Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)


Abrantes AM, McLaughlin N, Greenberg BD, et al. Design and Rationale for a Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise for Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Ment Health Phys Act. 2012;5(2):155-165.

Afshar H, Roohafza H, Mohammad-Beigi H. N-Acetylcysteine Add-On Treatment in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2012;32(6):797–803.

Albert U, Maina G, Bogetto F, and Ravizza L. The role of recent life events in the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder. CNS Spectr. 2000;5(12):44–50.

Alonso P, Gratacòs M, Segalàs C, et al. Variants in estrogen receptor alpha gene are associated with phenotypical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36(4):473–83.

APA. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. 2013.

Atmaca M, Tezcan E, Kuloglu M, Kirtas O, and Ustundag B. Serum folate and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2005;59(5):616–20.

Avgoustinaki PD, Mitsopoulou E, Chlouverakis G. Sex steroids and personality traits in the middle luteal phase of healthy normally menstruating young professional women. Hormones (Athens). 2012;11(3):333–43.

Bercik P, Park AJ, Sinclair D, Khoshdel A, Lu J, Huang X, . . . Verdu EF. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication. Neurogastroenterology and motility: the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Dec 2011;23(12):1132-1139.

Bet PM, Hugtenburg JG, Penninx BWJH, and Hoogendijk WJG. Side effects of antidepressants during long-term use in a naturalistic setting. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(11):1443–51.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. Dec 2000;7(6):463-469.

Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Rosario MC, Pittenger C, and Leckman JF. Meta-analysis of the symptom structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(12):1532–42.

Blom RM, Figee M, Vulink N, and Denys D. Update on Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Different Targets. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13(4):289–94.

Bonchek A. What's broken with cognitive behavior therapy treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and how to fix it. American journal of psychotherapy. 2009;63(1):69-86.

Boon WC and Horne MK. Aromatase and its inhibition in behaviour, obsessive compulsive disorder and parkinsonism. Steroids. 2011;76(8):816–9.

BPS. British Psychological Society. Chapter 2: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. In: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Core Interventions in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Available at: Copyright 2006a. Accessed 4/14/2015.

BPS. British Psychological Society. Chapter 5: Psychological Interventions. In: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Core Interventions in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Available at: Copyright 2006b. Accessed 4/14/2015.

BPS. British Psychological Society. Chapter 8: Other Medical Interventions. In: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Core Interventions in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Available at: Copyright 2006c. Accessed 4/14/2015.

Bratiotis C, Otte S, Skeketee G, et al. Hoarding-Fact-Sheet. Copyright 2009 International OCD Foundation (IOCDF). Available at:

Bravo JA, Julio-Pieper M, Forsythe P, et al. Communication between gastrointestinal bacteria and the nervous system. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2012;12(6):667–72.

Brown RA, Abrantes AM, Strong DR. A Pilot Study of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Exercise for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2007;195(6):514–20.

Busner J and Targum SD. The clinical global impressions scale: applying a research tool in clinical practice. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2007;4(7):28–37.

Camfield DA, Sarris J, and Berk M. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2011;35(4):887–95.

Carey PD, Warwick J, Harvey BH, Stein DJ, and Seedat S. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment with inositol. Metab Brain Dis. 2004;19(1-2):125–34.

Cath DC, van Grootheest DS, Willemsen G, van Oppen P, Boomsma DI. Environmental factors in obsessive-compulsive behavior: evidence from discordant and concordant monozygotic twins. Behavior genetics. Mar 2008;38(2):108-120.

Chiesa A and Serretti A. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. 2011;187(3):441–53.

Cleveland WL, DeLaPaz RL, Fawwaz RA, and Challop RS. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period. Neural Plasticity. 2009;2009(6):1–25.

Coles ME and Sharkey KM. Compulsion or chronobiology? A case of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy augmented with chronotherapy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7(3):307–9.

Cryan JF and Dinan TG. Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2012;13(10):701–12.

De Flora S, Cesarone CF, Balansky RM, Albini A, D'Agostini F, Bennicelli C, . . . et al. Chemopreventive properties and mechanisms of N-Acetylcysteine. The experimental background. Journal of cellular biochemistry. Supplement. 1995;22:33-41.

de Koning PP, Figee M, van den Munckhof P, Schuurman PR, Denys D. Current status of deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical review of different targets. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13(4):274–82.

de Mathis MA, Diniz JB, Hounie AG, Shavitt RG. Trajectory in obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidities. European Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(7):594-601.

Delorme R, Betancur C, Chaste P. Reduced 3- O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the low activity M158 COMT allele. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2009;153B:542-548.

Deng X, Wang G, Zhou L, Zhang X, Yang M, Han G, . . . Liu B. Randomized controlled trial of adjunctive EEG-biofeedback treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Shanghai archives of psychiatry. Oct 2014;26(5):272-279.

Denys D, Mantione M. Deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in brain research. 2009;175:419-427.

Denys D, Zohar J, Westenberg HG. The role of dopamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: preclinical and clinical evidence. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 14:11-17.

Dèttore D, Pozza A, Andersson G. Efficacy of Technology-delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for OCD Versus Control Conditions, and in Comparison with Therapist-Administered CBT: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2015;44(3):190–211.

Dodson ER, Zee PC. Therapeutics for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. Sleep medicine clinics. Dec 2010;5(4):701-715.

Dubovsky SL, Warren C. Agomelatine, a melatonin agonist with antidepressant properties. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. Oct 2009;18(10):1533-1540.

Ercan TE, Ercan G, Severge B, Arpaozu M, Karasu G. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and obsessive-compulsive disease: a case report. Journal of child neurology. Mar 2008;23(3):338-340.

Eriguchi M, Levi F, Hisa T, Yanagie H, Nonaka Y, Takeda Y. Chronotherapy for cancer. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Oct 2003;57 Suppl 1:92s-95s.

Farris SG, McLean CP, Van Meter PE, Simpson HB, Foa EB. Treatment Response, Symptom Remission, and Wellness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2013;74(7):685–90.

Fux M, Levine J, Aviv A, Belmaker RH. Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(9):1219–21.

Gentil AF, Lopes AC, Dougherty DD, Ruck C, Mataix-Cols D, Lukacs TL, . . . Miguel EC. Hoarding symptoms and prediction of poor response to limbic system surgery for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of neurosurgery. Jul 2014;121(1):123-130.

Georgiadou G, Tarantilis PA, Pitsikas N. Neuroscience Letters. Neuroscience Letters. 2012;528(1):27–30.

Ghasemi T, Abnous K, Vahdati F, Mehri S, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Antidepressant Effect of Crocus sativus Aqueous Extract and its Effect on CREB, BDNF, and VGF Transcript and Protein Levels in Rat Hippocampus. Drug research. Apr 2 2014.

Glazier K, Calixte RM, Rothschild R, Pinto A. High rates of OCD symptom misidentification by mental health professionals. Annals of Clinical. 2013;25(3):201-9.

Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46(11):1006–11.

Grant JE. Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(7):646–53.

Greenberg WM, Benedict MM, Doerfer J. Adjunctive glycine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults. Journal of Psychiatric Research. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009;43(6):664–70.

Grisham JR, Fullana MA, Mataix-Cols D, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Poulton R. Risk factors prospectively associated with adult obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med. 2011;41(12):2495–506.

Hale L, Strauss C, Taylor BL. The Effectiveness and Acceptability of Mindfulness-Based Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Review of the Literature. Mindfulness. 2012;4(4):375–82.

Hammond DC. Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005;14(1):105–23–vii.

Hammond C, Ammari R, Bioulac B, Garcia L. Latest view on the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation. Mov. Disord. 2008;23(15):2111–21.

Hanstede M, Gidron Y, Nyklíček I. The Effects of a Mindfulness Intervention on Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Student Population. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2008;196(10):776–9.

Hariz MI and Hariz G-M. Therapeutic stimulation versus ablation. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;116:63–71.

Harvey BH, Brink CB, Seedat S, Stein DJ. Defining the neuromolecular action of myo-inositol: application to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2002;26(1):21–32.

Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Integr Med. Nov 2013;11(6):377-383.

Hebbar S. Cognitive therapy of obsessive compulsive disorder with chronic tic disorder. Indian journal of psychological medicine. Jan 2013;35(1):93-95.

Hermesh H, Weizman A, Shahar A, Munitz H. Vitamin B12 and folic acid serum levels in obsessive compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988;78(1):8–10.

Hertenstein E, Rose N, Voderholzer U. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitativestudy on patients’ experiences. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12(1):1–1.

Hesse S, Muller U, Lincke T, Barthel H, Villmann T, Angermeyer MC, . . . Stengler-Wenzke K. Serotonin and dopamine transporter imaging in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry research. Oct 30 2005;140(1):63-72.

Hill RA, McInnes KJ, Gong ECH, Jones MEE, Simpson ER, Boon WC. Estrogen Deficient Male Mice Develop Compulsive Behavior. Biol. Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):359–66.

Hollander E, Stein DJ, Kwon JH, et al. Psychosocial Function and Economic Costs of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. CNS Spectrums. 1997;2(10):16–25.

Hosseinzadeh H, Noraei NB. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytotherapy research: PTR. Jun 2009;23(6):768-774.

Innominato PF, Levi FA, Bjarnason GA. Chronotherapy and the molecular clock: Clinical implications in oncology. Advanced drug delivery reviews. Jul 31 2010;62(9-10):979-1001.

Jaafari N, Rachid F, Rotge JY, Polosan M, El-Hage W, Belin D, . . . Pelissolo A. Safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. World J Biol Psychiatry. Mar 2012;13(3):164-177.

Janowitz D, Grabe HJ, Ruhrmann S, Ettelt S, Buhtz F, Hochrein A, . . . Wagner M. Early onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and associated comorbidity. Depression and anxiety. 2009;26(11):1012-1017.

Jung HH, Kim SJ, Roh D, et al. Bilateral thermal capsulotomy with MR-guided focused ultrasound for patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a proof-of-concept study. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print].

Kantak PA, Bobrow DN, Nyby JG. Obsessive–compulsive-like behaviors in house mice are attenuated by a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG). Behav Pharmacol. 2014;25(1):71–9.

Kasperczyk S, Dobrakowski M, Kasperczyk A, Romuk E, Rykaczewska-Czerwinska M, Pawlas N, Birkner E. Effect of N-acetylcysteine administration on homocysteine level, oxidative damage to proteins, and levels of iron (Fe) and Fe-related proteins in lead-exposed workers. Toxicology and industrial health. Mar 2 2015.

Kaurav BP, Wanjari MM, Chandekar A, Chauhan NS, Upmanyu N. Influence of Withania somnifera on obsessive compulsive disorder in mice. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(5):380–4.

Kellner M. Drug treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2010;12(2):187-197.

Kichuk SA, Torres AR, Fontenelle LF. Symptom dimensions are associated with age of onset and clinical course of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 2013;44:233–9.

Kisely S, Hall K, Siskind D, Frater J, Olson S, Crompton D. Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2014;44(16):3533–42.

Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Hunger H, Schmid F, Schwarz S, Silveira da Mota Neto JI, . . . Leucht S. Amisulpride versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2010(1):Cd006624.

Koo MS, Kim EJ, Roh D, Kim CH. Role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Expert review of neurotherapeutics. Feb 2010;10(2):275-290.

Labad J, Menchon JM, Alonso P. Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Depress. Anxiety. 2008;25(10):832–8.

Lafleur DL, Pittenger C, Kelmendi B. N-acetylcysteine augmentation in serotonin reuptake inhibitor refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 2005;184(2):254–6.

Landeros-Weisenberger A, Bloch MH, Kelmendi B. Dimensional predictors of response to SRI pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2010;121(1-2):175–9.

Lange KW, Lange KM, Hauser J, Tucha L, Tucha O. Circadian rhythms in obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Neural Transm. 2012;119(10):1077–83.

Lapidus KAB, Stern ER, Berlin HA, Goodman WK. Neuromodulation for Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. Neurotherapeutics. 2014;11(3):485–95.

Leckman JF, Bloch MH, King RA. Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2009;11(1):21-33.

Levine J. Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry. European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. May 1997;7(2):147-155.

Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. Human psychopharmacology. Nov 2014;29(6):517-527.

Ma ZR, Shi LJ. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine. 2014;7(12):4897-4905.

Malaty IA and Akbar U. Updates in medical and surgical therapies for Tourette syndrome. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014;14(7):458.

Martiny K, Refsgaard E, Lund V, Lunde M, Sorensen L, Thougaard B, . . . Bech P. A 9-week randomized trial comparing a chronotherapeutic intervention (wake and light therapy) to exercise in major depressive disorder patients treated with duloxetine. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. Sep 2012;73(9):1234-1242.

Martiny K, Refsgaard E, Lund V, Lunde M, Thougaard B, Lindberg L, Bech P. Maintained superiority of chronotherapeutics vs. exercise in a 20-week randomized follow-up trial in major depression. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2015;131(6):446-57.

Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Pfanner C, Arcangeli F. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in referred children and adolescents. Comprehensive psychiatry. Jan-Feb 2006;47(1):42-47.

Mataix-Cols D, Boman M, Monzani B. Population-Based, Multigenerational Family Clustering Study of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(7):709.

Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Greist JH, Kobak KA, Baer L. Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions as predictors of compliance with and response to behaviour therapy: results from a controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2002;71(5):255–62.

Mattheisen M, Samuels JF, Wang Y, et al. Genome-wide association study in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCGAS. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20(3):337–44.

Mayo Clinic. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Available at: Last updated 8/9/2013. Accessed 8/14/2014.

Mayo Clinic. Tests and Procedures page. Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Available at: 2/4/2015. Accessed 3/31/2015.

Mazzio EA, Harris N, Soliman KF. Food constituents attenuate monoamine oxidase activity and peroxide levels in C6 astrocyte cells. Planta medica. Oct 1998;64(7):603-606.

McKay D, Sookman D, Neziroglu F, Wilhelm S, Stein DJ, Kyrios M, . . . Veale D. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatry research. 2/28/2015;225(3):236-246.

Metin O, Yazici K, Tot S, Yazici AE. Amisulpiride augmentation in treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003;18(6):463–7.

Miodownik C, Bergman J, Lerner PP, Kreinin A, Lerner V. Amisulpride as add-on treatment for resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: retrospective case series. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2015;38(1):26–9.

Murphy DL, Timpano KR, Wheaton MG, Greenberg BD, Miguel EC. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its related disorders: a reappraisal of obsessive-compulsive spectrum concepts. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2010;12(2):131-148.

Nakao T, Okada K, Kanba S. Neurobiological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2014;68(8):587–605.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Guidance. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Core Interventions in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society. The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2006;1-350.

Nicholas LM, Runge MS (ed.). Netter’s Internal Medicine, Second Edition. Chapter 167: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Copyright 2009 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevier Inc. Available at: Accessed 1/29/2015.

Nicolini H. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms & obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Indian journal of medical research. Dec 2010;132:663-666.

NIH. National Institute of Mental Health. Health & Education page. What are brain stimulation therapies? Available at: Accessed 3/31/2015. 2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Treatment of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Available at: Last updated 9/10/2014. Accessed 4/14/2015.

Nota JA, Sharkey KM, Coles ME. Sleep, arousal, and circadian rhythms in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;51C:100–7.

Ozdemir E, Cetinkaya S, Ersan S, Kucukosman S, Ersan EE. Serum selenium and plasma malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2009;33(1):62–5.

Pace SM, Thwaites R, Freeston MH. Exploring the role of external criticism in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a narrative review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(3):361–70.

Pakseresht S, Boostani H, Sayyah M. Extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) vs. placebo in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind study. J Complement Integr Med. 2011;8(1). DOI: 10.2022/1553-3840.1465.

Pallanti S, Grassi G, Sarrecchia ED, Cantisani A, Pellegrini M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity: clinical assessment and therapeutic implications. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2011;2:70.

Pauls DL, Abramovitch A, Rauch SL, Geller DA. Obsessive–compulsive disorder:an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2014;15(6):410–24.

Pepper J, Hariz M, Zrinzo L. Deep brain stimulation versus anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the literature. Journal of neurosurgery. Jan 30 2015:1-10.

Pitsikas N, Boultadakis A, Georgiadou G, Tarantilis PA, Sakellaridis N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. Dec 2008;15(12):1135-1139.

Pittenger C, Bloch MH, Williams K. Glutamate abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder: Neurobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2011;132(3):314–32.

Pittenger C, Kelmendi B, Bloch M, Krystal JH, Coric V. Clinical treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)). Nov 2005;2(11):34-43.

Ponniah K, Magiati I, Hollon SD. An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults. Journal of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Apr 1 2013;2(2):207-218.

Portaluppi F, Smolensky MH. Perspectives on the chronotherapy of hypertension based on the results of the MAPEC study. Chronobiology international. Sep 2010;27(8):1652-1667.

Pratte MA, Nanavati KB, Young V, Morley CP. An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Journal of alternative and complementary medicine. Dec 2014;20(12):901-908.

Rector NA, Richter MA, Lerman B, Regev R. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD. Cognitive behaviour therapy. Mar 4 2015:1-13.

Romanelli RJ, Wu FM, Gamba R, Mojtabai R, Segal JB. Behavioral therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibitor pharmacotherapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Depression and anxiety. Aug 2014;31(8):641-652.

Rosario-Campos MC, Miguel EC, Quatrano S, Chacon P, Ferrao Y, Findley D, . . . Leckman JF. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS): an instrument for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Molecular psychiatry. May 2006;11(5):495-504.

Russell EJ, Fawcett JM, Mazmanian D. Risk of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Pregnant and Postpartum Women. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2013;74(04):377–85.

Rück C, Karlsson A, Steele JD. Capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: long-term follow-up of 25 patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(8):914–21.

Saba G, Moukheiber A, Pelissolo A. Transcranial cortical stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders: efficacy studies. Current psychiatry reports. May 2015;17(5):571.

Sahoo MK, Avasthi A, Singh P. Negative symptoms presenting as neuropsychiatric manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Indian journal of psychiatry. Oct 2011;53(4):370-371.

Sarris J, Camfield D, Berk M. Journal of Affective Disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012;138(3):213–21.

Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malayeri A. Comparison of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. With fluoxetine in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2010;34(2):362–5.

Sayyah M, Olapour A, Saeedabad YS, Parast RY, Malayeri A. Evaluation of oral zinc sulfate effect on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrition. 2012;28(9):892–5.

Schoemaker H, Claustre Y, Fage D, Rouquier L, Chergui K, Curet O, . . . Scatton B. Neurochemical characteristics of amisulpride, an atypical dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist with both presynaptic and limbic selectivity. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. Jan 1997;280(1):83-97.

Seibell PJ, Pallanti S, Bernardi S, Hughes ME, Hollander E. ePocrates. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Available at: Last updated 4/16/2013. Accessed 8/19/2014.

Shahmansouri N, Farokhnia M, Abbasi SH, Kassaian SE, Noorbala Tafti AA, Gougol A, . . . Akhondzadeh S. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with fluoxetine for improving mild to moderate depression in post percutaneous coronary intervention patients. J Affect Disord. Feb 2014;155:216-222.

Sharma V and Biswas D. Cobalamin deficiency presenting as obsessive compulsive disorder: case report. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2012;34(5):578.e7–578.e8.

Shohag H, Ullah A, Qusar S, Rahman M, Hasnat A. Alterations of Serum Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Calcium, and Magnesium Concentrations and the Complexity of Interelement Relations in Patients with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. Biological Trace Element Research. 2012;148(3):275–80.

Singh N, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M. An overview on ashwagandha: a Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines. 2011;8(5 Suppl):208-213.

Smith AD, Smith SM, de Jager CA, Whitbread P, Johnston C, Agacinski G, . . . Refsum H. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PloS one. 2010;5(9):e12244.

Soomro GM, Altman D, Rajagopal S, et al. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus placebo for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) Cochrane Database System Review. 2008;1:CD001765.

Soomro GM. Obsessive compulsive disorder. Clinical evidence. 2012;2012.

Stewart SE, Yu D, Scharf JM, et al. Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18(7):788-98.

Sudak D. First Consult. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Copyright Elsevier BV. Available at Last updated 12/6/2012. Accessed 8/14/2014.

Sürmeli T and Ertem A. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the Efficacy of qEEG-Guided Neurofeedback Treatment: A Case Series. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. 2011;42(3):195–201.

Svestka J, Synek O, Tomanova J, Rodakova I, Cejpkova A. Differences in the effect of second-generation antipsychotics on prolactinaemia: six weeks open-label trial in female in-patients. Neuro endocrinology letters. Dec 2007;28(6):881-888.

Szarfman A, Tonning JM, Levine JG, et al. Atypical Antipsychotics and Pituitary Tumors: A Pharmacovigilance Study. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26(6):748-758.

Taylor LH and Kobak KA. An open-label trial of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2000;61(8):575–8.

Torres AR, Fontenelle LF, Ferrao YA, do Rosario MC, Torresan RC, Miguel EC, Shavitt RG. Clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder with hoarding symptoms: a multicenter study. Journal of psychiatric research. Jun 2012;46(6):724-732.

Türksoy N, Bilici R, Yalciner A, et al. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. NDT. 2014;10:1671-5.

Tzavellas E, Karaiskos D, Ilias I, Liappas I, Paparrigopoulos T. Agomelatine augmentation in obsessive compulsive disorder: a preliminary report. Psychiatrike = Psychiatriki. Jul-Sep 2014;25(3):179-184.

Umathe S, Vaghasiya J, Jain N, Dixit P. Neurosteroids modulate compulsive and persistent behavior in rodents: implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. Oct 1 2009;33(7):1161-1166.

Upadhyaya SK and Sharma A. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder due to B12 Deficiency: Justification Required. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):298–9.

Valizadeh M and Valizadeh N. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of B12 deficiency. Indian J Psychol Med. 2011;33(2):203–4.

van Zandwijk N. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH): antioxidant and chemopreventive properties, with special reference to lung cancer. Journal of cellular biochemistry. Supplement. 1995;22:24-32.

Veale D, Roberts A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2014;348:g2183.

Visser HA, van Minnen A, van Megen H. The Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Symptom Severity, Chronicity, and Comorbidity in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 2014;75(10):1034–9.

Walsh KH, McDougle CJ. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2011;7:485-494.

Watanabe Y, Halberg F, Otsuka K, Cornelissen G. Toward a personalized chronotherapy of high blood pressure and a circadian overswing. Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y.: 1993). 2013;35(4):257-266.

Whittal ML, Thordarson DS, McLean PD. Treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2005;43(12):1559-1576.

Williams MT, Mugno B, Franklin M, Faber S. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: phenomenology and treatment outcomes with exposure and ritual prevention. Psychopathology. 2013;46(6):365-376.

Yip AG, Satterfield JM, Ferri FF (ed.) Ferri’s Clinical Advisor. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Copyright 2014 by Mosby, and Imprint of Elsevier Inc. Available at: Accessed 1/29/2015.

Young EA, Kornstein SG, Harvey AT. Influences of hormone-based contraception on depressive symptoms in premenopausal women with major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32(7):843–53.