Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Pancreatic Cancer


Abou-Alfa GK, Chapman PB, Feilchenfeldt J, et al. Targeting mutated K-ras in pancreatic adenocarcinoma using an adjuvant vaccine. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011;34(3):321-325.

Alcock RA, Dey S, Chendil D, et al. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor (L-744,832) restores TGF-beta type II receptor expression and enhances radiation sensitivity in K-ras mutant pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. Oncogene 2002;21(51):7883-7890.

Aliustaoglu M, Bilici A, Seker M, et al. The association of pre-treatment peripheral blood markers with survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(99-100):640-645.

Andersen KM, Seed T, Vos M, et al. 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors reduce PC-3 cell proliferation and initiate nonnecrotic cell death. The Prostate. 1998;37(3):161-73.

Anderson KM, Seed T, Meng J, Ou D, Alrefai WA, Harris JE. Five-lipoxygenase inhibitors reduce Panc-1 survival: the mode of cell death and synergism of MK886 with gamma linolenic acid. Anticancer Res 1998a;18(2A):791-800.

Angelini C, Bovo G, Muselli P, Mussi C, Crippa S, Caprotti R, Uggeri F. Preoperative interleukin-2 immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer: preliminary results. Hepato-gastroenterology. Jan-Feb 2006;53(67):141-144.

Appel MJ, Woutersen RA. Effects of dietary beta-carotene and selenium on initiation and promotion of pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats. Carcinogenesis 1996;17(7):1411-1416.

Armstrong T, Strommer L, Ruiz-Jasbon F, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for peri-ampullary neoplasia leads to specific micronutrient deficiencies. Pancreatology 2007;7(1):37-44.

Arshad A, Al-Leswas D, Stephenson J, Metcalfe M, Dennison A. Potential applications of fish oils rich in n-3 fatty acids in the palliative treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Br J Nutr 2011;1-6.

Asaumi H, Watanabe S, Taguchi M, et al. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits ethanol-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells. Eur J Clin Invest 2006;36(2):113-122.

Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Cross AJ, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, et al. Pancreatic Cancer and Exposure to Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2011;174(3):305-315.

Babu BI, Malleo G, Genovese T, et al. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate pancreatic injury in cerulein-induced murine acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 2009;38(8):954-967.

Bao Y, Ng K, Wolpin BM, et al. Predicted vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk in two prospective cohort studies. Br J Cancer 2010;102(9):1422-7.

Bao Y, Nimptsch K, Wolpin BM, et al. Dietary insulin load, dietary insulin index, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(3):862-868.

Bao Y, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Jiao L, et al. Added sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88(2):431-440.

Barber MD, Fearon KC, Tisdale MJ, McMillan DC, Ross JA. Effect of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement on metabolic mediators in patients with pancreatic cancer cachexia. Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):118-124.

Bartsch DK, Sina-Frey M, Lang S, et al. CDKN2A germline mutations in familial pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 2002;236(6):730-737.

Bauer C, Dauer M, Saraj S, Schnurr M, Bauernfeind F, Sterzik A, Junkmann J, Jakl V, Kiefl R, Oduncu F, Emmerich B, Mayr D, Mussack T, Bruns C, Rüttinger D, Conrad C, Jauch KW, Endres S, Eigler A. Dendritic cell-based vaccination of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: results of a pilot study. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011 Aug;60(8):1097-107.

Bauer J, Capra S, Battistutta D, Davidson W, Ash S. Compliance with nutrition prescription improves outcomes in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Clin Nutr 2005;24(6):998-1004.

Belanger JT. Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology. Altern Med Rev. 1998;3(6):448-57.

Berkson BM, Rubin DM, Berkson AJ. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases. Integr Cancer Ther 2009;8(4):416-422.

Berkson BM, Rubin DM, Berkson AJ. The long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer with metastases to the liver after treatment with the intravenous alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone protocol. Integr Cancer Ther 2006;5(1):83-89.

Berner C, Aumuller E, Gnauck A, Nestelberger M, Just A, Haslberger AG. Epigenetic control of estrogen receptor expression and tumor suppressor genes is modulated by bioactive food compounds. Ann Nutr Metab 2010;57(3-4):183-189.

Bernhardt SL, Gjertsen MK, Trachsel S, et al. Telomerase peptide vaccination of patients with non-resectable pancreatic cancer: a dose escalating phase I/II study. British Journal of Cancer. 2006;95(11):1474–1482.

Berrington de Gonzalez A, Sweetland S, Spencer E. A meta-analysis of obesity and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 2003;89(3):519-523.

Berrozpe G, Schaeffer J, et al. Comparative analysis of mutations in the p53 and K-ras genes in pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 1994;58(2):185-91.

Bertuccio P, La VC, Silverman DT, et al. Cigar and pipe smoking, smokeless tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Ann Oncol 2011;22(6):1420-1426.

Bidoli E, Pelucchi C, Zucchetto A, et al. Fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann Oncol 2011.

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, et al. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2004;364(9441):1219-28.

Bo S, Ciccone G, Rosato R, et al. Cancer mortality reduction and metformin. A retrospective cohort study in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Obes Metab 2011;10-1326.

Boadas J, Mora J, et al. Clinical usefulness of K-ras gene mutation detection and cytology in pancreatic juice in the diagnosis and screening of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001 Oct;13(10):1153-9.

Boik J. Natural Compounds in Cancer Therapy: Promising Nontoxic Antitumor Agents from Plants and Other Natural Sources. Princeton, MN: Oregon Medical Press; 2001.

Boros LG, Bassilian S, et al. Genistein inhibits nonoxidative ribose synthesis in MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: a new mechanism of controlling tumor growth. Pancreas 2001;22(1):1-7.

Braga M, Bissolati M, Rocchetti S, Beneduce A, Pecorelli N, Di Carlo V. Oral preoperative antioxidants in pancreatic surgery: A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Nutrition 2011 Sep 3.

Braga M, Cristallo M, De FR, et al. Correction of malnutrition and maldigestion with enzyme supplementation in patients with surgical suppression of exocrine pancreatic function. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1988;167(6):485-492.

Brand RE, Greer JB, Zolotarevsky E, et al. Pancreatic cancer patients who smoke and drink are diagnosed at younger ages. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009;7(9):1007-12.

Brand RE, Lynch HT. Hereditary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A clinical perspective. Med Clin North Am 2000;84(3):665-675.

Brasiuniene B, Brasiunas V, Barauskas G, Juozaityte E. [Molecular factors of pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and prognosis]. Medicina (Kaunas) 2003;39(7):631-636.

Bravi F, Polesel J, Bosetti C, et al. Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of pancreatic cancer: an Italian case-control study. Ann Oncol 2011;22(1):202-206.

Brown KM, Domin C, Aranha GV, Yong S, Shoup M. Increased preoperative platelet count is associated with decreased survival after resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Am J Surg 2005;189(3):278-282.

Bruno MJ, Haverkort EB, Tytgat GN, van Leeuwen DJ. Maldigestion associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: implications of gastrointestinal physiology and properties of enzyme preparations for a cause-related and patient-tailored treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 1995a;90(9):1383-1393.

Bruno MJ, Hoek FJ, Delzenne B, et al. Simultaneous assessments of exocrine pancreatic function by cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and measurement of plasma p-aminobenzoic acid. Clin Chem 1995b;41(4):599-604.

Buchler P, Reber HA, et al. Antiangiogenic activity of genistein in pancreatic carcinoma cells is mediated by the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and the down-regulation of VEGF gene expression. Cancer 2004;100(1):201-10.

Bulathsinghala P, Syrigos KN, Saif MW. Role of vitamin d in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. J Nutr Metab 2010;2010:721365.

Burke YD, Ayoubi AS, Werner SR, et al. Effects of the isoprenoids perillyl alcohol and farnesol on apoptosis biomarkers in pancreatic cancer chemoprevention. Anticancer Res 2002;22(6A):3127-3134.

Bussom S, Saif MW. Methods and rationale for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010. JOP 2010;11(2):128-130.

Cai EP, Lin JK. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and rutin suppress the glucotoxicity through activating IRS2 and AMPK signaling in rat pancreatic beta cells. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(20):9817-9827.

Caldas C, Hahn SA, Hruban RH, Redston MS, Yeo CJ, Kern SE. Detection of K-ras mutations in the stool of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal hyperplasia. Cancer Res 1994;54(13):3568-3573.

Caprotti R, Brivio F, Fumagalli L, Nobili C, Degrate L, Lissoni P, . . . Uggeri F. Free-from-progression period and overall short preoperative immunotherapy with IL-2 increases the survival of pancreatic cancer patients treated with macroscopically radical surgery. Anticancer research. May-Jun 2008;28(3b):1951-1954.

Chen da W, Wei Fei Z, et al. Role of enteral immunonutrition in patients with gastric carcinoma undergoing major surgery. Asian J Surg 2005;28(2):121-124.

Chow HH, Salazar D, Hakim IA. Pharmacokinetics of perillic acid in humans after a single dose administration of a citrus preparation rich in d-limonene content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11(11):1472-1476.

Chu J, Lloyd FL, et al. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in the regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis and growth in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer The 2003;2(1):1-7.

Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW,… Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA. 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1957-63. NCT00486460. Phase III Trial of Gemcitabine, Curcumin and Celebrex in Patients With Advance or Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer. Available at: 6/13/2007. Accessed 9/24/2012.

Combs GF Jr, Clark LC, Turnbull BW. Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium. Biomed Environ Sci. 1997 Sep;10(2-3):227-34.

Conroy T, Desseigne F, Ychou M, et al. FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 2011a;364(19):1817-1825.

Conroy T, Gavoille C, Adenis A. Metastatic pancreatic cancer: old drugs, new paradigms. Curr Opin Oncol 2011b Jul;23(4):390-5.

Cowgill SM, Muscarella P. The genetics of pancreatic cancer. Am J Surg 2003;186(3):279-286.

Crowell PL, Siar AA, Burke YD. Antitumorigenic effects of limonene and perillyl alcohol against pancreatic and breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;401:131-6.:131-136.

Cui J, Cui L, Liu Q, Sun Q. Dendritic cells transfected with lentiviral vector-encoding hTERT peptide augment antitumor T cell response in vitro. Mol Med Report 2011 Oct 3. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2011.610. [Epub ahead of print].

Cullen JJ. Ascorbate induces autophagy in pancreatic cancer. Autophagy 2010;6(3):421-422.

Cuoghi A, Farina A, Z'graggen K, et al. Role of proteomics to differentiate between benign and potentially malignant pancreatic cysts. J Proteome Res 2011;10(5):2664-2670.

Dandona M, Linehan D, Hawkins W, Strasberg S, Gao F, Wang-Gillam A. Influence of obesity and other risk factors on survival outcomes in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 2011;40(6):931-937.

Dauer M, Herten J, Bauer C, Renner F, Schad K, Schnurr M, Endres S, Eigler A. Chemosensitization of pancreatic carcinoma cells to enhance T cell-mediated cytotoxicity induced by tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. J Immunother 2005 Jul-Aug;28(4):332-42.

de Albuquerque A, Kubisch I, rnst D, aul S, eier G, rsis N. Prognostic significance of multimarker circulating tumor cells analysis in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29(Suppl)(e14657).

Degrate L, Nobili C, Franciosi C, Caprotti R, Brivio F, Romano F, . . . Uggeri F. Interleukin-2 immunotherapy action on innate immunity cells in peripheral blood and tumoral tissue of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie. Jan 2009;394(1):115-121.

Dhillon N, Aggarwal BB, Newman RA, et al. Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14(14):4491-4499.

Domínguez-Muñoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: when is it indicated, what is the goal and how to do it? Adv Med Sci 2011;56(1):1-5.

Dragovich T, Burris H 3rd, Loehrer P,… Gemcitabine plus celecoxib in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: results of a phase II trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr;31(2):157-62.

Dumonceau JM, Polkowski M, Larghi A, et al. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy 2011.

Edelman MJ, Watson D, Wang X,… Eicosanoid modulation in advanced lung cancer: cyclooxygenase-2 expression is a positive predictive factor for celecoxib + chemotherapy--Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 30203. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 20;26(6):848-55.

Elliott RL, Blobe GC. Role of transforming growth factor Beta in human cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Mar 20 2005;23(9):2078-2093.

El-Rayes BF, Philip PA, Sarkar FH, et al. A phase II study of isoflavones, erlotinib, and gemcitabine in advanced pancreatic cancer. Invest New Drugs 2011;29(4):694-699.

Epelbaum R, Schaffer M, Vizel B, Badmaev V, Bar-Sela G. Curcumin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Nutr Cancer 2010;62(8):1137-1141.

Ernst E, Schmidt K. Ukrain - a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. BMC Cancer 2005 Jul 1;5:69. Review.

Espey MG, Chen P, Chalmers B, et al. Pharmacologic ascorbate synergizes with gemcitabine in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;50(11):1610-1619.

FDA. Correspondence to OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. 11/2/2005. Available at: Accessed 10/20/2011.

Fendrich V, Chen NM, Neef M, Waldmann J, Buchholz M, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Maitra A, Bartsch DK. The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and aspirin delay progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer formation in a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Gut 2010 May;59(5):630-7.

Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893-2917.

Ferrari V, Valcamonico F, Amoroso V, et al. Gemcitabine plus celecoxib (GECO) in advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;57(2):185-90.

Ferrari V, Valcamonico F, et al. Gemcitabine plus celecoxib (GECO) in advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2005;1-6.

Fidler I. The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the 'seed and soil' hypothesis revisited. Nat Rev Cancer 2003;3(6):453-458.

Fisher L, Byrnes E, Fisher AA. Prevalence of vitamin K and vitamin D deficiency in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic disorders. Nutr Res 2009;29(9):676-683.

Fisher WE, Boros LG, Schirmer WJ. Insulin promotes pancreatic cancer: evidence for endocrine influence on exocrine pancreatic tumors. J Surg Res 1996;63(1):310-313.

Fisher WE. The promise of a personalized genomic approach to pancreatic cancer and why targeted therapies have missed the mark. World J Surg 2011;35(8):1766-1769.

Fogelman DR, Pathak P, Qiao W, et al. Serum CA 19-9 level as a surrogate marker for prognosis in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). J Clin Oncol (Meeting Abstracts) 2008;26(15514).

Friess H, Wang L, et al. Growth factor receptors are differentially expressed in cancers of the papilla of vater and pancreas. Ann Surg 1999;230(6):767-74.

Friso S, Choi SW. Gene-nutrient interactions and DNA methylation. J Nutr 2002;132(8 Suppl):2382S-2387S.

Froeling FE, Feig C, Chelala C, et al. Retinoic Acid-Induced Pancreatic Stellate Cell Quiescence Reduces Paracrine Wnt-beta-Catenin Signaling to Slow Tumor Progression. Gastroenterology 2011;141(4):1486-1497.e14.

Fujioka S, Sclabas GM, Schmidt C, et al. Function of nuclear factor kappaB in pancreatic cancer metastasis. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9(1):346-354.

Funahashi H, Satake M, Hasan S, et al. Opposing effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on pancreatic cancer growth. Pancreas 2008;36(4):353-362.

Funel N, Costa F, Pettinari L, et al. Ukrain affects pancreas cancer cell phenotype in vitro by targeting MMP-9 and intra-/extracellular SPARC expression. Pancreatology 2010;10(5):545-552.

Fyssas I, Syrigos KN, Konstandoulakis MM, et al. Sex hormone levels in the serum of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Horm Metab Res 1997;29(3):115-118.

Furukawa T, Sunamura M, Horii A. Molecular mechanisms of pancreatic carcinogenesis. Cancer science. Jan 2006;97(1):1-7.

Gallagher EJ, Fierz Y, Ferguson RD, LeRoith D. The pathway from diabetes and obesity to cancer, on the route to targeted therapy. Endocr Pract 2010 ; 16 (5) : 864 -873.

Ganepola GA, Gritsman AY, Asimakopulos N, Yiengpruksawan A. Are pancreatic tumors hormone dependent?: A case report of unusual, rapidly growing pancreatic tumor during pregnancy, its possible relationship to female sex hormones, and review of the literature. Am Surg 1999;65(2):105-111.

Gansauge F, Ramadani M, Pressmar J, et al. NSC-631570 (Ukrain) in the palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer. Results of a phase II trial. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2002;386(8):570-574.

Gapstur SM, Jacobs EJ, Deka A, McCullough ML, Patel AV, Thun MJ. Association of alcohol intake with pancreatic cancer mortality in never smokers. Arch Intern Med 2011;171(5):444-451.

Garcea G, Dennison AR, et al. Role of inflammation in pancreatic carcinogenesis and the implications for future therapy. Pancreatology 2005;5(6):514-29.

Gescher A. Polyphenolic phytochemicals versus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: which are better cancer chemopreventive agents? J Chemother 2004;16 Suppl 4:3-6.

Ghadirian P, Lynch HT, Krewski D. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer: an overview. Cancer Detect Prev 2003;27(2):87-93.

Gjertsen MK, Buanes T, Rosseland AR, et al. Intradermal ras peptide vaccination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvant: clinical and immunological responses in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. International Journal of Cancer 2001;92(3):441–450.

Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin as "Curecumin": from kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;75(4):787-809.

Gomez-Martin C, Hidalgo M, Tabernero J, Isla D. SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Clin Transl Oncol 2011;13(8):528-535.

Gonzalez A, del Castillo-Vaquero A, Miro-Moran A, Tapia JA, Salido GM. Melatonin reduces pancreatic tumor cell viability by altering mitochondrial physiology. J Pineal Res 2011;50(3):250-260.

Grant AG, McGlashan D, Hermon-Taylor J. A study of pancreatic secretory and intracellular enzymes in pancreatic cancer tissue, other gastrointestinal cancers, normal pancreas and serum. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90(1):75-82.

Greco E, Basso D, Fadi E, et al. Analogs of vitamin E epitomized by alpha-tocopheryl succinate for pancreatic cancer treatment: in vitro results induce caution for in vivo applications. Pancreas 2010;39(5):662-668.

Greer JB, Brand RE. New developments in pancreatic cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2011;13(2):131-139.

Greer JB, Whitcomb DC. Inflammation and pancreatic cancer: an evidence-based review. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009;9(4):411-418.

Gregor JI, Kilian M, Heukamp I,… Effects of selective COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibition on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in ductal pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamster. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005 Aug;73(2):89-97.

Grutzmann R, Pilarsky C, et al. Systematic isolation of genes differentially expressed in normal and cancerous tissue of the pancreas. Pancreatology 2003;3(2):169-78.

Gupta S, Wang F, Holly EA, Bracci PM. Risk of pancreatic cancer by alcohol dose, duration, and pattern of consumption, including binge drinking: a population-based study. Cancer Causes Control 2010;21(7):1047-1059.

Habermehl D, Kammerer B, Handrick R, et al. Proapoptotic activity of Ukrain is based on Chelidonium majus L. alkaloids and mediated via a mitochondrial death pathway. BMC Cancer 2006;6:14.

Hansel DE, Kern SE, Hruban RH. Molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. Annual review of genomics and human genetics. 2003;4:237-256.

Heller AR, Rossel T, Gottschlich B, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids improve liver and pancreas function in postoperative cancer patients. Int J Cancer 2004;111(4):611-616.

Hennig R, Ding XZ, et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and leukotriene B(4) receptor are expressed in human pancreatic cancers but not in pancreatic ducts in normal tissue. American Journal of Pathology 2002;161(2):421-8.

Hering J, Garrean S, Dekoj TR, et al. Inhibition of proliferation by omega-3 fatty acids in chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells. Ann Surg Oncol 2007;14(12):3620-3628.

Hiura A, Tsutsumi M, et al. Inhibitory effect of green tea extract on the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosobis-(2-oxypropyl)amine (BOP) and on tumor promotion after transplantation of N-nitrosobis-(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP)-induced pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters. Pancreas 1997;15(3):272-7.

Hoffmann J, Junker H, Schmieder A, et al. EGCG downregulates IL-1RI expression and suppresses IL-1-induced tumorigenic factors in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2011; Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print].

Hsu C, Saif MW. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA; June 3-7, 2011. JOP 2011;12(4):330-333.

Huang C, Yang G, Jiang T, Cao J, Huang KJ, Qiu ZJ. Down-regulation of STAT3 expression by vector-based small interfering RNA inhibits pancreatic cancer growth. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17(25):2992-3001.

Huff J, Infante PF. Styrene exposure and risk of cancer. Mutagenesis 2011;26(5):583-584.

Hung Pham, Monica C, Chen HT, Hines OJ, Eibl G. Vitamin D3 Regulates 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells. Gastroenterology 2011;140(5(Suppl)1):S-861.

Hussein D, Mo H. d-delta-Tocotrienol-mediated suppression of the proliferation of human PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells. Pancreas 2009;38(4):e124-e136.

Icli F, Akbulut H, Utkan G, Yalcin B, Dincol D, Isikdogan A, Demirkazik A, Onur H, Cay F, Büyükcelik A. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) increases the efficacy of cisplatinum plus gemcitabine combination in advanced pancreatic cancer. J Surg Oncol 2007 May 1;95(6):507-12.

Iftimia N, Cizginer S, Deshpande V, et al. Differentiation of pancreatic cysts with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging: an ex vivo pilot study. Biomed Opt Express 2011;2(8):2372-2382.

Imrie CW, Connett G, Hall RI, Charnley RM. Review article: enzyme supplementation in cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic and periampullary cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;32 Suppl 1:1-25.

Ito K, Nakazato H, Koike A, et al. Long-term effect of 5-fluorouracil enhanced by intermittent administration of polysaccharide K after curative resection of colon cancer. A randomized controlled trial for 7-year follow-up. Int J Colorectal Dis 2004;19(2):157-164.

Jaffee EM, Hruban RH, Biedrzycki B, et al. Novel allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor secreting tumor vaccine for pancreatic cancer: a phase I trial of safety and immune activation. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2001;19(1)145–156.

Jaffee EM. Immunotherapy of cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;886:67-72. Review.

James E, Waldron-Lynch MG, Saif MW. Prolonged survival in a patient with BRCA2 associated metastatic pancreatic cancer after exposure to camptothecin: a case report and review of literature. Anticancer Drugs 2009;20(7):634-638.

Jansa R, Prezelj J, Kocijancic A, et al. Androstanediol glucuronide in patients with pancreatic cancer and in those with chronic pancreatitis. Horm Metab Res. 1996;28(8):381-3.

Ji BT, Chow WH, et al. Green tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Int J Cancer 1997;70(3):255-8.

Jiang XT, Tao HQ, Zou SC. Detection of serum tumor markers in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2004;3(3):464-468.

Jiralerspong S, Palla SL, Giordano SH, et al. Metformin and pathologic complete responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in diabetic patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(20):3297-3302.

Johnson J, de Mejia EG. Dietary factors and pancreatic cancer: the role of food bioactive compounds. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55(1):58-73.

Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, et al. The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2001;2(2):187-200.

Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Lei P, Safe S. Inhibition of NFkappaB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation. J Biol Chem 2010;285(33):25332-25344.

Kanai M, Yoshimura K, Asada M, et al. A phase I/II study of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus curcumin for patients with gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011;68(1):157-164.

Kannappan R, Ravindran J, Prasad S, et al. Gamma-tocotrienol promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p53-mediated upregulation of death receptors. Mol Cancer Ther 2010;9(8):2196-2207.

Karlson J, Borg-Karlson AK, Unelius R, et al. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by monoterpenes in vitro: evidence of a Ras-independent mechanism of action. Anticancer Drugs 1996;7(4):422-429.

Katdare M, Osborne MP, et al. Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in pre-neoplastic human mammary epithelial cells by natural phytochemicals. Oncol Rep 1998;5(2):311-5.

Kaufman HL, Kim-Schulze S, Manson K, DeRaffele G, Mitcham J, Seo KS, Kim DW, Marshall J. Poxvirus-based vaccine therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. J Transl Med 2007 Nov 26;5:60.

Kim ER, Bae SY, Lee KH, e al. Is health screening beneficial for early detection and prognostic improvement in pancreatic cancer? Gut Liver. 2011;5(2):194-9.

Kim JE, Lee KT, Lee JK, Paik SW, Rhee JC, Choi KW. Clinical usefulness of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 as a screening test for pancreatic cancer in an asymptomatic population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004a;19(2):182-186.

Kim R, Saif MW. Is there an optimal neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer? JOP 2007;8(3):279-288.

Kimura Y, Tsukada J, Tomoda T, Takahashi H, Imai K, Shimamura K, Sunamura M, Yonemitsu Y, Shimodaira S, Koido S, Homma S, Okamoto M. Clinical and Immunologic Evaluation of Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Combination With Gemcitabine and/or S-1 in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma. Pancreas 2011 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print].

Kise Y, Yamamura M, Kogata M, et al. Inhibitory effect of selenium on hamster pancreatic cancer induction by N'-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine. Int J Cancer 1990;46(1):95-100.

Kisiel J. Digestive Disease Week conference. http://www medicalnewstoday com/articles/225130 php 2011.

Klek S, Kulig J, Szczepanik AM, Jedrys J, Kolodziejczyk P. The clinical value of parenteral immunonutrition in surgical patients. Acta Chir Belg 2005;105(2):175-179.

Koda K, Miyazaki M, Sarashina H, et al. A randomized controlled trial of postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy for colorectal cancer with oral medicines. Int J Oncol 2003;23(1):165-172.

Koido S, Homma S, Takahara A, Namiki Y, Tsukinaga S, Mitobe J, Odahara S, Yukawa T, Matsudaira H, Nagatsuma K, Uchiyama K, Satoh K, Ito M, Komita H, Arakawa H, Ohkusa T, Gong J, Tajiri H. Current immunotherapeutic approaches in pancreatic cancer. Clin Dev Immunol 2011;2011:267539.

Komoto M, Nakata B, Amano R, et al. HER2 overexpression correlates with survival after curative resection of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci 2009;100(7):1243-1247.

Kraft M, Kraft K, Gärtner S,… L-Carnitine-supplementation in advanced pancreatic cancer (CARPAN) - a randomized multicentre trial. utr J. 2012 Jul 23;11:52.

Kranenburg O. The KRAS oncogene: past, present, and future. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1756(2):81-82.

Kudo Y, Kamisawa T, Anjiki H, Takuma K, Egawa N. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Hepatogastroenterology 2011;58(106):609-611.

Kunnumakkara AB, Sung B, Ravindran J, et al. {Gamma}-tocotrienol inhibits pancreatic tumors and sensitizes them to gemcitabine treatment by modulating the inflammatory microenvironment. Cancer Res 2010;70(21):8695-8705.

Kuroki-Suzuki S, Kuroki Y, Nasu K, et al. Pancreatic cancer screening employing noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging combined with ultrasonography. Jpn J Radiol 2011;29(4):265-271.

Laheru D, Lutz E, Burke J, et al., Allogeneic granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor secreting tumor immunotherapy alone or in sequence with cyclophosphamide for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a pilot study of safety, feasibility, and immune activation. Clinical Cancer Research 2008;14(5):1455–1463.

Lai KC, Hsu SC, Kuo CL, et al. Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide inhibit migration and invasion in human colon cancer colo 205 cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -7, and -9 expressions. Environ Toxicol 2011.

Lamerz R. Role of tumour markers, cytogenetics. Ann Oncol 1999;10 Suppl 4:145-149.

Langer P, Kann PH, Fendrich V, et al. Five years of prospective screening of high-risk individuals from families with familial pancreatic cancer. Gut 2009;58(10):1410-1418.

Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(5):1171-1176.

Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 2010 Mar 17;303(11):1077-83.

Lebedeva IV, Su ZZ, Vozhilla N, et al. Chemoprevention by perillyl alcohol coupled with viral gene therapy reduces pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7(7):2042-2050.

Lee MS, Hsu CC, Wahlqvist ML, Tsai HN, Chang YH, Huang YC. Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total, colorectal, liver and pancreatic cancer incidences in Taiwanese: a representative population prospective cohort study of 800,000 individuals. BMC Cancer 2011;11:20.:20.

Leja-Szpak A, Jaworek J, Pierzchalski P, Reiter R. Melatonin induces pro-apoptotic signaling pathway in human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Journal of Pineal Research 2010;49(3):248-255.

Lepisto AJ, Moser AJ, Zeh H, et al. A phase I/II study of a MUC1 peptide pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected pancreatic and biliary tumors. Cancer Therapy 2008;6(B):955–964.

Lev-Ari S, Vexler A, Starr A, et al. Curcumin augments gemcitabine cytotoxic effect on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Cancer Invest 2007;25(6):411-418.

Levy MJ, Wiersema MJ. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 2002;16(1):29-38, 43.

Li D, Morris JS, Liu J, et al. Body mass index and risk, age of onset, and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. JAMA 2009a;301(24):2553-2562.

Li D, Yeung SC, Hassan MM, Konopleva M, Abbruzzese JL. Antidiabetic therapies affect risk of pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology 2009b;137(2):482-488.

Li L, Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Abbruzzese J, Kurzrock R. Nuclear factor-kappaB and IkappaB kinase are constitutively active in human pancreatic cells, and their down-regulation by curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is associated with the suppression of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Cancer 2004a;101(10):2351-2362.

Li Y, Ellis KL, Ali S, et al. Apoptosis-inducing effect of chemotherapeutic agents is potentiated by soy isoflavone genistein, a natural inhibitor of NF-kappaB in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cell line. Pancreas 2004b;28(4):e90-e95.

Lian F, Li Y, Bhuiyan M, Sarkar FH. p53-independent apoptosis induced by genistein in lung cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 1999;33(2):125-131.

Lian JP, Word B, Taylor S, Hammons GJ, Lyn-Cook BD. Modulation of the constitutive activated STAT3 transcription factor in pancreatic cancer prevention: effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and genistein. Anticancer Res 2004;24(1):133-137.

Lin Y, Tamakoshi A, Hayakawa T, Naruse S, Kitagawa M, Ohno Y. Nutritional factors and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based case-control study based on direct interview in Japan. J Gastroenterol 2005;40(3):297-301.

Lissoni P, Ardizzoia A, Barni S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of cancer neuroimmunotherapy with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 and the pineal hormone melatonin - a progress report of 200 patients with advanced solid neoplasms. Oncol Rep 1995a;2(6):1063-1068.

Lissoni P, Ardizzoia A, Meregalli S, et al. A clinical-study of immunotherapy versus endocrine therapy versus chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncol Rep 1994;1(6):1277-1280.

Lissoni P, Barni S, Tancini G, et al. Immunoendocrine therapy with low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 plus melatonin of locally advanced or metastatic endocrine tumors. Oncology 1995b;52(2):163-166.

Lissoni P, Paolorossi F, Tancini G, et al. A phase II study of tamoxifen plus melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients. Br J Cancer 1996;74(9):1466-1468.

Liu H, Ma Q, Li J. High glucose promotes cell proliferation and enhances GDNF and RET expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem 2011;347(1-2):95-101.

Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. Epidemiology and risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006;20(2):197-209.

Lu H, Yang Y, Gad E, et al. Polysaccharide krestin is a novel TLR2 agonist that mediates inhibition of tumor growth via stimulation of CD8 T cells and NK cells. Clin Cancer Res 2011a;17(1):67-76.

Lu H, Yang Y, Gad E, et al. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2011b.Sep 14 [Epub ahead of print].

Lucenteforte E, La VC, Silverman D, et al. Alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Ann Oncol 2011.

Lutz E, Yeo CJ, Lillemoe KD, Biedrzycki B, Kobrin B, Herman J, Sugar E, Piantadosi S, Cameron JL, Solt S, Onners B, Tartakovsky I, Choi M, Sharma R, Illei PB, Hruban RH, Abrams RA, Le D, Jaffee E, Laheru D. A lethally irradiated allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-secreting tumor vaccine for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A Phase II trial of safety, efficacy, and immune activation. Ann Surg 2011 Feb;253(2):328-35.

Lyn-Cook BD, Rogers T, Yan Y, Blann EB, Kadlubar FF, Hammons GJ. Chemopreventive effects of tea extracts and various components on human pancreatic and prostate tumor cells in vitro. Nutr Cancer 1999;35(1):80-86.

Magruder JT, Elahi D, Andersen DK. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer: chicken or egg? Pancreas 2011;40(3):339-351.

Majima T, Tsutsumi M, Nishino H,… Inhibitory effects of beta-carotene, palm carotene, and green tea polyphenols on pancreatic carcinogenesis initiated by N-nitorsobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in Syrian golden hamsters. Pancreas. 1998 Jan;16(1):13-8.

Maki RG, Livingston PO, Lewis JJ, Janetzki S, Klimstra D, Desantis D, Srivastava PK, Brennan MF. A phase I pilot study of autologous heat shock protein vaccine HSPPC-96 in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Dig Dis Sci 2007 Aug;52(8):1964-72.

Mandalà M, Tondini C. The impact of thromboprophylaxis on cancer survival: focus on pancreatic cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2011 Apr;11(4):579-88.

Masamune A, Satoh M, Kikuta K, Suzuki N, Satoh K, Shimosegawa T. Ellagic acid blocks activation of pancreatic stellate cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2005;70(6):869-878.

Matos JM, Schmidt CM, Thomas HJ, et al. A pilot study of perillyl alcohol in pancreatic cancer. J Surg Res 2008;147(2):194-199.

McIntyre BS, Sylvester PW. Genistein and erbstatin inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell proliferation is associated with EGF-receptor down-regulation. Cell Prolif 1998;31(1):35-46.

McKenna WG, Muschel RJ. Targeting tumor cells by enhancing radiation sensitivity. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2003;38(4):330-8.

Menapace LA, Khorana AA. The role of thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients: emerging data. Curr Opin Hematol 2010 Sep;17(5):450-6.

Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P,… Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer. 2005 Aug 20;116(2):182-6.

Michaud DS, Joshipura K, Giovannucci E, Fuchs CS. A prospective study of periodontal disease and pancreatic cancer in US male health professionals. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99(2):171-175.

Michaud DS, Liu S, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS. Dietary sugar, glycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94(17):1293-1300.

Michaud DS, Liu Y, Meyer M, Giovannucci E, Joshipura K. Periodontal disease, tooth loss, and cancer risk in male health professionals: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2008;9(6):550-558.

Michaud DS, Vrieling A, Jiao L, et al. Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Cancer Causes Control 2010;21(8):1213-1225.

Mihaljevic A, Buchler P, Harder J, et al. A prospective, non-randomized phase II trial of Trastuzumab and Capecitabine in patients with HER2 expressing metastasized pancreatic cancer. BMC Surg 2009;9:1.

Miltyk W, Craciunescu CN, Fischer L, et al. Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(4):875-882.

Mirzoeva OK, Hann B, Hom YK, et al. Autophagy suppression promotes apoptotic cell death in response to inhibition of the PI3K-mTOR pathway in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Mol Med (Berl) 2011;89(9):877-889.

Miyazawa M, Ohsawa R, Tsunoda T, Hirono S, Kawai M, Tani M, Nakamura Y, Yamaue H. Phase I clinical trial using peptide vaccine for human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in combination with gemcitabine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci 2010 Feb;101(2):433-9.

Moore PS, Begheli S, Zamboni G, et al. Genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer. 2003;2:7.

Morales E, Porta M, Vioque J, et al. Food and nutrient intakes and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007;61(7):641-649.

Morgan-Meadows S, Dubey S, Gould M, et al. Phase I trial of perillyl alcohol administered four times daily continuously. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2003;52(5):361-366.

Moses AW, Slater C, Preston T, Barber MD, Fearon KC. Reduced total energy expenditure and physical activity in cachectic patients with pancreatic cancer can be modulated by an energy and protein dense oral supplement enriched with n-3 fatty acids. Br J Cancer 2004;90(5):996-1002.

Mountzios G, et al. A benefit-risk assessment of erlotinib in non-small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. Drug Saf. 2011 Mar 1;34(3):175-86. doi: 10.2165/11586540-000000000-00000.

Mousa SA. Antithrombotic effects of naturally derived products on coagulation and platelet function. Methods Mol Biol 2010;663:229-40.

Muc-Wierzgon M, Nowakowska-Zajdel E, Zubelewicz B, et al. Circadian fluctuations of melatonin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its soluble receptors in the circulation of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2003;22(2):171-178.

Nakamura M, Wada J, Suzuki H, Tanaka M, Katano M, Morisaki T. Long-term outcome of immunotherapy for patients with refractory pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Res 2009 Mar;29(3):831-6.

Nakamura T, Takebe K, et al. Effects of pancreatic digestive enzymes, sodium bicarbonate, and a proton pump inhibitor on steatorrhoea caused by pancreatic diseases. J Int Med Res 1995;23(1):37-47.

Nakchbandi IA, Löhr JM. Coagulation, anticoagulation and pancreatic carcinoma.Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008 Aug;5(8):445-55.

Nakchbandi W, Müller H, Singer MV, Löhr M, Nakchbandi IA. Effects of low-dose warfarin and regional chemotherapy on survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006 Sep;41(9):1095-104.

Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(1):193-203.

National Toxicology Program. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). About the Report on Carcinogens. Public Health page. Available at: Last updated 9/7/2012. Accessed 7/16/2013.

Nava-Parada P, Emens LA. GV-1001, an injectable telomerase peptide vaccine for the treatment of solid cancers. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2007 Oct;9(5):490-7.

Neuhaus P, Riess H, Post S, et al. CONKO-001: final results of the randomized, prospective, multicenter phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine versus observation in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008 ; 26 ((suppl)) : abstr LBA4504.

Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Linseisen J. Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):985-92.

Nitsche C, Simon P, Weiss FU, et al. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Dig Dis 2011;29(2):235-242.

Nobili C, Degrate L, Caprotti R, Franciosi C, Leone BE, Trezzi R, . . . Uggeri F. Prolonged survival of a patient affected by pancreatic adenocarcinoma with massive lymphocyte and dendritic cell infiltration after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Report of a case. Tumori. May-Jun 2008;94(3):426-430.

Oaks BM, Dodd KW, Meinhold CL, Jiao L, Church TR, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ. Folate intake, post-folic acid grain fortification, and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(2):449-455.

Ochi K, Harada H, Mizushima T, Tanaka J, Matsumoto S. Intraductal secretin test is as useful as duodenal secretin test in assessing exocrine pancreatic function. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42(3):492-496.

Oh DY, et al. A phase II trial of erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine and capecitabine in previously untreated metastatic/recurrent pancreatic cancer: combined analysis with translational research. Invest New Drugs. 2011 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print].

Ohta T, Arakawa H, et al. [A new strategy for the therapy of pancreatic cancer by proton pump inhibitor]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1996;23(12):1660-4.

Osada S, Carr BI. Mechanism of novel vitamin K analog induced growth inhibition in human hepatoma cell line. J Hepatol. 2001 May;34(5):676-82.

Ou YQ, Zhu W, Li Y, Qiu PX, Huang YJ, Xie J, He SM, Zheng XK, Leng TD, Xu D, Yan GM. Aspirin inhibits proliferation of gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cells and augments gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2010 Jan;31(1):73-80.

Paquin SC, Gariepy G, Lepanto L, Bourdages R, Raymond G, Sahai AV. A first report of tumor seeding because of EUS-guided FNA of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 2005;61(4):610-611.

Parker LA, Lumbreras B, Lopez T, Hernandez-Aguado I, Porta M. How useful is it clinically to analyse the K-ras mutational status for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Invest 2011;41(7):793-805.

Pecher G, H¨aring A, Kaiser L, Thiel E. Mucin gene (MUC1) transfected dendritic cells as vaccine: results of a phase I/II clinical trial. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 2002;51(11-12):669–673.

Peluso G, Nicolai R, Reda E,… Cancer and anticancer therapy-induced modifications on metabolism mediated by carnitine system. J Cell Physiol. 2000 Mar;182(3):339-50.

Persson C, Glimelius B, Ronnelid J, Nygren P. Impact of fish oil and melatonin on cachexia in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized pilot study. Nutrition 2005;21(2):170-178.

Pisano C, Vesci L, Milazzo FM, Metabolic approach to the enhancement of antitumor effect of chemotherapy: a key role of acetyl-L-carnitine. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Aug 1;16(15):3944-53. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Plate JM, Plate AE, Shott S, Bograd S, Harris JE. Effect of gemcitabine on immune cells in subjects with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2005 Sep;54(9):915-25.

Prasad, A.S., Beck,F.W., Snell,D.C. and Kucuk,O. Zinc in cancer prevention, Nutr.Cancer.2009., 879-887, 1961.

Pruemer J. Prevalence, causes, and impact of cancer-associated thrombosis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005 Nov 15;62(22 Suppl 5):S4-6.

Ramanathan RK, Lee KM, McKolanis J, et al. Phase I study of a MUC1 vaccine composed of different doses of MUC1 peptide with SB-AS2 adjuvant in resected and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 2005;54(3):254–264.

Recchia F, Sica G, et al. Advanced carcinoma of the pancreas: phase II study of combined chemotherapy, beta-interferon, and retinoids. Am J Clin Oncol 1998;21(3):275-8.

Risch HA, Yu H, Lu L, Kidd MS. ABO blood group, Helicobacter pylori seropositivity, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102(7):502-505.

Robles-Diaz G, Duarte-Rojo A. Pancreas: a sex steroid-dependent tissue. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3(5):364-8.

Rogers KR, Kikawa KD, Mouradian M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid alters epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling by disrupting its lipid raft association. Carcinogenesis 2010;31(9):1523-1530.

Ross JA, Maingay JP, Fearon KC, Sangster K, Powell JJ. Eicosapentaenoic acid perturbs signalling via the NFkappaB transcriptional pathway in pancreatic tumour cells. Int J Oncol 2003;23(6):1733-1738.

Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW. Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet 2011 Jan 1;377(9759):31-41.

Roy AM, Baliga MS, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through p53, Bax, and caspase 3 pathways. Neoplasia 2005;7(1):24-36.

Saif MW. Does erlotinib restore chemosensitivity to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer? A case series. Anticancer Res. 2011a Mar;31(3):1039-42.

Schernhammer E, Wolpin B, Rifai N, et al. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and pancreatic cancer risk in four large cohorts. Cancer Res 2007;67(11):5553-5560.

Schibli S, Durie PR, et al. Proper usage of pancreatic enzymes. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2002;8(6):542-6.

Schusdziarra V, Holland A, Maier V, Pfeiffer EF. Effect of naloxone on pancreatic and gastric endocrine function in response to carbohydrate and fat-rich test meals. Peptides 1984;5(1):65-71.

Schutte M, Hruban R H, Geradts J, et al. Abrogation of the Rb/p16 tumor-suppressive pathway in virtually all pancreatic carcinomas. Cancer Research 1997;57:3126.

Sclabas GM, Uwagawa T, Schmidt C, Hess KR, Evans DB, Abbruzzese JL, Chiao PJ. Nuclear factor kappa B activation is a potential target for preventing pancreatic carcinoma by aspirin. Cancer 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2485-90.

Shah MM, Saif MW. Pancreatic cancer and thrombosis. Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA. June 4-8, 2010. JOP 2010 Jul 5;11(4):331-3.

Shankar S, Suthakar G, Srivastava RK. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits cell cycle and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Front Biosci 2007;12:5039-5051.

Shanmugam MK, Kannaiyan R, Sethi G. Targeting cell signaling and apoptotic pathways by dietary agents: role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nutr Cancer 2011;63(2):161-173.

Shehzad A, Wahid F, Lee YS. Curcumin in cancer chemoprevention: molecular targets, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and clinical trials. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2010;343(9):489-499.

Shi Y, Wu J, et al. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor effects on prostate tumor micro-environment and radiation survival. Prostate 2005;62(1):69-82.

Shin-Kang S, Ramsauer VP, Lightner J, et al. Tocotrienols inhibit AKT and ERK activation and suppress pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by suppressing the ErbB2 pathway. Free Radic Biol Med 2011.

Shirota T, Haji S, Yamasaki M, et al. Apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells induced by eicosapentaenoic acid. Nutrition 2005;21(10):1010-1017.

Singh BN, Shankar S, Srivastava RK. Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications. Biochem Pharmacol 2011Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print].

Singh SV. Impact of garlic organosulfides on p21 (H-ras) processing. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1046S-8S.

Skinner HG. Vitamin D for the treatment and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2008;7(3):437-439.

Skipworth RJ, Moses AG, Sangster K, Sturgeon CM, Voss AC, Fallon MT, Anderson RA, Ross JA, Fearon KC. Interaction of gonadal status with systemic inflammation and opioid use in determining nutritional status and prognosis in advanced pancreatic cancer. Support Care Cancer 2011 Mar;19(3):391-401.

Snady H, Bruckner HW, et al. Survival advantage of combined chemoradiotherapy compared with resection as the initial treatment of patients with regional pancreatic carcinoma. An outcomes trial. Cancer 2000;89(2):314-27.

Sohail MA, Saif MW. Role of anticoagulation in the management of pancreatic cancer. JOP 2009 Mar 9;10(2):82-7.

Sohma M, Kitagawa T, Okano S, et al. [Two cases of unresectable pancreatic cancer responding to combined chemotherapy with cisplatin, PSK and UFT]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1987;14(6 Pt 1):1926-1929.

Solomon VR, Lee H. Chloroquine and its analogs: a new promise of an old drug for effective and safe cancer therapies. Eur J Pharmacol 2009; 625(1-3): 220- 233.

Sperti C, Bonadimani B, Guolo P, Militello C, Cappellazzo F, Pasquali C, Pedrazzoli S. Androgen profile in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Ital J Gastroenterol 1992 Jul-Aug;24(6):328-31

Stayrook KR, McKinzie JH, Barbhaiya LH, Crowell PL. Effects of the antitumor agent perillyl alcohol on H-Ras vs. K-Ras farnesylation and signal transduction in pancreatic cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18(2A):823-828.

Stingl JC, Ettrich T, Muche R, et al. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE): a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population. BMC Cancer 2011;11:360.

Stoita A, Penman ID, Williams DB. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals. World J Gastroenterol 2011;17(19):2365-2371.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Albanes D, Nieto FJ,… Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6):535-41.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Dodd KW, Blaser MJ, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Albanes D. Tooth loss, pancreatic cancer, and Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(1):176-181.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Graubard BI, Chari S et al. Insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. JAMA 2005;294(22):2872-2878.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer. Ann Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2):89-95.

Strimpakos AS, Syrigos KN, Saif MW. Translational research in pancreatic cancer. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". San Francisco, CA, USA. January 20-22, 2011. JOP 2011;12(2):120-122.

Strouch MJ, Ding Y, Salabat MR, et al. A high omega-3 fatty acid diet mitigates murine pancreatic precancer development. J Surg Res. 2011;165(1):75-81.

Sun J. D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications. Altern Med Rev 2007;12(3):259-264.

Suso EM, Dueland S, Rasmussen AM, Vetrhus T, Aamdal S, Kvalheim G, Gaudernack G. hTERT mRNA dendritic cell vaccination: complete response in a pancreatic cancer patient associated with response against several hTERT epitopes. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2011 Jun;60(6):809-18.

Suzuki K, Aiura K, Ueda M, Kitajima M. The influence of platelets on the promotion of invasion by tumor cells and inhibition by antiplatelet agents. Pancreas 2004;29(2):132-140.

Swamy MV, Citineni B, Patlolla JM, Mohammed A, Zhang Y, Rao CV. Prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer by curcumin in combination with omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr Cancer 2008;60 Suppl 1:81-9.:81-89.

Takimoto CH, Glover K, Huang X, et al. Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of unconjugated soy isoflavones administered to individuals with cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12(11 Pt 1):1213-1221.

Talamini G, Falconi M, Bassi C, et al. Incidence of cancer in the course of chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94(5):1253-1260.

Tan XL, Reid-Lombardo KM, Bamlet WR, Oberg AL, Robinson DP, Anderson KE, Petersen GM. Aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), acetaminophen, and pancreatic cancer risk: A clinic-based case-control study. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print].

Thiébaut AC, Jiao L, Silverman DT, et al. Dietary fatty acids and pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101(14):1001-1011.

Ting RZ, Szeto CC, Chan MH, Ma KK, Chow KM. Risk factors of vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients receiving metformin. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(18):1975-1979.

Toubaji A, Achtar M, Provenzano M, Herrin VE, Behrens R, Hamilton M, Bernstein S, Venzon D, Gause B, Marincola F, Khleif SN. Pilot study of mutant ras peptide-based vaccine as an adjuvant treatment in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2008 Sep;57(9):1413-20.

Tranah GJ, Holly EA, Wang F, Bracci PM. Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking, passive smoke exposure, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based study in the San Francisco Bay Area. BMC Cancer 2011;11:138.:138.

Trikudanathan G, Philip A, Dasanu CA, Baker WL. Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and pancreatic cancer. A cumulative meta-analysis. JOP 2011;12(1):26-31.

Tsukagoshi S, Hashimoto Y, Fujii G, Kobayashi H, Nomoto K, Orita K. Krestin (PSK). Cancer Treat Rev 1984;11(2):131-155.

Tucker ON, Dannenberg AJ, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res 1999;59(5):987-90.

Turner BG, Cizginer S, Agarwal D, Yang J, Pitman MB, Brugge WR. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasia with EUS and FNA: a report of accuracy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010;71(1):91-98.

Uggeri F, Caprotti R, De Grate L, Crippa S, Nobili C, Penati C, Romano F. Short-term preoperative IL-2 immunotherapy in operable pancreatic cancer: a randomized study. Hepato-gastroenterology. May-Jun 2009;56(91-92):861-865.

Uwagawa T, et al. Proton-pump inhibitor as palliative care for chemotherapy-induced gastroesophageal reflux disease in pancreatic cancer patients. J Palliat Med. 2010 Jul;13(7):815-8.

Vaccaro V, Melisi D, Bria E, et al. Emerging pathways and future targets for the molecular therapy of pancreatic cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2011;Oct;15(10):1183-96.

van Doormaal FF, Di Nisio M, Otten HM, Richel DJ, Prins M, Buller HR. Randomized trial of the effect of the low molecular weight heparin nadroparin on survival in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011 May 20;29(15):2071-6.

Vaquero EC, Edderkaoui M, Pandol SJ, et al. Reactive oxygen species produced by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibit apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(33):34643-54.

Vashi PG, Trukova K, Lammersfeld CA, Braun DP, Gupta D. Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in oncology. Nutr J 2010;9:60.:60.

Vazquez-Martin A, Lopez-Bonetc E, Cufi S, et al. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions. Drug Resist Updat 2011;14(4-5):212-223.

Vigushin DM, Poon GK, Boddy A et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials Committee. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1998;42(2):111-117.

Vu HA, Beppu Y, Chi HT, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate exhibits anticancer effect in human pancreatic carcinoma cells via the inhibition of both focal adhesion kinase and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. J Biomed Biotechnol 2010;2010:290516.

Wang CJ, Wang C, Han J, Wang YK, Tang L, Shen DW, . . . Zhang H. Effect of combined treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 and allicin on pancreatic cancer. Molecular biology reports. Dec 2013;40(12):6579-6585.

Wang HY, Xiu DR, Li ZF, Wang G. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 2009 Mar 20;122(6):697-700.

Wang Z, Ahmad A, Banerjee S, et al. FoxM1 is a novel target of a natural agent in pancreatic cancer. Pharm Res 2010;27(6):1159-1168.

Wang Z, Zhang Y, Banerjee S, Li Y, Sarkar FH. Notch-1 down-regulation by curcumin is associated with the inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Cancer 2006;106(11):2503-2513.

Wedén S, Klemp M, Gladhaug IP, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with resected pancreatic cancer following vaccination against mutant K-ras. International Journal of Cancer. 2011;128(5):1120-1128.

Wei G, Wang M, Carr BI. Sorafenib combined vitamin K induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cell lines through RAF/MEK/ERK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways. J Cell Physiol. 2010 Jul;224(1):112-9.

Wendel M, Heller AR. Anticancer actions of omega-3 fatty acids--current state and future perspectives. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2009;9(4):457-470.

Wenger FA, Kilian M, Achucarro P,… Effects of Celebrex and Zyflo on BOP-induced pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters. Pancreatology. 2002;2(1):54-60.

Wilentz RE, Chung CH, Sturm PD, et al. K-ras mutations in the duodenal fluid of patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 1998;82(1):96-103.

Wobser M, Keikavoussi P, Kunzmann V, Weininger M, Andersen MH, Becker JC. Complete remission of liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer under vaccination with a HLA-A2 restricted peptide derived from the universal tumor antigen survivin. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 2006;55(10):1294–1298.

Woutersen RA, Appel MJ, et al. Modulation of pancreatic carcinogenesis by antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol 1999;39(9-10):981-4.

Xu X, Strimpakos AS, Saif MW. Biomarkers and Pharmacogenetics in Pancreatic Cancer. Highlights from the "2011 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA; June 3-7, 2011. JOP 2011;12(4):325-329.

Yamaguchi K, Nakamura K, Kimura M, et al. Intraoperative radiation enhances decline of pancreatic exocrine function after pancreatic head resection. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45(6):1084-1090.

Yamamoto K, Mine T, Katagiri K, et al. Immunological evaluation of personalized peptide vaccination for patients with pancreatic cancer. Oncology Reports 2005b;13(5):874–883.

Yamamoto K, Ueno T, Kawaoka T, et al. MUC1 peptide vaccination in patients with advanced pancreas or biliary tract cancer. Anticancer Research 2005a;25(5):3575–3579.

Yanagimoto H, Mine T, Yamamoto K, Satoi S, Terakawa N, Takahashi K, Nakahara K, Honma S, Tanaka M, Mizoguchi J, Yamada A, Oka M, Kamiyama Y, Itoh K, Takai S. Immunological evaluation of personalized peptide vaccination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci 2007 Apr;98(4):605-11.

Yanagimoto H, Shiomi H, Satoi S, Mine T, Toyokawa H, Yamamoto T, Tani T, Yamada A, Kwon AH, Komatsu N, Itoh K, Noguchi M. A phase II study of personalized peptide vaccination combined with gemcitabine for non-resectable pancreatic cancer patients. Oncol Rep 2010 Sep;24(3):795-801.

Yang S, Wang X, Contino G, et al. Pancreatic cancers require autophagy for tumor growth. Genes Dev 2011a;25(7):717-729.

Yang YX. Do diabetes drugs modify the risk of pancreatic cancer? Gastroenterology 2009;137(2):412-415.

Yates KR, Welsh J, Echrish HH, Greenman J, Maraveyas A, Madden LA. Pancreatic cancer cell and microparticle procoagulant surface characterization: involvement of membrane-expressed tissue factor, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2011 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print].

Yu LL, et al. Curcumin reverses chemoresistance of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating the NF-κB transcription factor. Oncol Rep. 2011 Nov;26(5):1197-203. doi: 10.3892/or.2011.1410. Epub 2011 Aug 2.

Zeilhofer HU, Mollenhauer J, Brune K. Selective growth inhibition of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells by the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. Cancer Lett 1989;44(1):61-66.

Zemskov V, Prokopchuk O, Susak Y. Efficacy of ukrainthe treatment of . Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2002;387(2):84-9.

Zemskov VS, Procopchuk OL, Susak YM, Zemskov SV, Hodysh YY, Zemskova MV. Ukrain (NSC-631570) in the treatment of pancreas cancer. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26(5-6):179-190.

Zhang H, Morisaki T, Matsunaga H, et al. Protein-bound polysaccharide PSK inhibits tumor invasiveness by down-regulation of TGF-beta1 and MMPs. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2000;18(4):343-52.

Zhang H, Morisaki T, Nakahara C, et al. PSK-mediated NF-kappaB inhibition augments docetaxel-induced apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells NOR-P1. Oncogene 2003;22(14):2088-2096.

Zhang J, Dhakal IB, Gross MD, et al. Physical activity, diet, and pancreatic cancer: a population-based, case-control study in Minnesota. Nutr Cancer 2009;61(4):457-465.

Zhang J, Zhang X, Dhakal IB, Gross MD, Kadlubar FF, Anderson KE. Sequence variants in antioxidant defense and DNA repair genes, dietary antioxidants, and pancreatic cancer risk. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2011;2(3):236-244.

Zhou JH, Cheng HY, Yu ZQ, He DW, Pan Z, Yang DT. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Chin Med J (Engl) 2011;124(11):1695-1699.

Zubarik R, Gordon SR, Lidofsky SD, et al. Screening for pancreatic cancer in a high-risk population with serum CA 19-9 and targeted EUS: a feasibility study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74(1):87-95.