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Health Protocols

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Other Conditions Associated with PCOS


PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility. Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome experience infrequent ovulation or lack of ovulation altogether and may have trouble becoming pregnant. PCOS also is associated with spontaneous abortion and preeclampsia.15


Compared with women of similar age who don't have polycystic ovary syndrome, women with PCOS are significantly more likely to be overweight or obese.3,16 Furthermore, about half of all women with PCOS manifest central obesity, in which there is a greater deposition of visceral fat around internal organs in the abdominal region, as opposed to the fat being located on the thighs and hips. Abdominal fat distribution is associated with increased risk of hypertension, diabetes and lipid abnormalities.17

Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Studies have found that women with PCOS have higher incidences of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes than age and weight-matched controls.3 Moreover, a majority of obese PCOS women and more than half of those of normal weight are insulin resistant,18 and a significant number develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by the age of 40.19

Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a dark, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation found on the nape of the neck, armpits, inner thighs, vulva, or under the breasts. This condition is a sign of insulin resistance, which leads to higher circulating insulin levels. Insulin spillover into the skin results in hyperplasia, an abnormal increase in skin growth.20