Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols


Abhilash, P. A., Harikrishnan, R., and Indira, M. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: a mechanistic approach. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2014;274(2):215–24

A.D.A.M. PubMed Health. Diseases and Conditions page. Hepatorenal syndrome. Available at: 5/1/2012. Accessed 7/2/2014.

A.D.A.M. PubMed Health. Cirrhosis: Liver cirrhosis; Cryptogenic chronic liver disease. Available at: 10/13/2013. Accessed 7/2/2014.

A.D.A.M. MedlinePlus. Peritonitis. Available at: Last updated 4/9/2014. Accessed 7/28/2014.

Adebajo CO, Talwalkar JA, Poterucha JJ, Kim WR, Charlton MR. Ultrasound-based transient elastography for the detection of hepatic fibrosis in patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Liver transplantation: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. Mar 2012;18(3):323-331.

Amarapurkar, P. D., and Amarapurkar, D. N. Management of Coagulopathy in Patients with Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis. International Journal of Hepatology. 2011;2011(5):1–5

Albillos A and Tejedor M. Secondary Prophylaxis for Esophageal Variceal Bleeding. Clin Liver Dis. 2014;18(2):359–70

Ali SO, Darwish HA, Ismail NA. Modulatory effects of curcumin, silybin-phytosome and alpha-R-lipoic acid against thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;216C:26–33

Amodio P, Bemeur C, Butterworth R. The nutritional management of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism Consensus. Hepatology. 2013;58:325–36.

Anand B, Melcher ML, Schleyer AM. Cirrhosis. First Consult. Available at: Last updated 3/2/2012. Accessed 8/25/2014.

Anderson GJ, Frazer DM. Hepatic iron metabolism. Seminars in liver disease. Nov 2005;25(4):420-432.

Angeli P and Gines P. Hepatorenal syndrome, MELD score and liver transplantation: an evolving issue with relevant implications for clinical practice. J Hepatol. 2012;57(5):1135–40

Anty R, Tonohouan M, Ferrari-Panaia P, Piche T, Pariente A, Anstee QM, . . . Tran A. Low Levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D are Independently Associated with the Risk of Bacterial Infection in Cirrhotic Patients. Clinical and translational gastroenterology. 2014;5:e56.

Aprile LR, Meneghelli UG, Martinelli AL, Monteiro CR. Gastric motility in patients with presinusoidal portal hypertension. The American journal of gastroenterology. Dec 2002;97(12):3038-3044.

Arase Y, Ikeda K, Murashima N, et al. The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer. 1997;79(8):1494-500.

Arauz, J., Moreno, M. G., Cortés-Reynosa, P., Salazar, E. P., and Muriel, P. Coffee attenuates fibrosis by decreasing the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in a murine model of liver damage. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33(9):970–9

Armstrong MJ, Adams LA, Canbay A, et al. Extrahepatic complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2014;59(3):1174-97.

Arria AM, Tarter RE, Warty V, Van Thiel DH. Vitamin E deficiency and psychomotor dysfunction in adults with primary biliary cirrhosis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Aug 1990;52(2):383-390.

Arroyo V, García-Martinez R, Salvatella X. Human Serum Albumin, Systemic Inflammation And Cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

Baertling F, Mayatepek E, Gerner P, Baba HA, Franzel J, Schlune A, Meissner T. Liver cirrhosis in glycogen storage disease Ib. Molecular genetics and metabolism. Mar 2013;108(3):198-200.

Bai M, Qi XS, Yang ZP, et al. TIPS improves liver transplantation-free survival in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites: an updated meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(10):2704–14

Bell H, Bjorneboe A, Eidsvoll B, Norum KR, Raknerud N, Try K, . . . Drevon CA. Reduced concentration of hepatic alpha-tocopherol in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Jan 1992;27(1):39-46.

Benson SC, Pershadsingh HA, Ho CI, Chittiboyina A, Desai P, Pravenec M, . . . Kurtz TW. Identification of telmisartan as a unique angiotensin II receptor antagonist with selective PPARgamma-modulating activity. Hypertension. May 2004;43(5):993-1002.

Berasain C, Castillo J, Perugorria MJ, Latasa MU, Prieto J, Avila MA. Inflammation and liver cancer: new molecular links. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Feb 2009;1155:206-221.

Bernardi, M., Caraceni, P., Navickis, R. J., and Wilkes, M. M. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012;55(4):1172–81

Berzigotti A, Seijo S, Reverter E, et al. Assessing portal hypertension in liver diseases. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;7(2):141–55

Bianchi, G. P., Fiorella, P. L., Bargossi, A. M., Grossi, G., and Marchesini, G. Reduced ubiquinone plasma levels in patients with liver cirrhosis and in chronic alcoholics. Liver. 1994;14(3):138–40

Bianchi G, Bugianesi E, Ronchi M, Fabbri A, Zoli M, Marchesini G. Glutathione kinetics in normal man and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Journal of hepatology. Mar 1997;26(3):606-613.

Biecker E. Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: diagnosis, prevention and management. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Aug 21 2013;19(31):5035-5050.

BLT. British Liver Trust. Cirrhosis. Available at: Last updated March 2011. Accessed 7/28/2014.

Bohm F, Kohler UA, Speicher T, Werner S. Regulation of liver regeneration by growth factors and cytokines. EMBO molecular medicine. Aug 2010;2(8):294-305.

Bota S, Herkner H, Sporea I. Meta-analysis: ARFI elastography versus transient elastography for the evaluation of liver fibrosis. Liver Int. 2013;33(8):1138–47

Bravi F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, et al. Coffee drinking in hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2007;46(2):430-5.

Bruns T, Zimmermann HW, Stallmach A. Risk factors and outcome of bacterial infections in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(10):2542–54

Buongiorno G, Quaranta GM, Penna A, et al. [The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic hypertransaminasemia]. Minerva gastroenterological e dietologica. 1994;40(1):31-36.

Burra P. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;27(4):553–63

Busher JT. Serum Albumin and Globulin. In: Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd ed. Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, eds. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Available at:

Busk TM, Bendtsen F, Moller S. Cardiac and renal effects of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhosis. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. May 2013;25(5):523-530.

Cavanaugh J, Niewoehner CB, Nuttall FQ. Gynecomastia and cirrhosis of the liver. Archives of internal medicine. Mar 1990;150(3):563-565.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C Information for the Public: Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public. Available at: Accessed 7/14/2014.

Chavez-Tapia NC, Cesar-Arce A, Barrientos-Gutiérrez T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of oral zinc in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Nutr J. 2013;12:74

Chen S, Zhou J, Xi M, Jia Y, Wong Y, Zhao J, . . . Wen A. Pharmacogenetic variation and metformin response. Current drug metabolism. Dec 2013;14(10):1070-1082.

Choi, H.-K., Pokharel, Y. R., Lim, S. C., et al. Inhibition of liver fibrosis by solubilized coenzyme Q10: Role of Nrf2 activation in inhibiting transforming growth factor-beta1 expression. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2009;240(3):377–84

Chung C and Iwakiri Y. The lymphatic vascular system in liver diseases: its role in ascites formation. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2013;19(2):99–104

Ciesek S, von Hahn T, Colpitts CC, Schang LM, Friesland M, Steinmann J, . . . Steinmann E. The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits hepatitis C virus entry. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Dec 2011;54(6):1947-1955.

Corpechot C, Carrat F, Bonnand AM, Poupon RE, Poupon R. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on liver fibrosis progression in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Dec 2000;32(6):1196-1199.

Corton JC, Brown-Borg HM. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 in caloric restriction and other models of longevity. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Dec 2005;60(12):1494-1509.

Crawford BA, Labio ED, Strasser SI, McCaughan GW. Vitamin D replacement for cirrhosis-related bone disease. Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology. Dec 2006;3(12):689-699.

Craxi A, Cooksley WG. Pegylated interferons for chronic hepatitis B. Antiviral research. Oct 2003;60(2):87-89.

Cui L, Jai X, Zhou Q, et al. Curcumin affects β-catenin pathway in hepatic stellate cell in vitro and in vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Crownover BK, Covey CJ. Hereditary hemochromatosis. American family physician. Feb 1 2013;87(3):183-190.

Czaja AJ. Drug choices in autoimmune hepatitis: part A--Steroids. Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology. Sep 2012;6(5):603-615.

Czaja AJ. Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(10):2515–32

D'Amico G, Garcia-Tsao G, Pagliaro L. Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: a systematic review of 118 studies. Journal of hepatology. Jan 2006;44(1):217-231.

Dam G, Ott P, Aagaard NK, et al. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle ammonia detoxification in cirrhosis. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28(2):217–20

Dam MK, Flensborg-Madsen T, Eliasen M, et al. Smoking and risk of liver cirrhosis: a population-based cohort study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2013;48(5):585–91

Degasperi E, Aghemo A. Sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: between current evidence and future perspectives. Hepatic medicine : evidence and research. 2014;6:25-33.

Delangle P and Mintz E. Chelation therapy in Wilson's disease: from D-penicillamine to the design of selective bioinspired intracellular Cu(I) chelators. Dalton Trans. 2012;41(21):6359–70

Delgado JS, Vodonos A, Malnick S, Kriger O, Wilkof-Segev R, Delgado B, . . . Fich A. Autoimmune hepatitis in southern Israel: a 15-year multicenter study. Journal of digestive diseases. Nov 2013;14(11):611-618.

Deng YL, Xiong XZ, Cheng NS. Organ fibrosis inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor-β signaling via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists. HBPD INT. 2012;11(5):467–78

Din S, Konstandin MH, Johnson B, Emathinger J, Volkers M, Toko H, . . . Sussman MA. Metabolic dysfunction consistent with premature aging results from deletion of pim kinases. Circulation research. Jul 18 2014;115(3):376-387.

Ding J and Wang H. Multiple interactive factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2014;346(1):17–23

Dufour JF, Oneta CM, Gonvers JJ, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid with vitamin e in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2006;4(12):1537-1543.

Durand F and Valla D. Assessment of the prognosis of cirrhosis: Child-Pugh versus MELD. J Hepatol. 2005;42 Suppl(1):S100–7

Durand F, Valla D. Assessment of Prognosis of Cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2008;28(1):110-122.

Dwyre DM, Fernando LP, Holland PV. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV transfusion-transmitted infections in the 21st century. Vox sanguinis. Jan 2011;100(1):92-98.

Elwell RJ, Spencer AP, Eisele G. Combined furosemide and human albumin treatment for diuretic-resistant edema. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. May 2003;37(5):695-700.

Enweluzo C, Aziz F, Mori A. Comparing efficacy between regimens in the initial treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Journal of clinical medicine research. Aug 2013;5(4):281-285.

European Association for the Study of Liver. EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2012;57(2):399–420

Fabio G, Minonzio F, Delbini P, Bianchi A, Cappellini MD. Reversal of cardiac complications by deferiprone and deferoxamine combination therapy in a patient affected by a severe type of juvenile hemochromatosis (JH). Blood. Jan 1 2007;109(1):362-364.

Fairbanks KD, Tavill AS. Liver Disease in Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: A Review. Am J Gastroenterology. 2008;103:2136-2141.

Fargion S, Valenti L, Fracanzani AL. Beyond hereditary hemochromatotis: new insights into the relationship between iron overload and chronic liver diseases. Dig Liver Dis. 2011;43(2):89-95.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. News & Events: FDA News Release. FDA approves Sovaldi for chronic hepatitis C. Available at: . Last updated 12/9/2013. Accessed 7/7/2014.

Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J Hepatol. 1989;9(1):105–13

Ferre N, Camps J, Prats E, Girona J, Gomez F, Heras M, . . . Joven J. Impaired vitamin E status in patients with parenchymal liver cirrhosis: relationships with lipoprotein compositional alterations, nutritional factors, and oxidative susceptibility of plasma. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. May 2002;51(5):609-615.

Ferri FF. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Available at: Copyright 2014 by Mosby, an Imprint of Elsevier Inc. Accessed 7/23/2014.

Fox RK. When to consider liver transplant during the management of chronic liver disease. Med. Clin. North Am. 2014;98(1):153–68

Garcia-Tsao G, Lim JK, Lim J. Members of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program. Management and treatment of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(7):1802–29

Garcia-Tsao G, Sanyal AJ, Grace ND, et al. Prevention and Management of Gastroesophageal Varices and Variceal Hemorrhage in Cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(9):2086–102

Garcia-Tsao G, Goldman L (ed.), Schafer AI (ed.). Goldman's Cecil Medicine , Twenty-Fourth Edition. Chapter 156: CIRRHOSIS AND ITS SEQUELAE; 999-107. Copyright 2012 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2012.

Gatta A, Verardo A, Bolognesi M. Hypoalbuminemia. Intern Emerg Med. 2012;7 Suppl 3:S193–9

Gattermann N. The treatment of secondary hemochromatosis. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Jul 2009;106(30):499-504, i.

Georgescu EF. Angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of NASH/NAFLD: could they be a first-class option? Advances in therapy. 2008;25(11):1141–74

Gluud LL, Dam G, Borre M. Oral branched-chain amino acids have a beneficial effect on manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy in a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Nutrition. 2013;143(8):1263–8

Goel V and Kar P. Hepatic osteodystrophy. Trop Gastroenterol. 2010;31(2):82–6

Graf D, Vallböhmer D, Knoefel WT. Multimodal treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

Gupta N, Kumar A, Sharma P, et al. Effects of the adjunctive probiotic VSL#3 on portal haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis and large varices: a randomized trial. Liver Int. 2013;33(8):1148–57

Haafiz AB. Liver fibrosis in biliary atresia. Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology. Jun 2010;4(3):335-343.

Habib-ur-Rehman M, Mahmood T, Salim T, Afzal N, Ali N, Iqbal J, . . . Khan A. Affect of silymarin on serum levels of ALT and GGT in ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC. Oct-Dec 2009;21(4):73-75.

Halegoua-De Marzio D, Kraft WK, Daskalakis C, Ying X, Hawke RL, Navarro VJ. Limited sampling estimates of epigallocatechin gallate exposures in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C after single oral doses of green tea extract. Clinical therapeutics. Dec 2012;34(12):2279-2285.e2271.

Hawke RL, Schrieber SJ, Soule TA. Silymarin ascending multiple oral dosing phase I study in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50(4):434–49

Heli H, Mirtorabi S, Karimian K. Advances in iron chelation: an update. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2011;21(6):819–56

Henry Z, Uppal D, Saad W, et al. Gastric and Ectopic Varices. Clin Liver Dis. 2014;18(2):371–88

Hernández-Guerra, M., García-Pagán, J. C., Turnes, J., et al. Ascorbic acid improves the intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Hepatology. 2006;43(3):485–91

Higashi N, Kohjima M, Fukushima M, Ohta S, Kotoh K, Enjoji M, . . . Nakamuta M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green-tea polyphenol, suppresses Rho signaling in TWNT-4 human hepatic stellate cells. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. Jun 2005;145(6):316-322.

Higashi N, Sato M, Kojima N, Irie T, Kawamura K, Mabuchi A, Senoo H. Vitamin A storage in hepatic stellate cells in the regenerating rat liver: with special reference to zonal heterogeneity. The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. Oct 2005;286(2):899-907.

Hirsch, S., Poniachick, J., Avendaño, M., et al. Serum folate and homocysteine levels in obese females with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Nutrition. 2005;21(2):137–41

Hofmann WP, Herrmann E, Sarrazin C, Zeuzem S. Ribavirin mode of action in chronic hepatitis C: from clinical use back to molecular mechanisms. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Dec 2008;28(10):1332-1343.

Huo TI, Lin HC, Wu JC, Lee FY, Hou MC, Lee PC, . . . Lee SD. Proposal of a modified Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system and comparison with the model for end-stage liver disease for outcome prediction in patients with cirrhosis. Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. Jan 2006;12(1):65-71.

Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Intercept Announces that FDA Grants Fast Track Designation to Obeticholic Acid for the Treatment of Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. 5/28/2014. Available at: Accessed 7/31/2014.

Iwakiri Y. Pathophysiology of Portal Hypertension. Clin Liver Dis. 2014;18(2):281–91

Jaurigue MM and Cappell MS. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(9):2143–58

Jia JD, Bauer M, Cho JJ, et al. Antifibrotic effect of silymarin in rat secondary biliary fibrosis is mediated by downregulation of procollagen alpha1(I) and TIMP-1. J Hepatol. 2001;35(3):392-8.

Jin H, Yamamoto N, Uchida K, Terai S, Sakaida I. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Dec 28 2007;364(4):801-807.

Jungas RL, Halperin ML, Brosnan JT. Quantitative analysis of amino acid oxidation and related gluconeogenesis in humans. Physiological reviews. Apr 1992;72(2):419-448.

Kaloyianni M, Freedland RA. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets. The Journal of nutrition. Jan 1990;120(1):116-122.

Kazimierska, E., and Czestochowska, E. [Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis]. Pol. Merkur. Lekarski. 2003;15(86):140–3

Keating GM. Sofosbuvir: a review of its use in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Drugs. 2014;74(10):1127-46.

Kimer, N., Krag, A., Møller, S., Bendtsen, F., and Gluud, L. L. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the effects of rifaximin in hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2014.

Kim MY, Cho MY, Baik SK. Beneficial effects of candesartan, an angiotensin-blocking agent, on compensated alcoholic liver fibrosis - a randomized open-label controlled study. Liver Int. 2012;32(6):977–87

Kim MY, Jeong WK, Baik SK. Invasive and non-invasive diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(15):4300–15

Klatsky, A. L., Morton, C., Udaltsova, N., and Friedman, G. D. Coffee, cirrhosis, and transaminase enzymes. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(11):1190–5

Kmiec Z. Cooperation of liver cells in health and disease. Advances in anatomy, embryology, and cell biology. 2001;161:Iii-xiii, 1-151.

Ko WS, Guo CH, Yeh MS, et al. Blood micronutrient, oxidative stress, and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(30):4697-702.

Kochi T, Shimizu M, Terakura D, Baba A, Ohno T, Kubota M, . . . Moriwaki H. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and preneoplastic lesions develop in the liver of obese and hypertensive rats: suppressing effects of EGCG on the development of liver lesions. Cancer letters. Jan 1 2014;342(1):60-69.

Krieger D, Krieger S, Jansen O, Gass P, Theilmann L, Lichtnecker H. Manganese and chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Lancet. Jul 29 1995;346(8970):270-274.

Krisper P, Stadlbauer V, Stauber RE. Clearing of toxic substances: are there differences between the available liver support devices? Liver Int. 2011;Suppl 3:5-8.

Kysenius K, Brunello CA, Huttunen HJ. Mitochondria and NMDA receptor-dependent toxicity of berberine sensitizes neurons to glutamate and rotenone injury. PloS one. 2014;9(9):e107129.

Larsson SC and Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(5):1740-5.

Lata J. Hepatorenal syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(36):4978–84

Lata J, Novotný I, Príbramská V. The effect of probiotics on gut flora, level of endotoxin and Child-Pugh score in cirrhotic patients: results of a double-blind randomized study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19(12):1111–3

Le MD, Enbom E, Traum PK, et al. Alcoholic liver disease patients treated with S-adenosyl-L-methionine: an in-depth look at liver morphologic data comparing pre and post treatment liver biopsies. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2013;95(2):187–91

Lee YH, Hsu CY, Huo TI. Assessing liver dysfunction in cirrhosis: role of the model for end-stage liver disease and its derived systems. J Chin Med Assoc. 2013;76(8):419–24

Lewis JH and Stine JG. Review article: prescribing medications in patients with cirrhosis - a practical guide. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2013;37(12):1132–56

Li YC, Qiao G, Uskokovic M, Xiang W, Zheng W, Kong J. Vitamin D: a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system and blood pressure. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. May 2004;89-90(1-5):387-392.

Li JY, Cao HY, Liu P, et al. Glycyrrhizic Acid and Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review. Biomed Res Int. 2014;872139. [Epub 2014 May 13]

Lieber CS. New concepts of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease lead to novel treatments. Current gastroenterology reports. Feb 2004;6(1):60-65.

Lieber CS, Weiss DG, Groszmann R, Paronetto F, Schenker S. II. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study of polyenylphosphatidylcholine in alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. Nov 2003;27(11):1765-1772.

Lindor KD, Gershwin ME, Poupon R, et al. Primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2009;50(1):291–308

Liou IW. Management of end-stage liver disease. Med. Clin. North Am. 2014;98(1):119–52

Lipkin EW and Kowdley KV. Vitamin K replacement in osteoporosis associated with cirrhosis: another reason to "eat your vegetables"? Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(4):786–8

Liu Q, Duan ZP, Ha DK, et al. Synbiotic modulation of gut flora: effect on minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2004;39(5):1441–9

Loew D, Wanitschke R, Schroedter A. Studies on vitamin B12 status in the elderly--prophylactic and therapeutic consequences. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. May 1999;69(3):228-233.

Loguercio C, Andreone P, Brisc C. Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(9):1658–65

Lu XL, Zhang ZL, Zhou JF, Cai JT, Qian KD. [Plasma levels of ascorbic acid and vitamin E in patients with liver cirrhosis]. Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences. Dec 2003;32(6):533-535.

Lucena MI, Andrade RJ, de la Cruz JP, et al. Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;40(1):2–8

Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Malaguarnera G. Bifidobacterium combined with fructo-oligosaccharide versus lactulose in the treatment of patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22(2):199–206

Mammen EF. Coagulation abnormalities in liver disease. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America. Dec 1992;6(6):1247-1257.

Manns MP, Wedemeyer H, Singer A, et al. Glycyrrhizin in patients who failed previous interferon alpha-based therapies: biochemical and histological effects after 52 weeks. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19(8):537-56.

Manns MP. Liver cirrhosis, transplantation and organ shortage. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Feb 2013;110(6):83-84.

Marieb E and Hoehn K. Human anatomy & physiology. 8 ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2010

Marotta F, Yoshida C, Barreto R, Naito Y, Packer L. Oxidative-inflammatory damage in cirrhosis: effect of vitamin E and a fermented papaya preparation. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. May 2007;22(5):697-703.

Mato JM, Cámara J, Fernández de Paz J. S-adenosylmethionine in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. J Hepatol. 1999;30(6):1081–9

Matos, C. R., and Coe, C. A. R. Ascorbic acid supplementation has a cytoprotective effect on secondary biliary cirrhosis: experimental study in young rats. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008;84(6)

McGillicuddy FC, Reilly MP, Rader DJ. Adipose modulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: implications for obesity, high-density lipoprotein metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. Oct 11 2011;124(15):1602-1605.

Medici V, Virata MC, Peerson JM. S-adenosyl-L-methionine treatment for alcoholic liver disease: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2011;35(11):1960–5

MedicineNet. Digestive Problems and Bleeding Varices. Available at: 7/28/2014. Accessed 7/28/2014.

Mende S, Schulte S, Strack I, Hunt H, Odenthal M, Pryymachuck G, . . . Tox U. Telmisartan plus propranolol improves liver fibrosis and bile duct proliferation in the PSC-like Abcb4-/- mouse model. Digestive diseases and sciences. May 2013;58(5):1271-1281.

Mikes V, Dadak V. Berberine derivatives as cationic fluorescent probes for the investigation of the energized state of mitochondria. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1983;723(2):231-239.

Mikes V, Yaguzhinskij LS. Interaction of fluorescent berberine alkyl derivatives with respiratory chain of rat liver mitochondria. Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes. 1985;17(1):23-32.

Ming LJ, Yin AC. Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizic acid. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8(3):415-8.

Moore KP, Aithal GP. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. Oct 2006;55 Suppl 6:vi1-12.

Moyer K, Balistreri W. Hepatobiliary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25(3):272-8.

Muriel P and Arauz J. Coffee and liver diseases. Fitoterapia. 2010;81(5):297–305

Nabavi SF, Daglia M, Moghaddam AH, et al. Curcumin and Liver Disease: from Chemistry to Medicine. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2013;13(1):62–77

National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2013:1–118

Nayak, R., Pandurangi, A., Bhogale, G., Patil, N., and Chate, S. Asterixis (flapping tremors) as an outcome of complex psychotropic drug interaction. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;24(1):E26–7

Neeman R, Abramovitch S, Sharvit E, Elad-Sfadia G, Haklai R, Kloog Y, Reif S. Vitamin D and S-Farnesylthiosalicylic Acid Have a Synergistic Effect on Hepatic Stellate Cells Proliferation. Digestive diseases and sciences. Jun 19 2014.

Nevens F, Laleman W. Artificial liver support devices as treatment option for liver failure. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;26(1):17-26.

Ng CK, Chan MH, Tai MH, Lam CW. Hepatorenal syndrome. The Clinical biochemist. Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists. Feb 2007;28(1):11-17.

Nicolaou M, Andress EJ, Zolnerciks JK, Dixon PH, Williamson C, Linton KJ. Canalicular ABC transporters and liver disease. The Journal of pathology. Jan 2012;226(2):300-315.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) webpage. Cirrhosis. Available at: Last updated 4/23/2014a. Accessed 5/1/2014.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) webpage. Liver Biopsy. Available at: Last updated 5/7/2014b. Accessed 5/1/2014.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) webpage. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Available at: Last updated 5/28/2014c. Accessed 7/2/2014.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) webpage. Biliary Atresia. Available at: Last updated 8/1/2012a. Accessed 7/14/2014.

NIDDK. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) webpage. What I need to know about Hepatitis C. Available at: Last updated 12/19/2012b. Accessed 7/23/2014.

Nishioka SD, Gyorkos TW, Joseph L, Collet JP, Maclean JD. Tattooing and risk for transfusion-transmitted diseases: the role of the type, number and design of the tattoos, and the conditions in which they were performed. Epidemiology and infection. Feb 2002;128(1):63-71.

Norvell JP and Spivey JR. Hepatic Hydrothorax. Clin Liver Dis. 2014;18(2):439–49

Nusrat S, Khan MS, Fazili J, et al. Cirrhosis and its complications: evidence based treatment. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;14(20):5442-60.

Oertelt-Prigione, S., Crosignani, A., Gallieni, M., Vassallo, E., Podda, M., and Zuin, M. Severe hepatic encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis after administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker combination therapy: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2010;4(1):141

Ohkubo A. [Bilirubin metabolism in liver cirrhosis]. Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine. Jan 1994;52(1):138-144.

Orman ES, Odena G, Bataller R. Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis, management, and novel targets for therapy. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2013;28 Suppl 1:77–84

Orman, E. S., Hayashi, P. H., Bataller, R., and Barritt, A. S., IV. Paracentesis Is Associated With Reduced Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Cirrhosis and Ascites. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2014;12(3):496–503.e1

Pande C, Kumar A, Sarin SK. Addition of probiotics to norfloxacin does not improve efficacy in the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;24(7):831–9

Papatheodoridis GV, Dimou E, Papadimitropoulos V. Nucleoside analogues for chronic hepatitis B: antiviral efficacy and viral resistance. The American journal of gastroenterology. Jul 2002;97(7):1618-1628.

Parés A, Planas R, Torres M. Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial. J Hepatol. 1998;28(4):615–21

Park CW, Kim SH, Yang HW, Lee YJ, Jung SH, Song HS, . . . Cha SW. A case of variceal bleeding from the jejunum in liver cirrhosis. Clinical and molecular hepatology. Mar 2013;19(1):78-81.

Parker R, Armstrong MJ, Corbett C, et al. Systematic review: pentoxifylline for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2013;37(9):845–54

Patel V, Rink C, Gordillo GM, Khanna S, Gnyawali U, Roy S, . . . Sen CK. Oral tocotrienols are transported to human tissues and delay the progression of the model for end-stage liver disease score in patients. The Journal of nutrition. Mar 2012;142(3):513-519.

Patti ME, Butte AJ, Crunkhorn S, Cusi K, Berria R, Kashyap S, . . . Mandarino LJ. Coordinated reduction of genes of oxidative metabolism in humans with insulin resistance and diabetes: Potential role of PGC1 and NRF1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul 8 2003;100(14):8466-8471.

Pawlotsky JM, Dahari H, Neumann AU, Hezode C, Germanidis G, Lonjon I, . . . Dhumeaux D. Antiviral action of ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. Mar 2004;126(3):703-714.

Pereg D, Kotliroff A, Gadoth N, et al. Probiotics for patients with compensated liver cirrhosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Nutrition. 2011;27(2):177–81

Periyalwar, P., and Dasarathy, S. Malnutrition in cirrhosis: contribution and consequences of sarcopenia on metabolic and clinical responses. Clin Liver Dis. 2012;16(1):95–131

Perz JF, Armstrong GL, Farrington LA, et al. The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide. J Hepatol. 2006;45(4):529–38

Plauth M, Cabré E, Riggio O. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Liver disease. Clinical Nutrition. 2006;25:285–94.

Plessier A, Rautou PE, Valla DC. Management of hepatic vascular diseases. J Hepatol. 2012;56 Suppl 1:S25–38

Polyak SJ, Ferenci P, Pawlotsky JM. Hepatoprotective and antiviral functions of silymarin components in hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Mar 2013;57(3):1262-1271.

Procopet B, Tantau M, Bureau C. Are there any alternative methods to hepatic venous pressure gradiant in portal hypertension assessment? J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2013;22(1):73-8.

Pu JY, He L, Wu SY, et al. [Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29(6):673-9.

Purnak T and Yilmaz Y. Liver disease and malnutrition. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;27(4):619–29

Putz-Bankuti C, Pilz S, Stojakovic T, Scharnagl H, Pieber TR, Trauner M, . . . Stauber RE. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with liver dysfunction and mortality in chronic liver disease. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. May 2012;32(5):845-851.

Rambaldi A and Gluud C. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD002235

Rasool M, Iqbal J, Malik A, et al. Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;641597. [Epub 2014 Mar 25]

Rivera-Mancia S, Rios C, Montes S. Manganese and ammonia interactions in the brain of cirrhotic rats: effects on brain ammonia metabolism. Neurochemical research. May 2012;37(5):1074-1084.

Roberts EA, Sarkar B. Liver as a key organ in the supply, storage, and excretion of copper. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Sep 2008;88(3):851s-854s.

Rockey DC. Translating an understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis to novel therapies. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2013;11(3):224–31.e1–5

Saji S, Kumar S, Thomas V. A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of probiotics in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Trop Gastroenterol. 2011;32(2):128–32

Salvioli G, Carati L, Lugli R. Steatorrhoea in cirrhosis: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration. The Journal of international medical research. 1990;18(4):289-297.

Santos PC, Krieger JE, Pereira AC. Molecular diagnostic and pathogenesis of hereditary hemochromatosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(2):1497–511

Sanyal AJ, Mullen KD, Bass NM. The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in the cirrhotic patient. Gastroenterology & hepatology. Apr 2010;6(4 Suppl 8):1-12.

Scaglione SJ and Lok ASF. Effectiveness of hepatitis B treatment in clinical practice. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(6):1360–1

Scalera F, Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Bukowska A, Lendeckel U, Tager M, Bode-Boger SM. Effect of telmisartan on nitric oxide--asymmetrical dimethylarginine system: role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gamma and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma signaling during endothelial aging. Hypertension. Mar 2008;51(3):696-703.

Schaefer B, Schmitt CP. The role of molecular absorbent recirculating system dialysis for extracorporeal liver support in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28(9):1763-9.

Scheen AJ. Pharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations for the treatment of diabetes in patients with liver disease. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. Jun 2014;10(6):839-857.

Schuppan D, Afdhal NH. Liver cirrhosis. Lancet. 2008;371(9615):838-51.

Schuppan D and Kim YO. Evolving therapies for liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123(5):1887–901

Schwartz JM and Reinus JF. Prevalence and natural history of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2012;16(4):659–66

Senior M. Sovaldi makes blockbuster history, ignites drug pricing unrest. Nature biotechnology. Jun 9 2014;32(6):501-502.

Shah AM, Malhotra A, Kothari S, Baddoura W, Depasquale J, Spira R. Reversal of liver cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis. Hepato-gastroenterology. Nov-Dec 2011;58(112):2115-2117.

Shi H., Dong, L., Bai, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, L. Chlorogenic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2009;623(1-3):119–24

Shi H., Dong, L., Jiang, J., et al. Chlorogenic acid reduces liver inflammation and fibrosis through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Toxicology. 2013;303:107–14

Shearer MJ, Bach A, Kohlmeier M. Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. The Journal of nutrition. Apr 1996;126(4 Suppl):1181s-1186s.

Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Kubo S, et al. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(4):978-81.

Siegel GJ, Albers RW, Brady ST, Price DL. Basic Neurochemistry - Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects. Copyright 2006, American Society for Neurochemistry. Chapter 34; 596-598.

Silva Santos PS, Fernandes KS, Gallottini MH. Assessment and management of oral health in liver transplant candidates. Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB. Mar-Apr 2012;20(2):241-245.

Sipeki N, Antal-Szalmas P, Lakatos PL, et al. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(10):2564–77

Sirli R, Sporea I, Bota S, et al. Liver elastography for the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Med Ultrason. 2012;14(3):225–30

Sokol RJ, Kim YS, Hoofnagle JH, Heubi JE, Jones EA, Balistreri WF. Intestinal malabsorption of vitamin E in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. Feb 1989;96(2 Pt 1):479-486.

SRTR (Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients). HRSA: Health Resources and Services Administration webpage. OPTN/SRTR 2012 Annual Data Report. Liver. pp. 69-96. 2012. Available at:

Stange, J. Extracorporeal liver support. organogenesis. 2011;7(1):64–73

Stillman AE. Jaundice. In: Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd ed. Walker HK, Hall WD, and Hurst JW, eds. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Available at:

Stokes CS, Krawczyk M, Reichel C, Lammert F, Grunhage F. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with mortality in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. European journal of clinical investigation. Nov 15 2013.

Sun D, Courtney HS, Beachey EH. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. Sep 1988;32(9):1370-1374.

Sztrymf B, Rabiller A, Nunes H, Savale L, Lebrec D, Le Pape A, . . . Herve P. Prevention of hepatopulmonary syndrome and hyperdynamic state by pentoxifylline in cirrhotic rats. The European respiratory journal. May 2004;23(5):752-758.

Takagi H, Kakizaki S, Sohara N, Sato K, Tsukioka G, Tago Y, . . . Mori M. Pilot clinical trial of the use of alpha-tocopherol for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. Nov 2003;73(6):411-415.

Tamaki Y, Nakade Y, Yamauchi T, Makino Y, Yokohama S, Okada M, . . . Yoneda M. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist prevents hepatic carcinoma in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Journal of gastroenterology. Apr 2013;48(4):491-503.

Tanaka A, Miyakawa H, Luketic VA, et al. The diagnostic value of anti-mitochondrial antibodies, especially in primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002;48(3):295-9.

Tandon P, Moncrief K, Madsen K. Effects of probiotic therapy on portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis: a pilot study. Liver Int. 2009;29(7):1110–5

Tarao K, Fujiyama S, Ohkawa S, et al. Ursodiol use is possibly associated with lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-associated liver cirrhosis. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2005;14(1):164-169.

Thakkar B, Aronis KN, Vamvini MT, Shields K, Mantzoros CS. Metformin and sulfonylureas in relation to cancer risk in type II diabetes patients: a meta-analysis using primary data of published studies. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jul 2013;62(7):922-934.

Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Liong EC, Lau TY, Fung ML, Nanji AA. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces liver inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicology. Jun 29 2010;273(1-3):45-52.

Trepo E, Ouziel R, Pradat P, Momozawa Y, Quertinmont E, Gervy C, . . . Moreno C. Marked 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Journal of hepatology. Aug 2013;59(2):344-350.

Trifan A, Chiriac S, Stanciu C. Update on adrenal insufficiency in patients with liver cirrhosis. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. Jan 28 2013;19(4):445-456.

Tsochatzis EA, Bosch J, Burroughs AK. Liver cirrhosis. Lancet. 2014;383(9930):1749-61.

Tumgor G. Cirrhosis and hepatopulmonary syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(10):2586–94

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center website. Cirrhosis. Available at: Last updated 9/18/2013. Accessed 7/23/2014.

Valenti L, Dongiovanni P, Fargion S. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of the association between ferritin level and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(29):3782-6.

Valera JM, Smok G, Marquez S, Poniachik J, Brahm J. [Histological regression of liver fibrosis with immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune hepatitis]. Gastroenterologia y hepatologia. Jan 2011;34(1):10-15.

Vargas-Mendoza N, Madrigal-Santillán E, Morales-González A, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin. World J Hepatol. 2014;6(3):144-9.

Volpe M, Savoia C, De Paolis P, Ostrowska B, Tarasi D, Rubattu S. The renin-angiotensin system as a risk factor and therapeutic target for cardiovascular and renal disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Nov 2002;13 Suppl 3:S173-178.

Wang H, Yang R, Hua X, Zhao W, Zhang W. Enzymatic production of lactulose and 1-lactulose: current state and perspectives. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. Jul 2013;97(14):6167-6180.

Watanabe, A., Obata, T., and Nagashima, H. Berberine therapy of hypertyraminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis. Acta Med. Okayama. 1982;36(4):277–81

Welty FK. Hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia. Current opinion in lipidology. Jun 2014;25(3):161-168.

Wiesner, R., Edwards, E., Freeman, R., et al. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and allocation of donor livers. Gastroenterology. 2003;124(1):91–6

Wolf D. Cirrhosis. Medscape. 2013; Available at: [Accessed May 4, 2014].

WHO. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B vaccines. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 2009;84(40):405–19

Yasui S, Fujiiwara K, Tawada A, et al. Efficacy of intravenous glycyrrhizin in the early stage of acute onset autoimmune hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56(12):3638-47.

Yesilova, Z., Yaman, H., Oktenli, C., et al. Systemic markers of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in patients with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(4):850–5

Yurci A, Yucesoy M, Unluhizarci K, Torun E, Gursoy S, Baskol M, . . . Ozbakir O. Effects of testosterone gel treatment in hypogonadal men with liver cirrhosis. Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology. Dec 2011;35(12):845-854.

Yurci A, Kalkan AO, Ozbakir O, Karaman A, Torun E, Kula M, . . . Bayram F. Efficacy of different therapeutic regimens on hepatic osteodystrophy in chronic viral liver disease. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Nov 2011;23(12):1206-1212.

Wong LL. Current status of liver transplantation for hepatocellular cancer. American journal of surgery. Mar 2002;183(3):309-316.

Zarrilli F, Elce A, Scorza M, et al. An update on laboratory diagnosis of liver inherited diseases. Biomed Res Int. 2013:697940

Zhang F, Kong D, Lu Y, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as a therapeutic target for hepatic fibrosis: from bench to bedside. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2013;70(2):259–76

Zhang Z and Wang FS. Stem cell therapies for liver failure and cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2013;59(1):183–5

Zhang P, Li H, Tan X, Chen L, Wang S. Association of metformin use with cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis. Cancer epidemiology. Jun 2013;37(3):207-218.

Zhang X, Harmsen WS, Mettler TA, Kim WR, Roberts RO, Therneau TM, . . . Chaiteerakij R. Continuation of metformin use after a diagnosis of cirrhosis significantly improves survival of patients with diabetes. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). May 3 2014.

Zhao, W., Xue, R., Zhou, Z.-X., Kong, W.-J., and Jiang, J.-D. Reduction of blood lipid by berberine in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008;62(10):730–1

Zheng Z, Li X, Ma X. Artificial and bioartificial liver support systemis for acute and acute-on-chronic hepatic failure: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Exp Ther Med. 2013;6(4):929-936.

Zullo, A. Rifaximin therapy and hepatic encephalopathy: Pros and cons. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2012;3(4):62 ​​