

Das A, Banik NL, Ray SK. Retinoids induced astrocytic differentiation with down regulation of telomerase activity and enhanced sensitivity to taxol for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Journal of neuro-oncology. Mar 2008;87(1):9-22.

Das UN. From bench to the clinic: gamma-linolenic acid therapy of human gliomas. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids. Jun 2004;70(6):539-552.

Das UN. Gamma-linolenic acid therapy of human glioma-a review of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. Jul 2007;13(7):Ra119-131.

Das UN, Prasad VV, Reddy DR. Local application of gamma-linolenic acid in the treatment of human gliomas. Cancer letters. Aug 1 1995;94(2):147-155.

Davis F, Il’yasova D, Rankin K, McCarthy B, Bigner DD. Medical Diagnostic Radiation Exposures and Risk of Gliomas. Radiation research. 2011;175(6):790-796.

Davis ME. Glioblastoma: Overview of Disease and Treatment. Clinical journal of oncology nursing. Oct 1 2016;20(5):S2-8.

DeAngelis LM. Tumors of the Central Nervous System. In: Cecil RL, Goldman L, Shafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine, 24th edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders; 2012.

Demaria M, Camporeale A, Poli V. STAT3 and metabolism: how many ways to use a single molecule? International journal of cancer. Nov 01 2014;135(9):1997-2003.

Denniston E, Crewdson H, Rucinsky N, Stegman A, Remenar D, Moio K, . . . Horzempa J. The Practical Consideration of Poliovirus as an Oncolytic Virotherapy. American journal of virology. 2016;5(1):1-7.

Desjardins A, Gromeier M, Herndon JE, 2nd, Beaubier N, Bolognesi DP, Friedman AH, . . . Bigner DD. Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated with Recombinant Poliovirus. The New England journal of medicine. Jun 26 2018.

Desjardins A, Sampson JH, Peters K, Ranjan T, Vlahovic G, Threatt S, Herndon, J.I., , . . . Gromeier M. Phase I study of an Oncolytic polio/rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) against recurrent glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology; SNO Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA.  2013:p.107.

Di Furia L, Rusciano MR, Leonardini L, Rossi P, Giammarchi C, Vittori E, . . . Illario M. A Nutritional Approach to the Prevention of Cancer: from Assessment to Personalized Intervention. Translational medicine @ UniSa. Dec 2015;13:33-41.

Diaz RJ, Ali S, Qadir MG, De La Fuente MI, Ivan ME, Komotar RJ. The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of glioblastoma. Journal of neuro-oncology. Jul 2017;133(3):455-467.

Dizaji MZ, Malehmir M, Ghavamzadeh A, Alimoghaddam K, Ghaffari SH. Synergistic effects of arsenic trioxide and silibinin on apoptosis and invasion in human glioblastoma U87MG cell line. Neurochemical research. Feb 2012;37(2):370-380.

Donnelly JG. Folic acid. Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences. Jun 2001;38(3):183-223.

Dunbar EM, Coats BS, Shroads AL, Langaee T, Lew A, Forder JR, . . . Stacpoole PW. Phase 1 trial of dichloroacetate (DCA) in adults with recurrent malignant brain tumors. Investigational new drugs. Jun 2014;32(3):452-464.

Dziurzynski K, Chang SM, Heimberger AB, Kalejta RF, Dallas M, Stuart R, . . . Cobbs CS. Consensus on the role of human cytomegalovirus in glioblastoma. Neuro-oncology. 2012;14(3):246-255.

Elmaci I, Altinoz MA. A Metabolic Inhibitory Cocktail for Grave Cancers: Metformin, Pioglitazone and Lithium Combination in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer and Glioblastoma Multiforme. Biochemical genetics. Oct 2016;54(5):573-618.

Erasimus H, Gobin M, Niclou S, Van Dyck E. DNA repair mechanisms and their clinical impact in glioblastoma. Mutation research. Reviews in mutation research. Jul-Sep 2016;769:19-35.

Fan QW, Nicolaides TP, Weiss WA. Inhibiting 4EBP1 in Glioblastoma. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jan 1 2018;24(1):14-21.

Fang MZ, Wang Y, Ai N, Hou Z, Sun Y, Lu H, . . . Yang CS. Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits DNA methyltransferase and reactivates methylation-silenced genes in cancer cell lines. Cancer research. Nov 15 2003;63(22):7563-7570.

Farago N, Feher LZ, Kitajka K, Das UN, Puskas LG. MicroRNA profile of polyunsaturated fatty acid treated glioma cells reveal apoptosis-specific expression changes. Lipids in health and disease. Sep 30 2011;10:173.

Felini MJ, Olshan AF, Schroeder JC, Carozza SE, Miike R, Rice T, Wrensch M. Reproductive factors and hormone use and risk of adult gliomas. Cancer causes & control: CCC. Feb 2009;20(1):87-96.

Felix R, Schorner W, Laniado M, Niendorf HP, Claussen C, Fiegler W, Speck U. Brain tumors: MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. Radiology. Sep 1985;156(3):681-688.

Felthun J, Reddy R, McDonald KL. How immunotherapies are targeting the glioblastoma immune environment. Journal of clinical neuroscience: official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. Jan 2018;47:20-27.

Fenstermaker RA. A Phase II Study of the Safety and Efficacy of SVN53-67/M57-KLH (SurVaxM) in Survivin-Positive Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. Identifier: NCT02455557. Last updated 2/12/2018. Accessed 3/6/2018.

Fenstermaker RA, Ciesielski MJ. Challenges in the development of a survivin vaccine (SurVaxM) for malignant glioma. Expert review of vaccines. Mar 2014;13(3):377-385.

Fenstermaker RA, Ciesielski MJ, Qiu J, Yang N, Frank CL, Lee KP, . . . Hutson AD. Clinical study of a survivin long peptide vaccine (SurVaxM) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Cancer immunology, immunotherapy: CII. Nov 2016;65(11):1339-1352.

Ferla R, Haspinger E, Surmacz E. Metformin inhibits leptin-induced growth and migration of glioblastoma cells. Oncology letters. 2012;4(5):1077-1081.

Fernandes C, Costa A, Osorio L, Lago RC, Linhares P, Carvalho B, Caeiro C. Current Standards of Care in Glioblastoma Therapy. In: De Vleeschouwer S, ed. Glioblastoma. Brisbane (AU): Codon Publications; 2017.

Fink KR, Fink JR. Imaging of brain metastases. Surgical neurology international. 2013;4(Suppl 4):S209-219.

Finn OJ. A Believer's Overview of Cancer Immunosurveillance and Immunotherapy. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950). Jan 15 2018;200(2):385-391.

Fong D, Yeh A, Naftalovich R, Choi TH, Chan MM. Curcumin inhibits the side population (SP) phenotype of the rat C6 glioma cell line: towards targeting of cancer stem cells with phytochemicals. Cancer letters. Jul 1 2010;293(1):65-72.

Fong Y. Expediting Viral Therapies For Cancers To the Clinic. Molecular therapy: the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Aug 2016;24(7):1161-1162.

Freitas S, Costa S, Azevedo C, Carvalho G, Freire S, Barbosa P, . . . Nascimento I. Flavonoids inhibit angiogenic cytokine production by human glioma cells. Phytotherapy research: PTR. Jun 2011;25(6):916-921.

Friedman MD, Jeevan DS, Tobias M, Murali R, Jhanwar-Uniyal M. Targeting cancer stem cells in glioblastoma multiforme using mTOR inhibitors and the differentiating agent all-trans retinoic acid. Oncology reports. Oct 2013;30(4):1645-1650.

Furuta T, Sabit H, Dong Y, Miyashita K, Kinoshita M, Uchiyama N, . . . Nakada M. Biological basis and clinical study of glycogen synthase kinase- 3β-targeted therapy by drug repositioning for glioblastoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8(14):22811-22824.

Gainer JL, Sheehan JP, Larner JM, Jones DR. Trans sodium crocetinate with temozolomide and radiation therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neurosurgery. Feb 2017;126(2):460-466.

Garcia-Martinez A, Alenda C, Irles E, Ochoa E, Quintanar T, Rodriguez-Lescure A, . . . Barbera VM. Lack of cytomegalovirus detection in human glioma. Virology journal. Nov 7 2017;14(1):216.

Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. Apr 2002;13(3):100-105.

Giese A, Bock HC, Kantelhardt SR, Rohde V. Risk management in the treatment of malignant gliomas with BCNU wafer implants. Central European neurosurgery. Nov 2010;71(4):199-206.

Goetz C, Dobrikova E, Shveygert M, Dobrikov M, Gromeier M. Oncolytic poliovirus against malignant glioma. Future virology. Sep 2011;6(9):1045-1058.

Grammatikos G, Teichgraber V, Carpinteiro A, Trarbach T, Weller M, Hengge UR, Gulbins E. Overexpression of acid sphingomyelinase sensitizes glioma cells to chemotherapy. Antioxidants & redox signaling. Sep 2007;9(9):1449-1456.

Greenberg JA, Bell SJ, Guan Y, Yu YH. Folic Acid supplementation and pregnancy: more than just neural tube defect prevention. Reviews in obstetrics & gynecology. Summer 2011;4(2):52-59.

Gritti M, Wurth R, Angelini M, Barbieri F, Peretti M, Pizzi E, . . . Florio T. Metformin repositioning as antitumoral agent: selective antiproliferative effects in human glioblastoma stem cells, via inhibition of CLIC1-mediated ion current. Oncotarget. Nov 30 2014;5(22):11252-11268.

Gulati N, Karsy M, Albert L, Murali R, Jhanwar-Uniyal M. Involvement of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in regulation of glioblastoma multiforme growth and motility. International journal of oncology. Oct 2009;35(4):731-740.

Gulden M, Appel D, Syska M, Uecker S, Wages F, Seibert H. Chrysin and silibinin sensitize human glioblastoma cells for arsenic trioxide. Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. Jul 2017;105:486-497.

Gursel DB, Shin BJ, Burkhardt JK, Kesavabhotla K, Schlaff CD, Boockvar JA. Glioblastoma stem-like cells-biology and therapeutic implications. Cancers. Jun 10 2011;3(2):2655-2666.

Gzell C, Back M, Wheeler H, Bailey D, Foote M. Radiotherapy in Glioblastoma: the Past, the Present and the Future. Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). Jan 2017;29(1):15-25.

Ham J, Lim W, Bazer FW, Song G. Silibinin stimluates apoptosis by inducing generation of ROS and ER stress in human choriocarcinoma cells. Journal of cellular physiology. Feb 2018;233(2):1638-1649.

Han JE, Lim PW, Na CM, Choi YS, Lee JY, Kim Y, . . . Paek SH. Inhibition of HIF1alpha and PDK Induces Cell Death of Glioblastoma Multiforme. Experimental neurobiology. Oct 2017;26(5):295-306.

Hanif F, Muzaffar K, Perveen K, Malhi SM, Simjee Sh U. Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Review of its Epidemiology and Pathogenesis through Clinical Presentation and Treatment. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. Jan 1 2017;18(1):3-9.

Haque A, Banik NL, Ray SK. Emerging role of combination of all-trans retinoic acid and interferon-gamma as chemoimmunotherapy in the management of human glioblastoma. Neurochemical research. Dec 2007;32(12):2203-2209.

Hau E, Shen H, Clark C, Graham PH, Koh ES, K LM. The evolving roles and controversies of radiotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma. Journal of medical radiation sciences. Jun 2016;63(2):114-123.

Havas M. When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987). Feb 2017;221:501-505.

Hays EM, Duan W, Shigdar S. Aptamers and Glioblastoma: Their Potential Use for Imaging and Therapeutic Applications. International journal of molecular sciences. Nov 30 2017;18(12).

Hazane-Puch F, Arnaud J, Trocme C, Faure P, Laporte F, Champelovier P. Sodium Selenite Decreased HDAC Activity, Cell Proliferation and Induced Apoptosis in Three Human Glioblastoma Cells. Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry. 2016;16(4):490-500.

Hdeib A, Sloan AE. Dendritic cell immunotherapy for solid tumors: evaluation of the DCVax(R) platform in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. CNS oncology. 2015;4(2):63-69.

Heo JC, Jung TH, Lee S, Kim HY, Choi G, Jung M, . . . Cho H. Effect of bexarotene on differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme compared with ATRA. Clinical & experimental metastasis. Jun 2016;33(5):417-429.

Hershman D, Calhoun E, Zapert K, Wade S, Malin J, Barron R. Patients' Perceptions of Physician-Patient Discussions and Adverse Events with Cancer Therapy. Archives of drug information. Sep 2008;1(2):70-78.

Hervouet E, Debien E, Campion L, Charbord J, Menanteau J, Vallette FM, Cartron PF. Folate supplementation limits the aggressiveness of glioma via the remethylation of DNA repeats element and genes governing apoptosis and proliferation. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. May 15 2009;15(10):3519-3529.

Holick CN, Smith SG, Giovannucci E, Michaud DS. Coffee, tea, caffeine intake, and risk of adult glioma in three prospective cohort studies. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Jan 2010;19(1):39-47.

Holl EK, Brown MC, Boczkowski D, McNamara MA, George DJ, Bigner DD, . . . Nair SK. Recombinant oncolytic poliovirus, PVSRIPO, has potent cytotoxic and innate inflammatory effects, mediating therapy in human breast and prostate cancer xenograft models. Oncotarget. Nov 29 2016;7(48):79828-79841.

Hottinger AF, Pacheco P, Stupp R. Tumor treating fields: a novel treatment modality and its use in brain tumors. Neuro-oncology. Oct 2016;18(10):1338-1349.

Huang B, Zhang H, Gu L, Ye B, Jian Z, Stary C, Xiong X. Advances in Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme. Journal of immunology research. 2017;2017:3597613.

Huang H, Lin H, Zhang X, Li J. Resveratrol reverses temozolomide resistance by downregulation of MGMT in T98G glioblastoma cells by the NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Oncology reports. Jun 2012;27(6):2050-2056.

Huber WW, Scharf G, Nagel G, Prustomersky S, Schulte-Hermann R, Kaina B. Coffee and its chemopreventive components Kahweol and Cafestol increase the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in rat liver--comparison with phase II xenobiotic metabolism. Mutation research. Jan 28 2003;522(1-2):57-68.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 2013;102(Pt 2):1-460.

Inman S. FDA Accelerates Development of Polio Virus Treatment for Brain Cancer. 5/17/2016. Accessed 6/9/2017.

IOM. Institute of Medicine (US). Appendix B: The Clinical Trials Process. In: Public Engagement and Clinical Trials: New Models and Disruptive Technologies: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012. Accesed 2/20/2018.

Jafri MA, Ansari SA, Alqahtani MH, Shay JW. Roles of telomeres and telomerase in cancer, and advances in telomerase-targeted therapies. Genome medicine. Jun 20 2016;8(1):69.

James MO, Jahn SC, Zhong G, Smeltz MG, Hu Z, Stacpoole PW. Therapeutic applications of dichloroacetate and the role of glutathione transferase zeta-1. Pharmacology & therapeutics. Feb 2017;170:166-180.

James MO, Stacpoole PW. Pharmacogenetic considerations with dichloroacetate dosing. Pharmacogenomics. May 2016;17(7):743-753.

Jang M, Pezzuto JM. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol. Drugs under experimental and clinical research. 1999;25(2-3):65-77.

Jeong JJ, Lee JH, Chang KC, Kim HJ. Honokiol exerts an anticancer effect in T98G human glioblastoma cells through the induction of apoptosis and the regulation of adhesion molecules. International journal of oncology. Oct 2012;41(4):1358-1364.

Jhanwar-Uniyal M, Amin AG, Cooper JB, Das K, Schmidt MH, Murali R. Discrete signaling mechanisms of mTORC1 and mTORC2: Connected yet apart in cellular and molecular aspects. Advances in biological regulation. May 2017;64:39-48.

Jiao Y, Li H, Liu Y, Guo A, Xu X, Qu X, . . . Cao Y. Resveratrol Inhibits the Invasion of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells via Down-Regulation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB Signaling Pathway. Nutrients. Jun 2 2015;7(6):4383-4402.

Joo YN, Eun SY, Park SW, Lee JH, Chang KC, Kim HJ. Honokiol inhibits U87MG human glioblastoma cell invasion through endothelial cells by regulating membrane permeability and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. International journal of oncology. Jan 2014;44(1):187-194.

Kahn J, Hayman TJ, Jamal M, Rath BH, Kramp T, Camphausen K, Tofilon PJ. The mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor AZD2014 enhances the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells. Neuro-oncology. Jan 2014;16(1):29-37.

Kalil AC, Freifeld AG, Lyden ER, Stoner JA. Valganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prevention in solid organ transplant patients: an evidence-based reassessment of safety and efficacy. PloS one. 2009;4(5):e5512.

Kamson DO, Mittal S, Buth A, Muzik O, Kupsky WJ, Robinette NL, . . . Juhasz C. Differentiation of glioblastomas from metastatic brain tumors by tryptophan uptake and kinetic analysis: a positron emission tomographic study with magnetic resonance imaging comparison. Molecular imaging. Jul-Aug 2013;12(5):327-337.

Kankotia S, Stacpoole PW. Dichloroacetate and cancer: new home for an orphan drug? Biochimica et biophysica acta. Dec 2014;1846(2):617-629.

Kaplan S, Deniz OG, Onger ME, Turkmen AP, Yurt KK, Aydin I, . . . Davis D. Electromagnetic field and brain development. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy. Sep 2016;75(Pt B):52-61.

Kast R, Karpel‐Massler G, Halatsch ME. Can the therapeutic effects of temozolomide be potentiated by stimulating AMP‐activated protein kinase with olanzepine and metformin? British journal of pharmacology. 2011;164(5):1393-1396.

Khairul I, Wang QQ, Jiang YH, Wang C, Naranmandura H. Metabolism, toxicity and anticancer activities of arsenic compounds. Oncotarget. Apr 4 2017;8(14):23905-23926.

Khani B, Mehrabian F, Khalesi E, Eshraghi A. Effect of soy phytoestrogen on metabolic and hormonal disturbance of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Mar 2011;16(3):297-302.

Khaw AK, Yong JW, Kalthur G, Hande MP. Genistein induces growth arrest and suppresses telomerase activity in brain tumor cells. Genes, chromosomes & cancer. Oct 2012;51(10):961-974.

Kim B, Jung N, Lee S, Sohng JK, Jung HJ. Apigenin Inhibits Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Human Glioblastoma Cells via Suppression of c-Met Signaling. Phytotherapy research: PTR. Nov 2016;30(11):1833-1840.

Kim H, Moon JY, Ahn KS, Cho SK. Quercetin induces mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and protective autophagy in human glioblastoma U373MG cells. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2013;2013:596496.

Kim S, Jing K, Shin S, Jeong S, Han SH, Oh H, . . . Lim K. omega3-polyunsaturated fatty acids induce cell death through apoptosis and autophagy in glioblastoma cells: In vitro and in vivo. Oncology reports. Jan 2018;39(1):239-246.

Kirste S, Treier M, Wehrle SJ, Becker G, Abdel-Tawab M, Gerbeth K, . . . Momm F. Boswellia serrata acts on cerebral edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial. Cancer. Aug 15 2011;117(16):3788-3795.

Kitahara CM, Wang SS, Melin BS, Wang Z, Braganza M, Inskip PD, . . . Rajaraman P. Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma. International journal of epidemiology. Aug 2012;41(4):1075-1085.

Klein P. Ketogenic Diet as Adjunctive Treatment in Refractory/End-stage Glioblastoma Multiforme: a Pilot Study. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. Identifier: NCT01865162. Last updated 3/18/2016a. Accessed 1/16/2018.

Klein P. Ketogenic Diet Treatment Adjunctive to Radiation and Chemotherapy in Glioblastoma Multiforme: a Pilot Study. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. Identifier: NCT02302235. Last updated 3/18/2016b. Accessed 1/16/2018.

Klement RJ, Champ CE, Otto C, Kammerer U. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2016;11(5):e0155050.

Klinger NV, Mittal S. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2016;2016:9324085.

Koekkoek JA, Chang S, Taphoorn MJ. Palliative care at the end-of-life in glioma patients. Handbook of clinical neurology. 2016;134:315-326.

Kuhnt D, Becker A, Ganslandt O, Bauer M, Buchfelder M, Nimsky C. Correlation of the extent of tumor volume resection and patient survival in surgery of glioblastoma multiforme with high-field intraoperative MRI guidance. Neuro-oncology. Dec 2011;13(12):1339-1348.

Kumar N, Kumar P, Angurana SL, Khosla D, Mukherjee KK, Aggarwal R, . . . Sharma SC. Evaluation of outcome and prognostic factors in patients of glioblastoma multiforme: A single institution experience. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. Aug 2013;4(Suppl 1):S46-55.

Kummar S, Rubinstein L, Kinders R, Parchment RE, Gutierrez ME, Murgo AJ, . . . Doroshow JH. Phase 0 clinical trials: conceptions and misconceptions. Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.). May-Jun 2008;14(3):133-137.

Kurdi MS, Muthukalai SP. The Efficacy of Oral Melatonin in Improving Sleep in Cancer Patients with Insomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Indian journal of palliative care. Jul-Sep 2016;22(3):295-300.

Lacroix M, Abi-Said D, Fourney DR, Gokaslan ZL, Shi W, DeMonte F, . . . Sawaya R. A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival. Journal of neurosurgery. Aug 2001;95(2):190-198.

Lai IC, Shih PH, Yao CJ, Yeh CT, Wang-Peng J, Lui TN, . . . Lai GM. Elimination of cancer stem-like cells and potentiation of temozolomide sensitivity by Honokiol in glioblastoma multiforme cells. PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0114830.

Lakhin AV, Tarantul VZ, Gening LV. Aptamers: problems, solutions and prospects. Acta naturae. Oct 2013;5(4):34-43.

Lan YL, Zou S, Wang X, Lou JC, Xing JS, Yu M, Zhang B. Update on the therapeutic significance of estrogen receptor beta in malignant gliomas. Oncotarget. Oct 6 2017;8(46):81686-81696.

Laplante M, Sabatini DM. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease. Cell. Apr 13 2012;149(2):274-293.

Lara-Velazquez M, Al-Kharboosh R, Jeanneret S, Vazquez-Ramos C, Mahato D, Tavanaiepour D, . . . Quinones-Hinojosa A. Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery for Glioblastoma in Adults. Brain sciences. Dec 20 2017;7(12).

Lee CY. Strategies of temozolomide in future glioblastoma treatment. OncoTargets and therapy. 2017;10:265-270.

Lee JE, Lim JH, Hong YK, Yang SH. High-Dose Metformin Plus Temozolomide Shows Increased Anti-tumor Effects in Glioblastoma In Vitro and In Vivo Compared with Monotherapy. Cancer research and treatment: official journal of Korean Cancer Association. Jan 10 2018.

Leidgens V, Proske J, Rauer L, Moeckel S, Renner K, Bogdahn U, . . . Seliger C. Stattic and metformin inhibit brain tumor initiating cells by reducing STAT3-phosphorylation. Oncotarget. Jan 31 2017;8(5):8250-8263.

Lengfelder E, Hofmann WK, Nowak D. Impact of arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia. Mar 2012;26(3):433-442.

Levin GT, Greenwood KM, Singh F, Tsoi D, Newton RU. Exercise Improves Physical Function and Mental Health of Brain Cancer Survivors: Two Exploratory Case Studies. Integrative cancer therapies. Jun 2016;15(2):190-196.

Levin VA, Giglio P, Puduvalli VK, Jochec J, Groves MD, Yung WK, Hess K. Combination chemotherapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid and celecoxib in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology. May 2006;78(1):85-90.

Li H, Liu Y, Jiao Y, Guo A, Xu X, Qu X, . . . Cao Y. Resveratrol sensitizes glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide by inducing cell apoptosis and promoting differentiation. Oncology reports. Jan 2016;35(1):343-351.

Li J, Kim SG, Blenis J. Rapamycin: one drug, many effects. Cell metabolism. Mar 4 2014;19(3):373-379.

Li X, Wu C, Chen N, Gu H, Yen A, Cao L, . . . Wang L. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and targeted therapy for glioblastoma. Oncotarget. May 31 2016;7(22):33440-33450.

Li YM, Suki D, Hess K, Sawaya R. The influence of maximum safe resection of glioblastoma on survival in 1229 patients: Can we do better than gross-total resection? Journal of neurosurgery. Apr 2016;124(4):977-988.

Liang WZ, Chou CT, Chang HT, Cheng JS, Kuo DH, Ko KC, . . . Jan CR. The mechanism of honokiol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) rises and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Chemico-biological interactions. Sep 25 2014;221:13-23.

Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic activities of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol isomers on human cancer cells. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. Dec 6 2014;14:469.

Lin CJ, Chang YA, Lin YL, Liu SH, Chang CK, Chen RM. Preclinical effects of honokiol on treating glioblastoma multiforme via G1 phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. May 15 2016;23(5):517-527.

Lin JW, Chen JT, Hong CY, Lin YL, Wang KT, Yao CJ, . . . Chen RM. Honokiol traverses the blood-brain barrier and induces apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells via an intrinsic bax-mitochondrion-cytochrome c-caspase protease pathway. Neuro-oncology. Mar 2012;14(3):302-314.

Lin S. Ketogeic Diet Adjunctive to Salvage Chemotherapy for Recurrent Glioblastoma: a Pilot Study. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. Identifier: NCT02939378. Last updated 10/20/2016. Accessed 1/16/2018.

Lin ZX. Glioma-related edema: new insight into molecular mechanisms and their clinical implications. Chinese journal of cancer. Jan 2013;32(1):49-52.

Lissoni P, Meregalli S, Nosetto L, Barni S, Tancini G, Fossati V, Maestroni G. Increased survival time in brain glioblastomas by a radioneuroendocrine strategy with radiotherapy plus melatonin compared to radiotherapy alone. Oncology. Jan-Feb 1996;53(1):43-46.

Little RB, Nabors LB, Olson JJ, Thompson ZJ, Rozmeski CM, LaRocca RV, . . . Egan KM. Older age at the completion of linear growth is associated with an increased risk of adult glioma. Cancer causes & control: CCC. Jul 2017;28(7):709-716.

Liu KH, Yang ST, Lin YK, Lin JW, Lee YH, Wang JY, . . . Shen SC. Fluoxetine, an antidepressant, suppresses glioblastoma by evoking AMPAR-mediated calcium-dependent apoptosis. Oncotarget. Mar 10 2015;6(7):5088-5101.

Liu X, Liu K, Qin J, Hao L, Li X, Liu Y, . . . Shen L. C/EBPbeta promotes angiogenesis through secretion of IL-6, which is inhibited by genistein, in EGFRvIII-positive glioblastoma. International journal of cancer. Jun 1 2015;136(11):2524-2534.

Liu Y, Tang ZG, Lin Y, Qu XG, Lv W, Wang GB, Li CL. Effects of quercetin on proliferation and migration of human glioblastoma U251 cells. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Aug 2017;92:33-38.

Liu Y, Tang ZG, Yang JQ, Zhou Y, Meng LH, Wang H, Li CL. Low concentration of quercetin antagonizes the invasion and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma U251 cells. OncoTargets and therapy. 2017;10:4023-4028.

Luchman HA, Stechishin OD, Nguyen SA, Lun XQ, Cairncross JG, Weiss S. Dual mTORC1/2 blockade inhibits glioblastoma brain tumor initiating cells in vitro and in vivo and synergizes with temozolomide to increase orthotopic xenograft survival. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Nov 15 2014;20(22):5756-5767.

Lussier DM, Woolf EC, Johnson JL, Brooks KS, Blattman JN, Scheck AC. Enhanced immunity in a mouse model of malignant glioma is mediated by a therapeutic ketogenic diet. BMC cancer. May 13 2016;16:310.

Magrassi L, Adorni L, Montorfano G, Rapelli S, Butti G, Berra B, Milanesi G. Vitamin D metabolites activate the sphingomyelin pathway and induce death of glioblastoma cells. Acta neurochirurgica. 1998;140(7):707-713; discussion 713-704.

Magrassi L, Butti G, Pezzotta S, Infuso L, Milanesi G. Effects of vitamin D and retinoic acid on human glioblastoma cell lines. Acta neurochirurgica. 1995;133(3-4):184-190.

Malmstrom A, Gronberg BH, Marosi C, Stupp R, Frappaz D, Schultz H, . . . Henriksson R. Temozolomide versus standard 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. Oncology. Sep 2012;13(9):916-926.

Mangraviti A, Tyler B, Brem H. Interstitial chemotherapy for malignant glioma: Future prospects in the era of multimodal therapy. Surgical neurology international. 2015;6(Suppl 1):S78-84.

Mani R, Natesan V. Chrysin: Sources, beneficial pharmacological activities, and molecular mechanism of action. Phytochemistry. Jan 2018;145:187-196.

Marcus A, Gowen BG, Thompson TW, Iannello A, Ardolino M, Deng W, . . . Raulet DH. Recognition of tumors by the innate immune system and natural killer cells. Advances in immunology. 2014;122:91-128.

Marin-Acevedo JA, Soyano AE, Dholaria B, Knutson KL, Lou Y. Cancer immunotherapy beyond immune checkpoint inhibitors. Journal of hematology & oncology. Jan 12 2018;11(1):8.

Markiewicz-Zukowska R, Borawska MH, Fiedorowicz A, Naliwajko SK, Sawicka D, Car H. Propolis changes the anticancer activity of temozolomide in U87MG human glioblastoma cell line. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. Feb 27 2013;13:50.

Maroon JC, Seyfried TN, Donohue JP, Bost J. The role of metabolic therapy in treating glioblastoma multiforme. Surgical neurology international. 2015;6:61.

Martin-McGill KJ, Marson AG, Tudur Smith C, Jenkinson MD. Ketogenic diets as an adjuvant therapy in glioblastoma (the KEATING trial): study protocol for a randomised pilot study. Pilot and feasibility studies. 2017;3:67.

Martin V, Sanchez-Sanchez AM, Herrera F, Gomez-Manzano C, Fueyo J, Alvarez-Vega MA, . . . Rodriguez C. Melatonin-induced methylation of the ABCG2/BCRP promoter as a novel mechanism to overcome multidrug resistance in brain tumour stem cells. British journal of cancer. May 28 2013;108(10):2005-2012.

Masui K, Cavenee WK, Mischel PS. mTORC2 and Metabolic Reprogramming in GBM: at the Interface of Genetics and Environment. Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland). Nov 2015;25(6):755-759.

McFaline-Figueroa JR, Wen PY. The Viral Connection to Glioblastoma. Current infectious disease reports. Feb 2017;19(2):5.

McNeill KA. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors. Neurologic clinics. Nov 2016;34(4):981-998.

Meidenbauer JJ, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN. The glucose ketone index calculator: a simple tool to monitor therapeutic efficacy for metabolic management of brain cancer. Nutrition & metabolism. 2015;12:12.

Mellai M, Caldera V, Patrucco A, Annovazzi L, Schiffer D. Survivin expression in glioblastomas correlates with proliferation, but not with apoptosis. Anticancer research. Jan-Feb 2008;28(1a):109-118.

Mendiburu-Elicabe M, Gil-Ranedo J, Izquierdo M. Efficacy of rapamycin against glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Clinical & translational oncology: official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico. May 2014;16(5):495-502.

Michaud-Levesque J, Bousquet-Gagnon N, Beliveau R. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration. Experimental cell research. May 1 2012;318(8):925-935.

Michaud DS, Gallo V, Schlehofer B, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, . . . Riboli E. Coffee and tea intake and risk of brain tumors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Nov 2010;92(5):1145-1150.

Michelakis ED, Sutendra G, Dromparis P, Webster L, Haromy A, Niven E, . . . Petruk KC. Metabolic modulation of glioblastoma with dichloroacetate. Science translational medicine. May 12 2010;2(31):31ra34.

Migliorini D, Dietrich PY, Stupp R, Linette GP, Posey AD, Jr., June CH. CAR T-Cell Therapies in Glioblastoma: A First Look. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Nov 20 2017.

Milani A, Basirnejad M, Shahbazi S, Bolhassani A. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment. Br J Pharmacol. Jun 2017;174(11):1290-1324.

Milman N. Intestinal absorption of folic acid - new physiologic & molecular aspects. The Indian journal of medical research. Nov 2012;136(5):725-728.

Mirzazadeh A, Kheirollahi M, Farashahi E, Sadeghian-Nodoushan F, Sheikhha MH, Aflatoonian B. Assessment Effects of Resveratrol on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Transcript in Human Glioblastoma. Advanced biomedical research. 2017;6:73.

Momeny M, Malehmir M, Zakidizaji M, Ghasemi R, Ghadimi H, Shokrgozar MA, . . . Ghaffari SH. Silibinin inhibits invasive properties of human glioblastoma U87MG cells through suppression of cathepsin B and nuclear factor kappa B-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Anti-cancer drugs. Mar 2010;21(3):252-260.

Moussavi M, Assi K, Gomez-Munoz A, Salh B. Curcumin mediates ceramide generation via the de novo pathway in colon cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. Aug 2006;27(8):1636-1644.

Mughal AA, Grieg Z, Skjellegrind H, Fayzullin A, Lamkhannat M, Joel M, . . . Stangeland B. Knockdown of NAT12/NAA30 reduces tumorigenic features of glioblastoma-initiating cells. Molecular cancer. Aug 21 2015;14:160.

Mukherjee S, Baidoo J, Fried A, Atwi D, Dolai S, Boockvar J, . . . Banerjee P. Curcumin changes the polarity of tumor-associated microglia and eliminates glioblastoma. International journal of cancer. Dec 15 2016;139(12):2838-2849.

Mullen KM, Huang RY. An Update on the Approach to the Imaging of Brain Tumors. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. Jul 2017;17(7):53.

Mustian KM, Devine K, Ryan JL, Janelsins MC, Sprod LK, Peppone LJ, . . . Morrow GR. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy. US oncology & hematology. 2011;7(2):91-97.

Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. Mar 1 2006;64(3):892-897.

Natural Medicines Database. Quercetin. Professional monograph.,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=294. 2017. Accessed 3/6/2018.

NCCN. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Central Nervous System Cancers. 7/25/2016. Accessed 7/28/2017.

Neil J, Shannon C, Mohan A, Laurent D, Murali R, Jhanwar-Uniyal M. ATP-site binding inhibitor effectively targets mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes in glioblastoma. International journal of oncology. Mar 2016;48(3):1045-1052.

Neska-Matuszewska M, Bladowska J, Sasiadek M, Zimny A. Differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme, metastases and primary central nervous system lymphomas using multiparametric perfusion and diffusion MR imaging of a tumor core and a peritumoral zone-Searching for a practical approach. PloS one. 2018;13(1):e0191341.

NCI. National Cancer Institute. Adult central nervous system tumors treatment (PDQ)—Health professional version. Last updated 1/31/2018. Accessed 3/6/2018.

Niles RM. Recent advances in the use of vitamin A (retinoids) in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Nov-Dec 2000;16(11-12):1084-1089.

Noureddine H, Hage-Sleiman R, Wehbi B, Fayyad-Kazan H, Hayar S, Traboulssi M, . . . ElMakhour Y. Chemical characterization and cytotoxic activity evaluation of Lebanese propolis. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Nov 2017;95:298-307.

O'Connor MJ. Targeting the DNA Damage Response in Cancer. Molecular cell. Nov 19 2015;60(4):547-560.

Ostrom QT, Bauchet L, Davis FG, Deltour I, Fisher JL, Langer CE, . . . Barnholtz-Sloan JS. The epidemiology of glioma in adults: a "state of the science" review. Neuro-oncology. Jul 2014;16(7):896-913.

Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Farah P, Ondracek A, Chen Y, Wolinsky Y, . . . Barnholtz-Sloan JS. CBTRUS statistical report: Primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2006-2010. Neuro-oncology. Nov 2013;15 Suppl 2:ii1-56.

Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Stetson L, Virk S, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. Epidemiology of Intracranial Gliomas. Progress in neurological surgery. 2018;30:1-11.

Pan HC, Jiang Q, Yu Y, Mei JP, Cui YK, Zhao WJ. Quercetin promotes cell apoptosis and inhibits the expression of MMP-9 and fibronectin via the AKT and ERK signalling pathways in human glioma cells. Neurochemistry international. Jan 2015;80:60-71.

Pantziarka P, Bouche G, Meheus L, Sukhatme V, Sukhatme VP. Repurposing drugs in oncology (ReDO)-cimetidine as an anti-cancer agent. Ecancermedicalscience. 2014;8:485.

Paoli A, Bosco G, Camporesi EM, Mangar D. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship. Frontiers in psychology. 2015;6:27.

Paolillo M, Boselli C, Schinelli S. Glioblastoma under Siege: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies. Brain sciences. Jan 16 2018;8(1).

Park MN, Song HS, Kim M, Lee MJ, Cho W, Lee HJ, . . . Kim B. Review of Natural Product-Derived Compounds as Potent Antiglioblastoma Drugs. BioMed research international. 2017;2017:8139848.

Perry MC, Demeule M, Regina A, Moumdjian R, Beliveau R. Curcumin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in glioblastoma xenografts. Molecular nutrition & food research. Aug 2010;54(8):1192-1201.

Philipov P, Tzatchev K. Selenium concentrations in serum of patients with cerebral and extracerebral tumors. Zentralblatt fur Neurochirurgie. 1988;49(4):344-347.

Pirzkall A, McGue C, Saraswathy S, Cha S, Liu R, Vandenberg S, . . . Nelson SJ. Tumor regrowth between surgery and initiation of adjuvant therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Neuro-oncology. Dec 2009;11(6):842-852.

Polivka J, Jr., Polivka J, Holubec L, Kubikova T, Priban V, Hes O, . . . Treskova I. Advances in Experimental Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy for Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme. Anticancer research. Jan 2017;37(1):21-33.

Polyzoidis S, Ashkan K. DCVax(R)-L--developed by Northwest Biotherapeutics. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2014;10(11):3139-3145.

Polyzoidis S, Tuazon J, Brazil L, Beaney R, Al-Sarraj ST, Doey L, . . . Ashkan K. Active dendritic cell immunotherapy for glioblastoma: Current status and challenges. British journal of neurosurgery. Apr 2015;29(2):197-205.

Pozsgai E, Bellyei S, Cseh A, Boronkai A, Racz B, Szabo A, . . . Hocsak E. Quercetin increases the efficacy of glioblastoma treatment compared to standard chemoradiotherapy by the suppression of PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway. Nutrition and cancer. 2013;65(7):1059-1066.

Prielipp RC, Cohen NH. The future of anesthesiology: implications of the changing healthcare environment. Current opinion in anaesthesiology. Apr 2016;29(2):198-205.

Rahbar A, Orrego A, Peredo I, Dzabic M, Wolmer-Solberg N, Straat K, . . . Soderberg-Naucler C. Human cytomegalovirus infection levels in glioblastoma multiforme are of prognostic value for survival. Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology. May 2013;57(1):36-42.

Rahnama M, Madej-Czerwonka B, Jastrzebska-Jamrogiewicz I, Jamrogiewicz R. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa. Contemporary oncology (Poznan, Poland). 2015;19(1):77-82.

Ramirez YP, Weatherbee JL, Wheelhouse RT, Ross AH. Glioblastoma multiforme therapy and mechanisms of resistance. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland). Nov 25 2013;6(12):1475-1506.

Razmara A. Commentary: 3 Senators, 3 Votes-Glioblastoma's Uncanny Historical Parallels. Neurosurgery. Feb 1 2018;82(2):E55-e57.

Rees JH. Diagnosis and treatment in neuro-oncology: an oncological perspective. The British journal of radiology. Dec 2011;84 Spec No 2:S82-89.

Reni M, Mazza E, Zanon S, Gatta G, Vecht CJ. Central nervous system gliomas. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. May 2017;113:213-234.

Rice T, Lachance DH, Molinaro AM, Eckel-Passow JE, Walsh KM, Barnholtz-Sloan J, . . . Wrensch MR. Understanding inherited genetic risk of adult glioma – a review. Neuro-Oncology Practice. 2016;3(1):10-16.

Riera CE, Merkwirth C, De Magalhaes Filho CD, Dillin A. Signaling Networks Determining Life Span. Annual review of biochemistry. Jun 2 2016;85:35-64.

Rivera M, Sukhdeo K, Yu J. Ionizing radiation in glioblastoma initiating cells. Frontiers in oncology. 2013;3:74.

Roder C, Bisdas S, Ebner FH, Honegger J, Naegele T, Ernemann U, Tatagiba M. Maximizing the extent of resection and survival benefit of patients in glioblastoma surgery: high-field iMRI versus conventional and 5-ALA-assisted surgery. European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. Mar 2014;40(3):297-304.

Rodriguez GA, Shah AH, Gersey ZC, Shah SS, Bregy A, Komotar RJ, Graham RM. Investigating the therapeutic role and molecular biology of curcumin as a treatment for glioblastoma. Therapeutic advances in medical oncology. Jul 2016;8(4):248-260.

Roomi MW, Ivanov V, Kalinovsky T, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M. Inhibition of glioma cell line A-172 MMP activity and cell invasion in vitro by a nutrient mixture. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2007;24(2):231-238.

Roy NK, Deka A, Bordoloi D, Mishra S, Kumar AP, Sethi G, Kunnumakkara AB. The potential role of boswellic acids in cancer prevention and treatment. Cancer letters. Jul 10 2016;377(1):74-86.

Sabel M, Giese A. Safety profile of carmustine wafers in malignant glioma: a review of controlled trials and a decade of clinical experience. Current medical research and opinion. Nov 2008;24(11):3239-3257.

Sachinidis A, Seul C, Seewald S, Ahn H, Ko Y, Vetter H. Green tea compounds inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF beta-receptor and transformation of A172 human glioblastoma. FEBS letters. Apr 7 2000;471(1):51-55.

Saito K, Mukasa A, Narita Y, Tabei Y, Shinoura N, Shibui S, Saito N. Toxicity and outcome of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma: a retrospective study. Neurologia medico-chirurgica. 2014;54(4):272-279.

Saito T, Sugiyama K, Takeshima Y, Amatya VJ, Yamasaki F, Takayasu T, . . . Kurisu K. Prognostic implications of the subcellular localization of survivin in glioblastomas treated with radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Journal of neurosurgery. Apr 21 2017:1-6.

Salomon DG, Fermento ME, Gandini NA, Ferronato MJ, Arevalo J, Blasco J, . . . Facchinetti MM. Vitamin D receptor expression is associated with improved overall survival in human glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology. May 2014;118(1):49-60.

Sang DP, Li RJ, Lan Q. Quercetin sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to temozolomide in vitro via inhibition of Hsp27. Acta pharmacologica Sinica. Jun 2014;35(6):832-838.

Sanghvi D. Post-treatment imaging of high-grade gliomas. The Indian journal of radiology & imaging. Apr-Jun 2015;25(2):102-108.

Santos BL, Oliveira MN, Coelho PL, Pitanga BP, da Silva AB, Adelita T, . . . Costa SL. Flavonoids suppress human glioblastoma cell growth by inhibiting cell metabolism, migration, and by regulating extracellular matrix proteins and metalloproteinases expression. Chemico-biological interactions. Dec 5 2015;242:123-138.

Saria MG, Kesari S. Efficacy and Safety of Treating Glioblastoma With Tumor-Treating Fields Therapy. Clinical journal of oncology nursing. Oct 1 2016;20(5):S9-s13.

Sato A, Sunayama J, Okada M, Watanabe E, Seino S, Shibuya K, . . . Kitanaka C. Glioma-initiating cell elimination by metformin activation of FOXO3 via AMPK. Stem cells translational medicine. Nov 2012;1(11):811-824.

Schneider H, Weller M. Boswellic acid activity against glioblastoma stem-like cells. Oncol Lett. Jun 2016;11(6):4187-4192.

See SJ, Levin VA, Yung WK, Hess KR, Groves MD. 13-cis-retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neuro-oncology. Jul 2004;6(3):253-258.

Seekatz B, Lukasczik M, Lohr M, Ehrmann K, Schuler M, Kessler AF, . . . van Oorschot B. Screening for symptom burden and supportive needs of patients with glioblastoma and brain metastases and their caregivers in relation to their use of specialized palliative care. Supportive care in cancer: official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. Sep 2017;25(9):2761-2770.

Seliger C, Meyer AL, Renner K, Leidgens V, Moeckel S, Jachnik B, . . . Hau P. Metformin inhibits proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells independently of TGF-beta2. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Jul 02 2016;15(13):1755-1766.

Seo YJ, Cho WH, Kang DW, Cha SH. Extraneural metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme presenting as an unusual neck mass. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. Mar 2012;51(3):147-150.

Sesen J, Dahan P, Scotland SJ, Saland E, Dang VT, Lemarie A, . . . Skuli N. Metformin inhibits growth of human glioblastoma cells and enhances therapeutic response. PloS one. 2015;10(4):e0123721.

Seyfried TN, Marsh J, Shelton LM, Huysentruyt LC, Mukherjee P. Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer? Epilepsy research. Jul 2012;100(3):310-326.

Seystahl K, Wick W, Weller M. Therapeutic options in recurrent glioblastoma--An update. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. Mar 2016;99:389-408.

Shapiro J. Current treatment of alopecia areata. The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research. Dec 2013;16(1):S42-44.

Sheehan J, Cifarelli CP, Dassoulas K, Olson C, Rainey J, Han S. Trans-sodium crocetinate enhancing survival and glioma response on magnetic resonance imaging to radiation and temozolomide. Journal of neurosurgery. Aug 2010;113(2):234-239.

Shi L, Li H, Zhan Y. All-trans retinoic acid enhances temozolomide-induced autophagy in human glioma cells U251 via targeting Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Oncol Lett. Sep 2017;14(3):2709-2714.

Siegelin MD, Gaiser T, Habel A, Siegelin Y. Daidzein overcomes TRAIL-resistance in malignant glioma cells by modulating the expression of the intrinsic apoptotic inhibitor, bcl-2. Neuroscience letters. May 1 2009;454(3):223-228.

Siegelin MD, Habel A, Gaiser T. Epigalocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates PEA15 and thereby augments TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in malignant glioma. Neuroscience letters. Dec 19 2008;448(1):161-165.

Sitarek P, Skala E, Toma M, Wielanek M, Szemraj J, Nieborowska-Skorska M, . . . Sliwinski T. A preliminary study of apoptosis induction in glioma cells via alteration of the Bax/Bcl-2-p53 axis by transformed and non-transformed root extracts of Leonurus sibiricus L. Tumour biology: the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. Jul 2016;37(7):8753-8764.

Snyder J, Walbert T. Managing Glioblastoma in the Elderly Patient: New Opportunities. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.). Jun 15 2017;31(6):476-483.

Soderberg-Naucler C, Rahbar A, Stragliotto G. Survival in patients with glioblastoma receiving valganciclovir. The New England journal of medicine. Sep 05 2013;369(10):985-986.

Song T, Li H, Tian Z, Xu C, Liu J, Guo Y. Disruption of NF-kappaB signaling by fluoxetine attenuates MGMT expression in glioma cells. OncoTargets and therapy. 2015;8:2199-2208.

Sordillo LA, Sordillo PP, Helson L. Curcumin for the Treatment of Glioblastoma. Anticancer research. Dec 2015;35(12):6373-6378.

Soritau O, Tomuleasa C, Aldea M, Petrushev B, Susman S, Gheban D, . . . Irimie A. Metformin plus temozolomide-based chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment for WHO grade III and IV malignant gliomas. Journal of B.U.ON.: official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology. 2011;16(2):282-289.

Stacpoole PW, Kurtz TL, Han Z, Langaee T. Role of dichloroacetate in the treatment of genetic mitochondrial diseases. Advanced drug delivery reviews. Oct-Nov 2008;60(13-14):1478-1487.

Stancevic B, Kolesnick R. Ceramide-rich platforms in transmembrane signaling. FEBS letters. May 3 2010;584(9):1728-1740.

Stein A, Voigt W, Jordan K. Chemotherapy-induced diarrhea: pathophysiology, frequency and guideline-based management. Therapeutic advances in medical oncology. Jan 2010;2(1):51-63.

Steiner HH, Bonsanto MM, Beckhove P, Brysch M, Geletneky K, Ahmadi R, . . . Herold-Mende C. Antitumor vaccination of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, and clinical benefit. Journal of clinical oncology: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Nov 1 2004;22(21):4272-4281.

Stragliotto G, Rahbar A, Solberg NW, Lilja A, Taher C, Orrego A, . . . Soderberg-Naucler C. Effects of valganciclovir as an add-on therapy in patients with cytomegalovirus-positive glioblastoma: a randomized, double-blind, hypothesis-generating study. International journal of cancer. Sep 01 2013;133(5):1204-1213.

Straube C, Scherb H, Gempt J, Bette S, Zimmer C, Schmidt-Graf F, . . . Combs SE. Does age really matter? Radiotherapy in elderly patients with glioblastoma, the Munich experience. Radiation oncology (London, England). Apr 28 2017;12(1):77.

Streffer JR, Bitzer M, Schabet M, Dichgans J, Weller M. Response of radiochemotherapy-associated cerebral edema to a phytotherapeutic agent, H15. Neurology. May 8 2001;56(9):1219-1221.

Strowd RE, 3rd, Grossman SA. The Role of Glucose Modulation and Dietary Supplementation in Patients With Central Nervous System Tumors. Current treatment options in oncology. Aug 2015;16(8):36.

Stump TA, Santee BN, Williams LP, Kunze RA, Heinze CE, Huseman ED, . . . Amos S. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of apigenin on glioblastoma cells. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. Jul 2017;69(7):907-916.

Stupp R, Mason  WP, van den Bent  MJ, Weller  M, Fisher  B, Taphoorn  MJB, . . . Mirimanoff  RO. Radiotherapy plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Glioblastoma. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;352(10):987-996.

Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner A, et al. Effect of tumor-treating fields plus maintenance temozolomide vs maintenance temozolomide alone on survival in patients with glioblastoma: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;318(23):2306-2316.

Tamura R, Tanaka T, Miyake K, Yoshida K, Sasaki H. Bevacizumab for malignant gliomas: current indications, mechanisms of action and resistance, and markers of response. Brain tumor pathology. Apr 2017;34(2):62-77.

Tang J, Huang N, Zhang X, Zhou T, Tan Y, Pi J, . . . Cheng Y. Aptamer-conjugated PEGylated quantum dots targeting epidermal growth factor receptor variant III for fluorescence imaging of glioma. International journal of nanomedicine. 2017;12:3899-3911.

Tang TK, Chiu SC, Lin CW, Su MJ, Liao MH. Induction of survivin inhibition, G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and autophagic on cell death in human malignant glioblastoma cells. The Chinese journal of physiology. Apr 30 2015;58(2):95-103.

Teng J, Hejazi S, Hiddingh L, Carvalho L, de Gooijer M, Wakimoto H, . . . Tannous BA. Recycling drug screen repurposes hydroxyurea as a sensitizer of glioblastomas to temozolomide targeting de novo DNA synthesis, irrespective of molecular subtype. Neuro-oncology. Nov 1 2017.

Thakkar JP, Dolecek TA, Horbinski C, Ostrom QT, Lightner DD, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Villano JL. Epidemiologic and molecular prognostic review of glioblastoma. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Oct 2014;23(10):1985-1996.

Theeler BJ, Gilbert MR. Advances in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. BMC medicine. Dec 8 2015;13:293.

Thomas A, Tanaka M, Trepel J, Reinhold WC, Rajapakse VN, Pommier Y. Temozolomide in the Era of Precision Medicine. Cancer research. Feb 15 2017;77(4):823-826.

Thon N, Kreth S, Kreth F-W. Personalized treatment strategies in glioblastoma: MGMT promoter methylation status. OncoTargets and therapy. 09/27 2013;6:1363-1372.

Tinggi U. Selenium: its role as antioxidant in human health. Environmental health and preventive medicine. Mar 2008;13(2):102-108.

Toles M, Demark-Wahnefried W. Nutrition and the cancer survivor: evidence to guide oncology nursing practice. Seminars in oncology nursing. Aug 2008;24(3):171-179.

Uray IP, Dmitrovsky E, Brown PH. Retinoids and rexinoids in cancer prevention: from laboratory to clinic. Seminars in oncology. Feb 2016;43(1):49-64.

Urbanska K, Sokolowska J, Szmidt M, Sysa P. Glioblastoma multiforme - an overview. Contemporary oncology (Poznan, Poland). 2014;18(5):307-312.

Valentovic MA. Evaluation of Resveratrol in Cancer Patients and Experimental Models. Advances in cancer research. 2018;137:171-188.

Vanderwall C. Ameican Brain Tumor Association. Healthy Eating When You Have A Brain Tumor: Nutrition During Treatment. Copyright 2012. Accessed 2/14/2018.

Varshneya K, Carico C, Ortega A, Patil CG. The Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet and Associated Hypoglycemia as an Adjuvant Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas: A Review of the Literature. Cureus. Feb 2015;7(2):e251.

Vidak M, Rozman D, Komel R. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Oct 23 2015;20(10):19406-19432.

Wade AG, Ford I, Crawford G, McConnachie A, Nir T, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with prolonged release melatonin for 6 months: a randomized placebo controlled trial on age and endogenous melatonin as predictors of efficacy and safety. BMC medicine. Aug 16 2010;8:51.

Wade AG, Ford I, Crawford G, McMahon AD, Nir T, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Efficacy of prolonged release melatonin in insomnia patients aged 55-80 years: quality of sleep and next-day alertness outcomes. Current medical research and opinion. Oct 2007;23(10):2597-2605.

Wang D, Chen Q, Liu B, Li Y, Tan Y, Yang B. Ellagic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Acta cirurgica brasileira. Feb 2016;31(2):143-149.

Wang D, Chen Q, Tan Y, Liu B, Liu C. Ellagic acid inhibits human glioblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Oncology reports. Feb 2017;37(2):1084-1092.

Wang L, Long L, Wang W, Liang Z. Resveratrol, a potential radiation sensitizer for glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. Journal of pharmacological sciences. Dec 2015;129(4):216-225.

Weller M, Cloughesy T, Perry JR, Wick W. Standards of care for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma--are we there yet? Neuro-oncology. Jan 2013;15(1):4-27.

Weller M, Stupp R, Hegi M, Wick W. Individualized targeted therapy for glioblastoma: fact or fiction? Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.). Jan-Feb 2012;18(1):40-44.

Westman EC, Yancy WS, Jr., Mavropoulos JC, Marquart M, McDuffie JR. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition & metabolism. Dec 19 2008;5:36.

Wiedmann MKH, Brunborg C, Di Ieva A, Lindemann K, Johannesen TB, Vatten L, . . . Zwart JA. The impact of body mass index and height on the risk for glioblastoma and other glioma subgroups: a large prospective cohort study. Neuro-oncology. 2017;19(7):976-985.

Winking M, Sarikaya S, Rahmanian A, Jodicke A, Boker DK. Boswellic acids inhibit glioma growth: a new treatment option? Journal of neuro-oncology. 2000;46(2):97-103.

Winter SF, Loebel F, Dietrich J. Role of ketogenic metabolic therapy in malignant glioma: A systematic review. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. Apr 2017;112:41-58.

Wong ET, Hess KR, Gleason MJ, Jaeckle KA, Kyritsis AP, Prados MD, . . . Yung WK. Outcomes and prognostic factors in recurrent glioma patients enrolled onto phase II clinical trials. Journal of clinical oncology: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Aug 1999;17(8):2572-2578.

Wu W, Zhong D, Zhao Z, Wang W, Li J, Zhang W. Postoperative extracranial metastasis from glioblastoma: a case report and review of the literature. World journal of surgical oncology. Dec 29 2017;15(1):231.

Wurth R, Barbieri F, Florio T. New molecules and old drugs as emerging approaches to selectively target human glioblastoma cancer stem cells. BioMed research international. 2014;2014:126586.

Xiong W, Yin A, Mao X, Zhang W, Huang H, Zhang X. Resveratrol suppresses human glioblastoma cell migration and invasion via activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Oncol Lett. Jan 2016;11(1):484-490.

Xu F, Bai Q, Zhou K, Ma L, Duan J, Zhuang F, . . . Zhu C. Age-dependent acute interference with stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic biology and medicine. 2017;36(2):158-166.

Xue N, Zhou Q, Ji M, Jin J, Lai F, Chen J, . . . Chen X. Chlorogenic acid inhibits glioblastoma growth through repolarizating macrophage from M2 to M1 phenotype. Scientific reports. Jan 3 2017;7:39011.

Yakubov E, Buchfelder M, Eyupoglu IY, Savaskan NE. Selenium action in neuro-oncology. Biological trace element research. Dec 2014;161(3):246-254.

Yang D, Luo W, Wang J, Zheng M, Liao XH, Zhang N, . . . Lu KP. A novel controlled release formulation of the Pin1 inhibitor ATRA to improve liver cancer therapy by simultaneously blocking multiple cancer pathways. Journal of controlled release: official journal of the Controlled Release Society. Jan 10 2018;269:405-422.

Yang M, Guo W, Yang C, Tang J, Huang Q, Feng S, . . . Jiang G. Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2017;12(5):e0175136.

Yang SH, Li S, Lu G, Xue H, Kim DH, Zhu JJ, Liu Y. Metformin treatment reduces temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cells. Oncotarget. Nov 29 2016;7(48):78787-78803.

Yang Y, Yang D, Schluesener HJ, Zhang Z. Advances in SELEX and application of aptamers in the central nervous system. Biomolecular engineering. Dec 2007;24(6):583-592.

Yarchoan M, Arnold SE. Repurposing diabetes drugs for brain insulin resistance in Alzheimer disease. Diabetes. Jul 2014;63(7):2253-2261.

Yi Y, Hsieh IY, Huang X, Li J, Zhao W. Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells: Characteristics, Microenvironment, and Therapy. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2016;7:477.

Yin W, Song Y, Liu Q, Wu Y, He R. Topical treatment of all-trans retinoic acid inhibits murine melanoma partly by promoting CD8(+) T-cell immunity. Immunology. Oct 2017;152(2):287-297.

Yokoyama S, Hirano H, Wakimaru N, Sarker KP, Kuratsu J. Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-gallate on brain tumor cell lines in vitro. Neuro-oncology. Jan 2001;3(1):22-28.

Yu Z, Zhao G, Xie G, Zhao L, Chen Y, Yu H, . . . Li Y. Metformin and temozolomide act synergistically to inhibit growth of glioma cells and glioma stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Oncotarget. Oct 20 2015;6(32):32930-32943.

Yuan Y, Xue X, Guo RB, Sun XL, Hu G. Resveratrol enhances the antitumor effects of temozolomide in glioblastoma via ROS-dependent AMPK-TSC-mTOR signaling pathway. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics. Jul 2012;18(7):536-546.

Yung WK, Kyritsis AP, Gleason MJ, Levin VA. Treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas with high-dose 13-cis-retinoic acid. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Dec 1996;2(12):1931-1935.

Zeng W, Zhang W, Lu F, Gao L, Gao G. Resveratrol attenuates MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis via AKT/GSK-3beta pathway in SN4741 cells. Neuroscience letters. Jan 10 2017;637:50-56.

Zhang C, Duvic M. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with retinoids. Dermatologic therapy. Sep-Oct 2006;19(5):264-271.

Zhang Y, Liu Q, Wang F, Ling EA, Liu S, Wang L, . . . Hao A. Melatonin antagonizes hypoxia-mediated glioblastoma cell migration and invasion via inhibition of HIF-1alpha. Journal of pineal research. Sep 2013;55(2):121-130.

Zhang Y, Ren X, Shi M, Jiang Z, Wang H, Su Q, . . . Jiang G. Downregulation of STAT3 and activation of MAPK are involved in the induction of apoptosis by HNK in glioblastoma cell line U87. Oncology reports. Nov 2014;32(5):2038-2046.

Zhang Y, Wang SX, Ma JW, Li HY, Ye JC, Xie SM, . . . Zhong XY. EGCG inhibits properties of glioma stem-like cells and synergizes with temozolomide through downregulation of P-glycoprotein inhibition. Journal of neuro-oncology. Jan 2015;121(1):41-52.

Zhang YD, Dai RY, Chen Z, Zhang YH, He XZ, Zhou J. Efficacy and safety of carmustine wafers in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: a systematic review. Turkish neurosurgery. 2014;24(5):639-645.

Zhao B, Wang X, Zheng J, Wang H, Liu J. Effects of metformin treatment on glioma-induced brain edema. American journal of translational research. 2016;8(8):3351-3363.

Zhao J, Zhu J, Lv X, Xing J, Liu S, Chen C, Xu Y. Curcumin potentiates the potent antitumor activity of ACNU against glioblastoma by suppressing the PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB/COX-2 signaling pathways. OncoTargets and therapy. 2017;10:5471-5482.

Zheng X, Pang B, Gu G, Gao T, Zhang R, Pang Q, Liu Q. Melatonin Inhibits Glioblastoma Stem-like cells through Suppression of EZH2-NOTCH1 Signaling Axis. International journal of biological sciences. 2017;13(2):245-253.

Zhou Y, Jin G, Mi R, Dong C, Zhang J, Liu F. The methylation status of the platelet-derived growth factor-B gene promoter and its regulation of cellular proliferation following folate treatment in human glioma cells. Brain research. Mar 27 2014;1556:57-66.

Zhu Z, Kimura M, Itokawa Y, Nakatsu S, Oda Y, Kikuchi H. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain. Biological trace element research. Jul 1995;49(1):1-7.

Zhuang W, Long L, Zheng B, Ji W, Yang N, Zhang Q, Liang Z. Curcumin promotes differentiation of glioma-initiating cells by inducing autophagy. Cancer science. Apr 2012;103(4):684-690.

Zisapel N. New perspectives on the role of melatonin in human sleep, circadian rhythms and their regulation. Br J Pharmacol. Jan 10 2018.

Zou H, Zhu XX, Zhang GB, Ma Y, Wu Y, Huang DS. Silibinin: an old drug for hematological disorders. Oncotarget. Oct 24 2017;8(51):89307-89314.