Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols


Abraham S, Rivero HG, Erlikh IV, Griffith LF, Kondamudi VK. Surgical and nonsurgical management of gallstones. American family physician. May 15 2014;89(10):795-802.

Acar T, Kamer E, Acar N, Atahan K, Bag H, Haciyanli M, Akgul O. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis: comparison of results between early and late cholecystectomy. The Pan African medical journal. 2017;26:49.

Agarwal KA, Tripathi CD, Agarwal BB, Saluja S. Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Surgical endoscopy. Dec 2011;25(12):3805-3810.

Alarcon de la Lastra C, Barranco MD, Motilva V, Herrerias JM. Mediterranean diet and health: biological importance of olive oil. Current pharmaceutical design. Jul 2001;7(10):933-950.

Almasio P, Bortolini M, Pagliaro L, Coltorti M. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. Drugs. 1990;40 Suppl 3:111-123.

Altomare DF, Rotelli MT, Palasciano N. Diet after cholecystectomy. Current medicinal chemistry. May 17 2017.

Aune D, Leitzmann M, Vatten LJ. Physical Activity and the Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Journal of physical activity & health. Jul 2016;13(7):788-795.

Baloyiannis I, Tzovaras G. Current status of laparoendoscopic rendezvous in the treatment of cholelithiasis with concomitant choledocholithiasis. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Jun 25 2015;7(7):714-719.

Banks PA, Conwell DL, Toskes PP. The management of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology & hepatology. Feb 2010;6(2 Suppl 3):1-16.

Barre A, Gusto G, Cadeau C, Carbonnel F, Boutron-Ruault MC. Diet and Risk of Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study Based on the French E3N Cohort. The American journal of gastroenterology. Sep 2017;112(9):1448-1456.

Basso L, McCollum PT, Darling MR, Tocchi A, Tanner WA. A descriptive study of pregnant women with gallstones. Relation to dietary and social habits, education, physical activity, height, and weight. European journal of epidemiology. Sep 1992;8(5):629-633.

Behar J, Corazziari E, Guelrud M, Hogan W, Sherman S, Toouli J. Functional gallbladder and sphincter of oddi disorders. Gastroenterology. Apr 2006;130(5):1498-1509.

Bernhardt J, Sasse S, Ludwig K, Meier PN. Update in Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). Current opinion in gastroenterology. Sep 2017;33(5):346-351.

Berr F, Holl J, Jungst D, Fischer S, Richter WO, Seifferth B, Paumgartner G. Dietary N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease biliary cholesterol saturation in gallstone disease. Hepatology. Oct 1992;16(4):960-967.

Borchert DH, Federlein M, Ruckbeil O, Schope J. Less pain after transvaginal cholecystectomy: single-center pooled analysis. Surgical endoscopy. Jun 2017;31(6):2573-2576.

Breneman JC. Allergy elimination diet as the most effective gallbladder diet. Annals of allergy. Feb 1968;26(2):83-87.
Brown RC, Gray AR, Tey SL, Chisholm A, Burley V, Greenwood DC, Cade J. Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans. Nutrients. Nov 6 2017;9(11).

Byrne MF. Gallstone pancreatitis--who really needs an ERCP? Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie. Jan 2006;20(1):15-17.

Cafasso DE, Smith RR. Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract. The Surgical clinics of North America. Apr 2014;94(2):233-256.

Cariati A, Piromalli E. Limits and perspective of oral therapy with statins and aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic cholesterol gallstone disease. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. Jun 2012;13(9):1223-1227.

Chen LY, Qiao QH, Zhang SC, Chen YH, Chao GQ, Fang LZ. Metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease. World journal of gastroenterology. Aug 21 2012;18(31):4215-4220.

Chen Y, Kong J, Wu S. Cholesterol gallstone disease: focusing on the role of gallbladder. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology. Feb 2015;95(2):124-131.

Chen Y, Wu S, Tian Y. Cholecystectomy as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome: from epidemiologic clues to biochemical mechanisms. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology. Jan 2018;98(1):7-14.

Cho SM, Park JA, Kim NH, Kim DS, Zhang D, Yi H, . . . Shin HC. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on cholesterol gallstone formation in C57BL/6J mice. Molecular medicine reports. Jan 2015;11(1):362-366.

Chuang CZ, Martin LF, LeGardeur BY, Lopez A. Physical activity, biliary lipids, and gallstones in obese subjects. The American journal of gastroenterology. Jun 2001;96(6):1860-1865.

Compagnucci AB, Perroud HA, Batalles SM, Villavicencio R, Brasca A, Berli D, Pezzotto SM. A nested case-control study on dietary fat consumption and the risk for gallstone disease. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. Jun 2016;29(3):338-344.

Crocenzi FA, Sanchez Pozzi EJ, Pellegrino JM, Favre CO, Rodriguez Garay EA, Mottino AD, . . . Roma MG. Beneficial effects of silymarin on estrogen-induced cholestasis in the rat: a study in vivo and in isolated hepatocyte couplets. Hepatology. Aug 2001;34(2):329-339.

de Bari O, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Liu M, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Ezetimibe: its novel effects on the prevention and the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. Journal of lipids. 2012;2012:302847.

de Bari O, Wang HH, Portincasa P, Paik CN, Liu M, Wang DQ. Ezetimibe prevents the formation of oestrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice. European journal of clinical investigation. Dec 2014;44(12):1159-1168.

de Bari O, Wang TY, Liu M, Paik CN, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Annals of hepatology. Nov-Dec 2014;13(6):728-745.

del Pozo R, Munoz M, Dumas A, Tapia C, Munoz K, Fuentes F, . . . Jungst D. [Effects of vitamin C administration on cholesterol gallstone formation]. Revista medica de Chile. Jan 2014;142(1):20-26.

Dhillon KS, Awasthi D, Dhillon AS. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (hybrid) cholecystectomy: The Dhillon technique. Journal of minimal access surgery. Jul-Sep 2017;13(3):176-181.

Dhiman RK, Chawla YK. Is there a link between oestrogen therapy and gallbladder disease? Expert opinion on drug safety. Jan 2006;5(1):117-129.

Di Ciaula A, Garruti G, Fruhbeck G, De Angelis M, De Bari O, D QHW, . . . Portincasa P. The Role Of Diet In The Pathogenesis Of Cholesterol Gallstones. Current medicinal chemistry. May 29 2017.

Di Ciaula A, Wang DQ, Bonfrate L, Portincasa P. Current views on genetics and epigenetics of cholesterol gallstone disease. Cholesterol. 2013;2013:298421.

Di Padova C, Tritapepe R, Di Padova F, Frezza M, Stramentinoli G. S-adenosyl-L-methionine antagonizes oral contraceptive-induced bile cholesterol supersaturation in healthy women: preliminary report of a controlled randomized trial. The American journal of gastroenterology. Dec 1984;79(12):941-944.

Erlinger S. Gallstones in obesity and weight loss. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Dec 2000;12(12):1347-1352.
Fogel ELS, S. Diseases od the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts. In: Goldman L, Schafer A, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine.  25th edition. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania: Elsevier/Saunders; 2016:1038–1048. 2016.

Francis G, Baillie J. Gallbladder dyskinesia: fact or fiction? Current gastroenterology reports. Apr 2011;13(2):188-192.

Fraquelli M, Pagliarulo M, Colucci A, Paggi S, Conte D. Gallbladder motility in obesity, diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. Jul 2003;35 Suppl 3:S12-16.

Frezza M, Tritapepe R, Pozzato G, Di Padova C. Prevention of S-adenosylmethionine of estrogen-induced hepatobiliary toxicity in susceptible women. The American journal of gastroenterology. Oct 1988;83(10):1098-1102.

Gaby AR. Nutritional approaches to prevention and treatment of gallstones. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic. Sep 2009;14(3):258-267.

Geetha A. Evidence for oxidative stress in the gall bladder mucosa of gall stone patients. Journal of biochemistry, molecular biology, and biophysics : JBMBB : the official journal of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB). Dec 2002;6(6):427-432.

George J, Baillie J. Biliary and gallbladder dyskinesia. Current treatment options in gastroenterology. Aug 2007;10(4):322-327.

Ginter E. Cholesterol: vitamin C controls its transformation to bile acids. Science (New York, N.Y.). Feb 16 1973;179(4074):702-704.

Ginter E. Vitamin-C deficiency and gallstone formation. Lancet (London, England). Nov 27 1971;2(7735):1198-1199.

Gomes CA, Junior CS, Di Saverio S, Sartelli M, Kelly MD, Gomes CC, . . . Guimaraes SF. Acute calculous cholecystitis: Review of current best practices. World journal of gastrointestinal surgery. May 27 2017;9(5):118-126.

Gomez-Pinilla PJ, Camello PJ, Pozo MJ. Effects of melatonin on gallbladder neuromuscular function in acute cholecystitis. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. Oct 2007;323(1):138-146.

Gomez-Pinilla PJ, Camello PJ, Pozo MJ. Protective effect of melatonin on Ca2+ homeostasis and contractility in acute cholecystitis. Journal of pineal research. Apr 2008;44(3):250-260.

Gomez-Pinilla PJ, Camello-Almaraz C, Moreno R, Camello PJ, Pozo MJ. Melatonin treatment reverts age-related changes in Guinea pig gallbladder neuromuscular transmission and contractility. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. Nov 2006;319(2):847-856.

Goral V. Gallstone Etiopathogenesis, Lith and Mucin Genes and New Treatment Approaches. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2016;17(2):467-471.

Goussous N, Kowdley GC, Sardana N, Spiegler E, Cunningham SC. Gallbladder dysfunction: how much longer will it be controversial? Digestion. 2014;90(3):147-154.

Gustafsson U, Wang FH, Axelson M, Kallner A, Sahlin S, Einarsson K. The effect of vitamin C in high doses on plasma and biliary lipid composition in patients with cholesterol gallstones: prolongation of the nucleation time. European journal of clinical investigation. May 1997;27(5):387-391.

Halilbasic E, Claudel T, Trauner M. Bile acid transporters and regulatory nuclear receptors in the liver and beyond. Journal of hepatology. Jan 2013;58(1):155-168.

Hazem ZM. Acute biliary pancreatitis: diagnosis and treatment. Saudi journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association. Jul-Sep 2009;15(3):147-155.

Henao-Moran S, Denova-Gutierrez E, Moran S, Duque X, Gallegos-Carrillo K, Macias N, Salmeron J. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women. Annals of hepatology. Nov-Dec 2014;13(6):810-818.

Housset C, Chretien Y, Debray D, Chignard N. Functions of the Gallbladder. Comprehensive Physiology. Jun 13 2016;6(3):1549-1577.

Hundt M, John S. Physiology, Bile Secretion. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018.

Husain NE, Hassan AT, Elmadhoun WM, Ahmed MH. Evaluating the safety of Liptruzet (ezetimibe and atorvastatin): what are the potential benefits beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effect? Expert opinion on drug safety. 2015;14(9):1445-1455.

Ibrahim M, Sarvepalli S, Morris-Stiff G, Rizk M, Bhatt A, Walsh RM, . . . Burke CA. Gallstones: Watch and wait, or intervene? Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. Apr 2018;85(4):323-331.

Indar AA, Beckingham IJ. Acute cholecystitis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Sep 21 2002;325(7365):639-643.

Ishizuk H, Eguchi H, Oda T, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K, Honjo S, Kono S. Relation of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intake to gallstone disease in middle-aged Japanese men. European journal of epidemiology. 2003;18(5):401-405.

Isik S, Ozcan HN, Ozuguz U, Berker D, Tutuncu Y, Akbaba G, Guler S. Impaired gallbladder motility and the effect of metformin therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical endocrinology. Mar 2012;76(3):373-378.

Jaunoo SS, Mohandas S, Almond LM. Postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS). International journal of surgery (London, England). 2010;8(1):15-17.

JHM. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Health Library: Biliary System: Anatomy and Functions. Available at Accessed 03/13/18. 2018.

Jiang Q. Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy. Free radical biology & medicine. Jul 2014;72:76-90.

Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN. gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Dec 2001;74(6):714-722.

Johansson K, Sundstrom J, Marcus C, Hemmingsson E, Neovius M. Risk of symptomatic gallstones and cholecystectomy after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet in a commercial weight loss program: 1-year matched cohort study. International journal of obesity (2005). Feb 2014;38(2):279-284.

Jones MW, Ferguson T. Gallbladder, Cholecystitis, Chronic. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018.

Jones MW, Ghassemzadeh S. Gallbladder, Gallstones (Calculi). StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018.

Jonkers IJ, Smelt AH, Princen HM, Kuipers F, Romijn JA, Boverhof R, . . . Stellaard F. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia. The Journal of nutrition. Apr 2006;136(4):987-991.

Kan HP, Guo WB, Tan YF, Zhou J, Liu CD, Huang YQ. Statin use and risk of gallstone disease: A meta-analysis. Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology. Oct 9 2014.

Kaufman HS, Magnuson TH, Pitt HA, Frasca P, Lillemoe KD. The distribution of calcium salt precipitates in the core, periphery and shell of cholesterol, black pigment and brown pigment gallstones. Hepatology. May 1994;19(5):1124-1132.

Khan M, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Sirajuddin, Bilal M, Akhtar A, . . . Kadar S. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. Aug 2017;471:254-262.

Koppisetti S, Jenigiri B, Terron MP, Tengattini S, Tamura H, Flores LJ, . . . Reiter RJ. Reactive oxygen species and the hypomotility of the gall bladder as targets for the treatment of gallstones with melatonin: a review. Digestive diseases and sciences. Oct 2008;53(10):2592-2603.

Kraml P. The role of iron in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Physiological research. Apr 5 2017;66(Supplementum 1):S55-s67.

Lammert F, Gurusamy K, Ko CW, Miquel JF, Mendez-Sanchez N, Portincasa P, . . . Wang DQ. Gallstones. Nature reviews. Disease primers. Apr 28 2016;2:16024.

Lee HS, Chung MJ, Park JY, Bang S, Park SW, Song SY, Chung JB. Urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is not superior to early ERCP in acute biliary pancreatitis with biliary obstruction without cholangitis. PloS one. 2018;13(2):e0190835.

Lee JY, Keane MG, Pereira S. Diagnosis and treatment of gallstone disease. The Practitioner. Jun 2015;259(1783):15-19, 12.

Li Y, Li M, Wu S, Tian Y. Combination of curcumin and piperine prevents formation of gallstones in C57BL6 mice fed on lithogenic diet: whether NPC1L1/SREBP2 participates in this process? Lipids in health and disease. Sep 3 2015;14:100.

Liao KF, Chuang HY, Lai SW. Metformin Use Correlates with Reduced Risk of Gallstones in Diabetic Patients: A 12-Year Follow-up Study. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:765.

Lichtenberg D, Ragimova S, Peled Y, Halpern Z. Phospholipid peroxidation as a factor in gallstone pathogenesis. FEBS letters. Feb 8 1988;228(1):179-181.

Lioudaki E, Ganotakis ES, Mikhailidis DP. Lipid lowering drugs and gallstones: a therapeutic option? Current pharmaceutical design. Nov 2011;17(33):3622-3631.

Macias B, Gomez-Pinilla PJ, Camello-Almaraz C, Pascua P, Tresguerres JA, Camello PJ, Pozo MJ. Aging impairs Ca(2+) sensitization pathways in gallbladder smooth muscle. Age. Aug 2012;34(4):881-893.

Magouliotis DE, Tasiopoulou VS, Svokos AA, Svokos KA, Chatedaki C, Sioka E, Zacharoulis D. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in the Prevention of Gallstone Formation After Bariatric Surgery: an Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obesity surgery. Nov 2017;27(11):3021-3030.

Maldonado-Valderrama J, Wilde P, Macierzanka A, Mackie A. The role of bile salts in digestion. Advances in colloid and interface science. Jun 9 2011;165(1):36-46.

Mathew LK, Ko C. Dietary fat and protein intake are not associated with incident biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. Jan 2015;39(1):124-128.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions: Gallstones. Available at and Published 11/17/2017. Accessed 03/13/2018.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions: Peritonitis. Available at Published 03/31/2015. Accessed 03/13/2018. 2015.

Mendez-Sanchez N, Gonzalez V, Aguayo P, Sanchez JM, Tanimoto MA, Elizondo J, Uribe M. Fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficially affect biliary cholesterol nucleation time in obese women losing weight. The Journal of nutrition. Sep 2001;131(9):2300-2303.

Mintz Y, Horgan S, Cullen J, Ramamoorthy S, Chock A, Savu MK, . . . Talamini MA. NOTES: the hybrid technique. Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A. Aug 2007;17(4):402-406.

Misciagna G, Leoci C, Guerra V, Chiloiro M, Elba S, Petruzzi J, . . . Giorgio I. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II: Risk factors. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Jun 1996;8(6):585-593.

Molvar C, Glaenzer B. Choledocholithiasis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Outcomes. Seminars in interventional radiology. Dec 2016;33(4):268-276.

Mostofsky E, Mukamal KJ, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB. Key Findings on Alcohol Consumption and a Variety of Health Outcomes From the Nurses' Health Study. American journal of public health. Sep 2016;106(9):1586-1591.

Nassuato G, Iemmolo RM, Lirussi F, Orlando R, Giacon L, Venuti M, . . . Okolicsanyi L. Effect of Silybin on biliary lipid composition in rats. Pharmacological research communications. Apr 1983;15(4):337-346.

Nassuato G, Iemmolo RM, Strazzabosco M, Lirussi F, Deana R, Francesconi MA, . . . et al. Effect of Silibinin on biliary lipid composition. Experimental and clinical study. Journal of hepatology. May 1991;12(3):290-295.

Nemani A, Sankaranarayanan G, Olasky JS, Adra S, Roberts KE, Panait L, . . . De S. A comparison of NOTES transvaginal and laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures based upon task analysis. Surgical endoscopy. Aug 2014;28(8):2443-2451.

Njeze GE. Gallstones. Nigerian Journal of Surgery : Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society. Jul-Dec 2013;19(2):49-55.

Ortega RM, Fernandez-Azuela M, Encinas-Sotillos A, Andres P, Lopez-Sobaler AM. Differences in diet and food habits between patients with gallstones and controls. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Feb 1997;16(1):88-95.

Pak M, Lindseth G. Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis. Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates. Jul-Aug 2016;39(4):297-309.

Pakula R, Konikoff FM, Rubin M, Ringel Y, Peled Y, Tietz A, Gilat T. The effects of dietary phospholipids enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine on bile and red cell membrane lipids in humans. Lipids. March 01 1996;31(3):295-303.

Pamuk GE, Umit H, Harmandar F, Yesil N. Patients with iron deficiency anemia have an increased prevalence of gallstones. Annals of hematology. Jan 2009;88(1):17-20.

Pan S, Guo Q. Endoscopic ultrasonography versus magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for suspected choledocholithiasis: Comments from the radiologists'. Endoscopic ultrasound. Mar-Apr 2016;5(2):129-131.

Pasternak A, Bugajska J, Szura M, Walocha JA, Matyja A, Gajda M, . . . Gil K. Biliary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Telocytes in Gallstone Disease. Cell transplantation. Jan 24 2017;26(1):125-133.

Peng C, Ling Y, Ma C, Ma X, Fan W, Niu W, Niu J. Safety Outcomes of NOTES Cholecystectomy Versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques. Oct 2016;26(5):347-353.

Pohlen U, Feller A, Holmer C. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Cholecystectomy: A Single-Centre Long-Term Experience on Sexual Function. World journal of surgery. Dec 21 2017.

Portincasa P, Ciaula AD, Bonfrate L, Wang DQ. Therapy of gallstone disease: What it was, what it is, what it will be. World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics. Apr 6 2012;3(2):7-20.

Portincasa P, Di Ciaula A, Grattagliano I. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians. Korean journal of family medicine. Jul 2016;37(4):205-213.

Portincasa P, Moschetta A, Petruzzelli M, Palasciano G, Di Ciaula A, Pezzolla A. Gallstone disease: Symptoms and diagnosis of gallbladder stones. Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology. 2006;20(6):1017-1029.

Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Effect of Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption on the Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation. Medicinal chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates)). 2017;13(5):421-429.

Pozo MJ, Gomez-Pinilla PJ, Camello-Almaraz C, Martin-Cano FE, Pascua P, Rol MA, . . . Camello PJ. Melatonin, a potential therapeutic agent for smooth muscle-related pathological conditions and aging. Current medicinal chemistry. 2010;17(34):4150-4165.

Prasad PC, Gupta S, Kaushik N. To study serum iron levels in patients of gall bladder stone disease and to compare with healthy individuals. The Indian journal of surgery. Feb 2015;77(1):19-22.

Rangaswamy R, Singh CG, Singh HM, Punyabati P, Nyuwi KT. Impact of Biliary Calculi on the Liver. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. Apr 2017;11(4):Pc04-pc07.

Rasyid A, Lelo A. The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Feb 1999;13(2):245-249.

Rasyid A, Rahman AR, Jaalam K, Lelo A. Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2002;11(4):314-318.

Reddy RR, Srinivasan K. Dietary fenugreek and onion attenuate cholesterol gallstone formation in lithogenic diet-fed mice. International journal of experimental pathology. Oct 2011a;92(5):308-319.

Reddy RR, Srinivasan K. Effect of dietary fenugreek seeds on biliary proteins that influence nucleation of cholesterol crystals in bile. Steroids. Apr 2011b;76(5):455-463.

Resnick E, Shteingart S, Melamud B, Bdolah-Abram T, Zalut T, Reuben A, Lurie Y. Enzyme pattern of biliary colic: A counterintuitive picture. World journal of hepatology. Dec 28 2016;8(36):1629-1636.

Rohde U, Sonne DP, Christensen M, Hansen M, Bronden A, Torang S, . . . Knop FK. Cholecystokinin-Induced Gallbladder Emptying and Metformin Elicit Additive Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. May 2016;101(5):2076-2083.

Romeu M, Aranda N, Giralt M, Ribot B, Nogues MR, Arija V. Diet, iron biomarkers and oxidative stress in a representative sample of Mediterranean population. Nutrition journal. Jul 16 2013;12:102.

Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. Jul 2010;2(7):652-682.

Rumsey S, Winders J, MacCormick AD. Diagnostic accuracy of Charcot's triad: a systematic review. ANZ journal of surgery. Apr 2017;87(4):232-238.

Saboor M, Zehra A, Qamar K, Moinuddin. Disorders associated with malabsorption of iron: A critical review. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. Nov-Dec 2015;31(6):1549-1553.

Sachdeva S, Khan Z, Ansari MA, Khalique N, Anees A. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: scope for primary prevention. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. Oct 2011;36(4):263-267.

Sadr-Azodi O, Sanders DS, Murray JA, Ludvigsson JF. Patients with celiac disease have an increased risk for pancreatitis. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Oct 2012;10(10):1136-1142.e1133.

Sakai Y, Tsuyuguchi T, Sugiyama H, Hayashi M, Senoo J, Kusakabe Y, . . . Yokosuka O. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. May 25 2016;8(10):395-401.

Sang JH, Ki NK, Cho JH, Ahn JO, Sunwoo JG. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones. Journal of physical therapy science. Aug 2016;28(8):2337-2341.

Sanikidze T, Chikvaidze E. Role of the Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Gallstone Formation: An EPR Study. Radiation protection dosimetry. Dec 2016;172(1-3):317-324.

Schwaitzberg SD, Roberts K, Romanelli JR, Desilets DJ, Earle D, Horgan S, . . . Kochman ML. The NOVEL trial: natural orifice versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a prospective, randomized evaluation. Surgical endoscopy. Dec 7 2017.

Seetharam P, Rodrigues G. Sphincter of Oddi and its dysfunction. Saudi journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association. Jan 2008;14(1):1-6.

Sekine K, Nagata N, Sakamoto K, Arai T, Shimbo T, Shinozaki M, . . . Uemura N. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation measured by computed tomography associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Aug 2015;30(8):1325-1331.

Setiawan VW, Pandol SJ, Porcel J, Wei PC, Wilkens LR, Le Marchand L, . . . Monroe KR. Dietary Factors Reduce Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in a Large Multiethnic Cohort. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Feb 2017;15(2):257-265.e253.

Shabanzadeh DM, Jorgensen T, Linneberg A, Sorensen LT, Skaaby T. Vitamin D and gallstone disease-A population-based study. Endocrine. Dec 2016;54(3):818-825.

Shabanzadeh DM, Skaaby T, Sorensen LT, Eugen-Olsen J, Jorgensen T. Metabolic biomarkers and gallstone disease - a population-based study. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Nov 2017;52(11):1270-1277.

Shabanzadeh DM, Skaaby T, Sorensen LT, Jorgensen T. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease. European journal of epidemiology. Jun 2017;32(6):501-510.

Shabanzadeh DM, Sorensen LT, Jorgensen T. Determinants for clinical events in gallstone carriers unaware of their gallstones. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Mar 2017a;32(3):721-726.

Shabanzadeh DM, Sorensen LT, Jorgensen T. Gallstone disease and mortality: a cohort study. International journal of public health. Apr 2017b;62(3):353-360.

Shaffer E. Cholelithiasis. Epocrates. Last updated 1/12/2018. Accessed 01/24/2018.

Shan D, Fang Y, Ye Y, Liu J. EGCG reducing the susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation through the regulation of inflammation. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. Dec 2008;62(10):677-683.

Shiesh SC, Chen CY, Lin XZ, Liu ZA, Tsao HC. Melatonin prevents pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct ligation in guinea pigs. Hepatology. Sep 2000;32(3):455-460.

Shirah BH, Shirah HA, Zafar SH, Albeladi KB. Clinical patterns of postcholecystectomy syndrome. Annals of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery. Feb 2018;22(1):52-57.

Shubha MC, Reddy RR, Srinivasan K. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme. Apr 2011;36(2):201-209.

Sies CW, Brooker J. Could these be gallstones? Lancet (London, England). Apr 16-22 2005;365(9468):1388.

Simic D, Milojevic I, Bogicevic D, Milenovic M, Radlovic V, Draskovic B, . . . Maksimovic R. Preventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo. Mar-Apr 2014;142(3-4):184-188.

Simon JA. Ascorbic acid and cholesterol gallstones. Medical hypotheses. Feb 1993;40(2):81-84.

Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Archives of internal medicine. Apr 10 2000;160(7):931-936.

Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of gallbladder disease among US adults. American journal of public health. Aug 1998;88(8):1208-1212.

Simonsen MH, Erichsen R, Froslev T, Rungby J, Sorensen HT. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and risk of gallstone disease: a population-based case-control study. Drug safety. Dec 2013;36(12):1189-1197.

Sinha R, Sharma N. Acute cholecystitis and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. Jan-Mar 2002;6(1):65-68.

Song XY, Xu S, Hu JF, Tang J, Chu SF, Liu H, . . . Chen NH. Piperine prevents cholesterol gallstones formation in mice. European journal of pharmacology. Mar 15 2015;751:112-117.

Srinivasan K. Anti-cholelithogenic potential of dietary spices and their bioactives. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. May 24 2017;57(8):1749-1758.

Stinton LM, Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut and liver. Apr 2012;6(2):172-187.

Stokes CS, Gluud LL, Casper M, Lammert F. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Jul 2014;12(7):1090-1100.e1092; quiz e1061.

Sulaberidze G, Okujava M, Liluashvili K, Tughushi M, Bezarashvili S. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients. Georgian medical news. Jun 2014(231):95-99.

Tanaja J, Meer JM. Cholelithiasis. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018.

Tarnasky PR. Post-cholecystectomy syndrome and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: past, present and future. Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology. Dec 2016;10(12):1359-1372.

Toouli J. Biliary Dyskinesia. Current treatment options in gastroenterology. Aug 2002;5(4):285-291.

Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Hu FB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Frequent nut consumption and decreased risk of cholecystectomy in women. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jul 2004a;80(1):76-81.

Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Hu FB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. A prospective cohort study of nut consumption and the risk of gallstone disease in men. American journal of epidemiology. Nov 15 2004b;160(10):961-968.

Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Feb 2007;85(2):518-522.

Turner AR, Bhimji SS. Ileus, Gallstone. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018.

Uhler ML, Marks JW, Voigt BJ, Judd HL. Comparison of the impact of transdermal versus oral estrogens on biliary markers of gallstone formation in postmenopausal women. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Feb 1998;83(2):410-414.

Upala S, Sanguankeo A, Jaruvongvanich V. Gallstone Disease and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society. Mar 2017;106(1):21-27.

Vassiliou MC, Laycock WS. Biliary dyskinesia. The Surgical clinics of North America. Dec 2008;88(6):1253-1272, viii-ix.

Vidyashankar S, Sambaiah K, Srinivasan K. Effect of dietary garlic and onion on biliary proteins and lipid peroxidation which influence cholesterol nucleation in bile. Steroids. Mar 2010a;75(3):272-281.

Vidyashankar S, Sambaiah K, Srinivasan K. Regression of preestablished cholesterol gallstones by dietary garlic and onion in experimental mice. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Oct 2010b;59(10):1402-1412.

Vitek L, Carey MC. New pathophysiological concepts underlying pathogenesis of pigment gallstones. Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology. Apr 2012;36(2):122-129.

Walcher T, Haenle MM, Kron M, Hay B, Mason RA, Walcher D, . . . Kratzer W. Vitamin C supplement use may protect against gallstones: an observational study on a randomly selected population. BMC gastroenterology. Oct 8 2009;9:74.

Walcher T, Haenle MM, Mason RA, Koenig W, Imhof A, Kratzer W. The effect of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Nov 2010;22(11):1345-1351.

Wang HH, Liu M, Li X, Portincasa P, Wang DQ. Impaired intestinal cholecystokinin secretion, a fascinating but overlooked link between coeliac disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. European journal of clinical investigation. Apr 2017;47(4):328-333.

Wang JK, Foster SM, Wolff BG. Incidental gallstones. The Permanente journal. Spring 2009;13(2):50-54.

Wang S, Wang Y, Xu J, Chen Y. Is the oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy a risk factor for cholelithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine. Apr 2017;96(14).

Waniek S, di Giuseppe R, Esatbeyoglu T, Ratjen I, Enderle J, Jacobs G, . . . Lieb W. Association of Circulating Vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-Tocopherol) Levels with Gallstone Disease. Nutrients. Jan 27 2018;10(2).

Worthington HV, Hunt LP, McCloy RF, Maclennan I, Braganza JM. A pilot study of antioxidant intake in patients with cholesterol gallstones. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Feb 1997;13(2):118-127.

Worthington HV, Hunt LP, McCloy RF, Ubbink JB, Braganza JM. Dietary antioxidant lack, impaired hepatic glutathione reserve, and cholesterol gallstones. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. Nov 2004;349(1-2):157-165.

Wybourn CA, Kitsis RM, Baker TA, Degner B, Sarker S, Luchette FA. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia: Which patients have long term benefit? Surgery. Oct 2013;154(4):761-767; discussion 767-768.

Yang F, Tang X, Ding L, Zhou Y, Yang Q, Gong J, . . . Yang L. Curcumin protects ANIT-induced cholestasis through signaling pathway of FXR-regulated bile acid and inflammation. Scientific reports. Sep 14 2016;6:33052.

Yu DD, Andrali SS, Li H, Lin M, Huang W, Forman BM. Novel FXR (farnesoid X receptor) modulators: Potential therapies for cholesterol gallstone disease. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. Sep 15 2016;24(18):3986-3993.

Zakko SF, Chopra S, Grover S. UpToDate: Patient Education: Gallstones (Beyond the Basics). Available at Last updated 02/21/2018. Accessed 03/14/2018.

Zhang XH, Andreotti G, Gao YT, Deng J, Liu E, Rashid A, . . . Hsing AW. Tea drinking and the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. International journal of cancer. Jun 15 2006;118(12):3089-3094.

Zhang YP, Li WQ, Sun YL, Zhu RT, Wang WJ. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Sep 2015;42(6):637-648.

Zheng Y, Xu M, Li Y, Hruby A, Rimm EB, Hu FB, . . . Qi L. Gallstones and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Prospective Analysis of 270 000 Men and Women From 3 US Cohorts and Meta-Analysis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. Sep 2016;36(9):1997-2003.

Zimmer V, Lammert F. Acute Bacterial Cholangitis. Viszeralmedizin. Jun 2015;31(3):166-172.