Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Copyright © 2013. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ADD; ADHD; Childhood hyperkinesis. PubMed Health web page. Available at: Accessed 12/4/2013.

Abramovitch A, Goldzweig G, Schweiger A. Correlates of Physical Activity with Intrusive Thoughts, Worry and Impulsivity in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study. The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences. 2013;50(1):47-53.

Adriani W, Rea M, Baviera M, Invernizzi W, Carli M, Ghirardi O, . . . Laviola G. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces impulsive behaviour in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology. Nov 2004;176(3-4):296-304.

Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of ADHD in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 08;4(1):9.

Akhondzadeh S, Tavakolian R, Davari-Ashtiani R, Arabgol F, Amini H. Selegiline in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Aug;27(5):841-5.

Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben CA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children aged 5-17 years in the United States, 1998-2009. NCHS data brief. Aug 2011(70):1-8.

Anastopoulos AD, Shelton TL, DuPaul GJ, Guevremont DC. Parent training for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: its impact on parent functioning. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1993 Oct;21(5):581-96.

Antshel KM, Hargrave TM, Simonescu M, Kaul P, Hendricks K, Faraone SV. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD. BMC Med. 2011 Jun 10;9:72.

Arnold LE, Amato A, Bozzolo H, Hollway J, Cook A, Ramadan Y, Crowl L, Zhang D, Thompson S, Testa G, Kliewer V, Wigal T, McBurnett K, Manos M. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multi-site, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007 Dec;17(6):791-802.

Arnold LE, Hurt E, Lofthouse N. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Dietary and Nutritional Treatments. Child Adolesc Psychiatric N Am. 2013;22(3):381-402.

Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A. Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and neuroscience : official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS). Jul 2009;40(3):180-189.

Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM. Psychostimulants as cognitive enhancers: the prefrontal cortex, catecholamines, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 15;69(12):e101-11.

Berwid OG, Halperin JM. Emerging support for a role of exercise in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder intervention planning. Current psychiatry reports. Oct 2012;14(5):543-551.

Bloch MH, Qawasmi A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oct 2011;50(10):991-1000.

Brauser D. MedScape Medical News. Mixed Reaction to FDA Approval of ADHD Brain-Wave Test. Available at: Last updated 8/7/2013. Accessed 11/52013.

Burbach JP. Neuropsychiatric connections of ADHD genes. Lancet. 2010;376(9750):1367-8.

Carlson SJ, Fallon EM, Kalish BT, Gura KM, Puder M. The role of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA in the human life cycle. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Jan 2013;37(1):15-22.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available at: Last updated 11/21/2013a. Accessed 12/5/2013.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Treatment. Available at: Last updated 10/18/2013b. Accessed 12/11/2013.

Ceylan MF, Sener S, Bayraktar AC, Kavutcu M. Changes in oxidative stress and cellular immunity serum markers in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. Apr 2012;66(3):220-226.

Charach A, Carson P, Fox S, Ali MU, Beckett J, Lim CG. Interventions for preschool children at high risk for ADHD: a comparative effectiveness review. Pediatrics. 2013 May;131(5):e1584-604.

Chavez B, Sopko MA Jr, Ehret MJ, Paulino RE, Goldberg KR, Angstadt K, Bogart GT. An update on central nervous system stimulant formulations in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Jun;43(6):1084-95.

Christman AK, Fermo JD, Markowitz JS. Atomoxetine, a novel treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Aug;24(8):1020-36.

Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA. Fatty acid status and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutr J. 2008;7:8.

Comim CM,Gomes KM, Reus GZ, et al. Methylphenidate treatment causes oxidative stress and alters energetic metabolism in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 12: 1-8, 2013. <>

Cortese S, Angriman M, Lecendreux M, Konofal E. Iron and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: What is the empirical evidence so far? A systematic review of the literature. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. Oct 2012;12(10):1227-1240.

Cruz MP. Guanfacine Extended-Release Tablets (Intuniv), a Nonstimulant Selective Alpha(2A)-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. P T. 2010 Aug;35(8):448-51.

Dalsgaard S. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;22 Suppl 1:S43-8.

De La Fuente A, Xia S, Branch C, Li X. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from the perspective of brain networks. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2013;7:192.

del Campo N, Fryer TD, Hong YT, Smith R, Brichard L, Acosta-Cabronero J, . . . Müller U. A positron emission tomography study of nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms underlying attention: implications for ADHD and its treatment. Brain. November 1, 2013;136(11):3252-3270.

Dura Trave T, Diez Bayona V, Yoldi Petri ME, Aguilera Albesa S. [Dietary patterns in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.]. Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003). Jul 2 2013.

Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen D, Elgen IB. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC psychiatry. 2012;12:107.

Dvorakova M, Jezova D, Blazicek P, Trebaticka J, Skodacek I, Suba J, . . . Durackova Z. Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). Nutritional neuroscience. Jun-Aug 2007;10(3-4):151-157.

Edel MA, Rudel A, Hubert C, et al. Alexithymia, emotional processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD. Eur J Med Res. 2010 Sep 24;15(9):409-9. <>

Elia J, Wilson Z, La Porta LS, Algon SA, Prowler ML, Cartwright ST, McKenna PA, Laracy S, Takeda T, Borgmann-Winter K. Methylphenidate transdermal system: clinical applications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2011 May;4(3):311-28.

Eme R. ADHD: an integration with pediatric traumatic brain injury. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012 Apr;12(4):475-83.

Emond V, Joyal C, Poissant H. [Structural and functional neuroanatomy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. L'Encephale. Apr 2009;35(2):107-114.

ePOCRATES. ePOCRATES online. Drugs; Concerta (methylphenidate); Adverse Reactions. Available at: Copyright © 2013. Accessed 12/11/2013.

Faraone SV and Khan SA. Candidate gene studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 Suppl 8:13-20.

Faraone SV, Glatt SJ, Bukstein OG, Lopez FA, Arnold LE, Findling RL. Effects of once-daily oral and transdermal methylphenidate on sleep behavior of children with ADHD. Journal of attention disorders. Jan 2009;12(4):308-315.

FDA. FDA News Release. FDA permits marketing of first brain wave test to help assess children and teens for ADHD. Available at: Last updated: 7/15/2013. Accessed 11/5/2013.

FDA. Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: suicidal thinking in children and adolescents being treated with Strattera (atomoxetine). 2005. DrugSafetyInformationforHeathcareProfessionals/PublicHealthAdvisories/ucm051733.htm

Franke B, Faraone SV, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Bau CH, Ramos-Quiroga JA, . . . Reif A. The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review. Molecular psychiatry. Oct 2012;17(10):960-987.

Ghanizadeh A. A systematic review of magnesium therapy for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Iranian medicine. Jul 2013;16(7):412-417.

Gow RV, Sumich A, Vallee-Tourangeau F, Crawford MA, Ghebremeskel K, Bueno AA, . . . Rubia K. Omega-3 fatty acids are related to abnormal emotion processing in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids. Jun 2013;88(6):419-429.

Gow RV, Vallee-Tourangeau F, Crawford MA, Taylor E, Ghebremeskel K, Bueno AA, . . . Rubia K. Omega-3 fatty acids are inversely related to callous and unemotional traits in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids. Jun 2013;88(6):411-418.

Greydanus DE, Nazeer A, Patel DR. Psychopharmacology of ADHD in pediatrics: current advances and issues. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009; 5: 171–181.

Hale TS, Hariri AR, McCracken JT. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: perspectives from neuroimaging. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews. 2000;6(3):214-219.

Halperin JM, Marks DJ, Bedard AC, Chacko A, Curchack JT, Yoon CA, Healey DM. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children With ADHD. Journal of attention disorders. Mar 5 2012.

Harding KL, Judah RD, Gant C. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug;8(3):319-30.

Hariprasad VR, Arasappa R, Varambally S, Srinath S, Gangadhar BN. Feasibility and efficacy of yoga as an add-on intervention in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: An exploratory study. Indian journal of psychiatry. Jul 2013;55(Suppl 3):S379-384.

Hirayama S, Terasawa K, Rabeler R, Hirayama T, Inoue T, Tatsumi Y, . . . Jager R. The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. Mar 17 2013.

Hodgkins P, Setyawan J, Mitra D, Davis K, Quintero J, Fridman M, . . . Harpin V. Management of ADHD in children across Europe: patient demographics, physician characteristics and treatment patterns. European journal of pediatrics. Jul 2013;172(7):895-906.

Hopkins SC, Sunkaraneni S, Skende E, Hing J, Passarell JA, Loebel A, Koblan KS. Pharmacokinetics and Exposure-Response Relationships of Dasotraline in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. Clinical drug investigation. Feb 2016;36(2):137-146.

Jafarinia M, Mohammadi MR, Modabbernia A, Ashrafi M, Khajavi D, Tabrizi M, . . . Akhondzadeh S. Bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: randomized double-blind study. Human psychopharmacology. Jul 2012;27(4):411-418.

Jensen PS, Kenny DT. The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/ hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of attention disorders. May 2004;7(4):205-216.

Johnson M, Mansson JE, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Areskoug B, Hjalmarsson K, . . . Gillberg C. Fatty acids in ADHD: plasma profiles in a placebo-controlled study of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children and adolescents. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Dec 2012;4(4):199-204.

Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents. J Atten Disord. 2009;12(5):394–401

Johnson RJ, Gold MS, Johnson DR, Ishimoto T, Lanaspa MA, Zahniser NR, Avena NM. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is it time to reappraise the role of sugar consumption? Postgraduate medicine. Sep 2011;123(5):39-49.

Kasparek T, Theiner P, Filova A. Neurobiology of ADHD From Childhood to Adulthood: Findings of Imaging Methods. Journal of attention disorders. Oct 4 2013.

Kawatani M, Tsukahara H, Mayumi M. Evaluation of oxidative stress status in children with pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using urinary-specific biomarkers. Redox report : communications in free radical research. 2011;16(1):45-46.

Kim YW, West XZ, Byzova TV. Inflammation and oxidative stress in angiogenesis and vascular disease. Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany). Mar 2013;91(3):323-328.

Knouse LE, Safren SA. Current status of cognitive behavioral therapy for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;33(3):497-509.

Koblan KS, Hopkins SC, Sarma K, Gallina N, Jin F, Levy-Cooperman N, . . . Loebel A. Assessment of human abuse potential of dasotraline compared to methylphenidate and placebo in recreational stimulant users. Drug and alcohol dependence. Feb 01 2016;159:26-34.

Koblan KS, Hopkins SC, Sarma K, Jin F, Goldman R, Kollins SH, Loebel A. Dasotraline for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Trial in Adults. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Nov 2015;40(12):2745-2752.

Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I, Mouren MC. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Dec;158(12):1113-5.

Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Deron J, Marchand M, Cortese S, Zaim M, . . . Arnulf I. Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatric neurology. Jan 2008;38(1):20-26.

Konrad K, Eickhoff SB. Is the ADHD brain wired differently? A review on structural and functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Human brain mapping. Jun 2010;31(6):904-916.

Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. Jun 1997;10(2):143-148.

Kumar R. Approved and investigational uses of modafinil : an evidence-based review. Drugs. 2008;68(13):1803-1839.

Lee SH, Park WS, Lim MH. Clinical effects of korean red ginseng on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: an observational study. Journal of ginseng research. Jun 2011;35(2):226-234.

Lee SH, Seo WS, Sung HM, Choi TY, Kim SY, Choi SJ, . . . Lee JH. Effect of methylphenidate on sleep parameters in children with ADHD. Psychiatry investigation. Dec 2012;9(4):384-390.

Liu F, Minami H, Silva RR. Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2006 Dec;2(4):467-73.

Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8.

Madaan V, Kolli V, Bestha DP, Shah MJ. Update on optimal use of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of ADHD. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:977-83.

Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, Rosen S, Tasker H, Cohen T, . . . Weizman A. The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension. European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists. Jul 2012;27(5):335-342.

Martins MR, Reinke A, Petronilho FC, Gomes KM, Dal-Pizzol F, Quevedo J. Methylphenidate treatment induces oxidative stress in young rat brain. Brain research. Mar 17 2006;1078(1):189-197.

Massat I, Slama H, Kavec M, Linotte S, Mary A, Baleriaux D, . . . Peigneux P. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD. PloS one. 2012;7(11):e49392.

McLaughlin KA, Fox NA, Zeanah CH, Sheridan MA, Marshall P, Nelson CA. Delayed maturation in brain electrical activity partially explains the association between early environmental deprivation and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological psychiatry. Aug 15 2010;68(4):329-336.

Medscape. Reference. Methylphenidate (Rx). Adverse Effects page. Availbale at: Accessed 12/11/2013.

Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2012 Feb;129(2):330-7.

Montgomery P, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Richardson AJ. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study. PloS one. 2013;8(6):e66697.

Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Rohde LA. Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):588-98.

Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, Pradal-Prat D, Rapin J, Bali JP. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. Mar 2006;19(1):46-52.

Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Rapin J, Bali JP. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):545S-8S.

Neale BM, Medland SE, Ripke S, Asherson P, Franke B, Lesch KP, . . . Nelson S. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Sep 2010;49(9):884-897.

Ng F, Berk M, Dean O, Bush AI. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP). Sep 2008;11(6):851-876.

NIH. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health. Health & Education page. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Causes. Available at: Accessed 12/11/2013a.

NIH. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health. Health & Education page. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Treatments. Available at: Accessed 12/11/2013b.

O'Neill S, Schneiderman RL, Rajendran K, Marks DJ, Halperin JM. Reliable Ratings or Reading Tea Leaves: Can Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Behavioral Ratings of Preschoolers Predict ADHD at Age Six? Journal of abnormal child psychology. Oct 2 2013.

Ornstein TJ, Max JE, Schachar R, Dennis M, Barnes M, Ewing-Cobbs L, Levin HS. Response inhibition in children with and without ADHD after traumatic brain injury. Journal of neuropsychology. Mar 2013;7(1):1-11.

Owens JA. The ADHD and sleep conundrum: a review. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP. Aug 2005;26(4):312-322.

Parens E, Johnston J. Facts, values, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health. 2009;3(1):1.

Parker J, Wales G, Chalhoub N, Harpin V. The long-term outcomes of interventions for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Psychology research and behavior management. 2013;6:87-99.

Pastura G, Mattos P, Gasparetto EL, Araujo AP. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. Apr 2011;69(2a):242-252.

Patrick LR. Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology and the role of iron and folate. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Jun;12(2):101-12.

Patterson E, Wall R, Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP, Stanton C. Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2012;2012:539426.

Pearson DA, Aman MG, Arnold LE, Lane DM, Loveland KA, Santos CW, . . . Cleveland LA. High concordance of parent and teacher attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ratings in medicated and unmedicated children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Aug 2012;22(4):284-291.

Pellow J, Solomon EM, Barnard CN. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):323-37.

Perrin JM, Friedman RA, Knilans TK; Black Box Working Group; Section on Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Cardiovascular monitoring and stimulant drugs for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2008 Aug;122(2):451-3.

Philipsen A, Hornyak M, Riemann D. Sleep and sleep disorders in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sleep medicine reviews. Dec 2006;10(6):399-405.

Pontifex MB, Saliba BJ, Raine LB, Picchietti DL, Hillman CH. Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of pediatrics. Mar 2013;162(3):543-551.

Prosser B, Reid R. The DSM-5 changes and ADHD: More than a tweak of terms. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;47(12):1196-7.

Purper-Ouakil D, Fourneret P, Wohl M, Rénéric JP. [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents]. Encephale. 2005 May-Jun;31(3):337-48.

Rucklidge JJ, Johnstone J, Kaplan BJ. Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. Apr 2009;9(4):461-476.

Rutledge KJ, van den Bos W, McClure SM, Schweitzer JB. Training cognition in ADHD: current findings, borrowed concepts, and future directions. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):542-58.

Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi MR, Fallah J, Mohammadi M, Ghanizadeh A, . . . Akhondzadeh S. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. Feb 1 2010;34(1):76-80.

Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M. Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000 Jul;9(3):541-55.

Schmitz F, Scherer EB, Machado FR, da Cunha AA, Tagliari B, Netto CA, Wyse AT. Methylphenidate induces lipid and protein damage in prefrontal cortex, but not in cerebellum, striatum and hippocampus of juvenile rats. Metabolic brain disease. Dec 2012;27(4):605-612.

Schneider M, Retz W, Coogan A, Thome J, Rosler M. Anatomical and functional brain imaging in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--a neurological view. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. Sep 2006;256 Suppl 1:i32-41.

Schuck SE, Emmerson N, Fine AH, Lakes KD. Canine-Assisted Therapy for Children With ADHD: Preliminary Findings From The Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids Study. Journal of attention disorders. Sep 23 2013.

Senior HE, McKinlay L, Nikles J, Schluter PJ, Carmont SA, Waugh MC, . . . Mitchell GK. Central nervous system stimulants for secondary attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder after paediatric traumatic brain injury: a rationale and protocol for single patient (n-of-1) multiple cross-over trials. BMC pediatrics. 2013;13:89.

Sever Y, Ashkenazi A, Tyano S, Weizman A. Iron treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A preliminary report. Neuropsychobiology. 1997;35(4):178-180.

Sims DM, Lonigan CJ. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures. Early childhood research quarterly. Jun 2012;27(2):329-337.

Sinopoli KJ, Schachar R, Dennis M. Traumatic brain injury and secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: the effect of reward on inhibitory control. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2011 Aug;33(7):805-19.

Sonuga-Barke EJ, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, Stevenson J, Danckaerts M, van der Oord S, Döpfner M, Dittmann RW, Simonoff E, Zuddas A, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Hollis C, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Wong IC, Sergeant J; European ADHD Guidelines Group. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 1;170(3):275-89.

Spencer TJ, Brown A, Seidman LJ, Valera EM, Makris N, Lomedico A, . . . Biederman J. Effect of psychostimulants on brain structure and function in ADHD: a qualitative literature review of magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging studies. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. Sep 2013;74(9):902-917.

Spiller HA, Hays HL, Aleguas A Jr. Overdose of drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity, and management. CNS Drugs. 2013 Jul;27(7):531-43.

Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):149-56.

Stein MA, Weiss M, Hlavaty L. ADHD treatments, sleep, and sleep problems: complex associations. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. Jul 2012;9(3):509-517.

Stevens LJ, Kuczek T, Burgess JR, Hurt E, Arnold LE. Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: thirty-five years of research. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011;50(4):279–293.

Stevens LJ, Kuczek T, Burgess JR, Stochelski MA, Arnold LE, Galland L. Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children. Nutrition reviews. May 2013;71(5):268-281.

Sunovion. News Release. Investigational Drug Dasotraline Significantly Improved Symtpoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Placebo-Controlled Study in Adults. Copyright 2014 Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. Accessed 5/30/2017.

Taylor E. Antecedents of ADHD: a historical account of diagnostic concepts. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2011 Jun;3(2):69-75.

Thapar A, Cooper M, Eyre O, Langley K. What have we learnt about the causes of ADHD? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;54(1):3-16.

Thomas R, Mitchell GK, Batstra L. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are we helping or harming? BMJ. 2013 Nov 5;347:f6172.

Tomas Vila M, Aleu Perez-Gramunt M, Beseler Soto B, Benac Prefasi M, Pantoja Martinez J, Pitarch Castellano I. [Methylphenidate and sleep: Results of a multicentre study on a population of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003). Aug 2010;73(2):78-83.

Tomasi D, Volkow ND. Abnormal functional connectivity in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 1;71(5):443-50.

Torrioli MG, Vernacotola S, Peruzzi L, Tabolacci E, Mila M, Militerni R, . . . Neri G. A double-blind, parallel, multicenter comparison of L-acetylcarnitine with placebo on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in fragile X syndrome boys. American journal of medical genetics. Part A. Apr 1 2008;146(7):803-812.

Trebaticka J, Kopasova S, Hradecna Z, Cinovsky K, Skodacek I, Suba J, . . . Durackova Z. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. European child & adolescent psychiatry. Sep 2006;15(6):329-335.

Urban KR, Gao WJ. Methylphenidate and the juvenile brain: Enhancement of attention at the expense of cortical plasticity? Medical hypotheses. Sep 17 2013.

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS. Imaging the effects of methylphenidate on brain dopamine: new model on its therapeutic actions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological psychiatry. Jun 1 2005;57(11):1410-1415.

Wang CH, Wu SB, Wu YT, Wei YH. Oxidative stress response elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction: implication in the pathophysiology of aging. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). May 2013;238(5):450-460.

Wilens TE. Impact of ADHD and its treatment on substance abuse in adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 3:38-45.

Willcutt EG, Nigg JT, Pennington BF, Solanto MV, Rohde LA, Tannock R, Loo SK, Carlson CL, McBurnett K, Lahey BB Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2012 Nov;121(4):991-1010.

Yoon SY, Jain U, Shapiro C. Sleep in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: past, present, and future. Sleep medicine reviews. Aug 2012;16(4):371-388.

Youssef NA, Ege M, Angly SS, et al. Is obstructive sleep apnea associated with ADHD? Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 2011;23(3):213-224.