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Blood Disorders (Anemia, Leukopenia, and Thrombocytopenia)


A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. RBC count. PubMed Health web page. Last updated 2/8/2012. Available at: Accessed 1/24/2013.

Aapro MS, Bohlius J, Cameron DA, et al. 2010 update of EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumours. Eur J Cancer. Jan 2011;47(1):8-32.

Abramson JS, Chatterji M, Rahemtullah A. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 39-2008. A 51-year-old woman with splenomegaly and anemia. N Engl J Med. Dec 18 2008;359(25):2707-2718.

Afdhal NH, Giannini EG, Tayyab G, et al. Eltrombopag before procedures in patients with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. Aug 23 2012;367(8):716-724.

AHA. Anemia may more than triple your risk of dying after a stroke. 2012; Accessed 11/20/2012.

Ahmed F, Kelsey PR, Shariff N. Lupus syndrome with neutropenia following minocycline therapy - a case report. Int J Lab Hematol. Dec 2008;30(6):543-545.

Ahmed F, Khan MR, Akhtaruzzaman M, et al. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia. J Nutr. Oct 2010;140(10):1879-1886.

Alberts B, Johnson, A, Lewis, J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Renewal by Multipotent Stem Cells: Blood Cell Formation 2002; 4th: Accessed 11/19/2012.

Allen LH, Peerson JM. Impact of multiple micronutrient versus iron-folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy. Food Nutr Bull. Dec 2009;30(4 Suppl):S527-532.

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Aoki T, Harada Y, Matsubara E, et al. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists in refractory immune thrombocytopenia: differential responses to eltrombopag and romiplostim: a case report and possible explanations. J Clin Pharm Ther. May 14 2012.

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Arnold DM. Immune thrombocytopenia: getting back to basics. Am J Hematol. Sep 2012;87(9):841-842.

Arzumanyan ES, Makhro AV, Tyulina OV, Boldyrev AA. Carnosine protects erythrocytes from the oxidative stress caused by homocysteic acid. Dokl Biochem Biophys. Jan-Feb 2008;418:44-46.

ASH. Blood Basics. 2011; Accessed 11/19/2012.

Aspuru K, Villa C, Bermejo F, Herrero P, Lopez SG. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:741-750.

Aster RH, Bougie DW. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med. Aug 9 2007;357(6):580-587.

Atanasova BD, Li AC, Bjarnason I, Tzatchev KN, Simpson RJ. Duodenal ascorbate and ferric reductase in human iron deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan 2005;81(1):130-133.

Aydin AF, Kusku-Kiraz Z, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Uysal M. Effect of carnosine treatment on oxidative stress in serum, apoB-containing lipoproteins fraction and erythrocytes of aged rats. Pharmacol Rep. Jul-Aug 2010;62(4):733-739.

Bachman E, Feng R, Travison T, Li M, Olbina G, Ostland V, . . . Bhasin S. Testosterone suppresses hepcidin in men: a potential mechanism for testosterone-induced erythrocytosis. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Oct 2010;95(10):4743-4747.

Balduini A, Di Buduo CA, Malara A, et al. Constitutively released adenosine diphosphate regulates proplatelet formation by human megakaryocytes. Haematologica. Nov 2012;97(11):1657-1665.

Barros F, Neto R, Vaz R, Pestana M. [Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: from facts to clinical practice]. Acta Med Port. Dec 2011;24 Suppl 4:869-874.

Bender DA. Megaloblastic anaemia in vitamin B12 deficiency. Br J Nutr. 2003;89:439-440.

Bercovitz RS, Quinones RR. A Survey of Transfusion Practices in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. Nov 6 2012.

Berdoukas V, Farmaki K, Carson S, Wood J, Coates T. Treating thalassemia major-related iron overload: the role of deferiprone. J Blood Med. 2012;3:119-129.

Berns JS, Mosenkis A. Pharmacologic adjuvants to epoetin in the treatment of anemia in patients on hemodialysis. Hemodial Int. Jan 2005;9(1):7-22.

Besarab A, Zeig SN, Martin ER, et al. An open-label, sequential, dose-finding study of peginesatide for the maintenance treatment of anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients. BMC Nephrol. Aug 30 2012;13(1):95.

Bickford PC, Tan J, Shytle RD, Sanberg CD, El-Badri N, Sanberg PR. Nutraceuticals synergistically promote proliferation of human stem cells. Stem cells and development. Feb 2006;15(1):118-123.

Bjorn-Rasmussen E, Hallberg L, Isaksson B, Arvidsson B. Food iron absorption in man. Applications of the two-pool extrinsic tag method to measure heme and nonheme iron absorption from the whole diet. J Clin Invest. Jan 1974;53(1):247-255.

Bolaman Z, Kadikoylu G, Yukselen V, Yavasoglu I, Barutca S, Senturk T. Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study. Clin Ther. Dec 2003;25(12):3124-3134.

Branda RF, Powden C, Brooks EM, Yildirim Z, Naud SJ, McCormack JJ. Vitamin E but not St. John's wort mitigates leukopenia caused by cancer chemotherapy in rats. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. Dec 2006;148(6):315-324.

Briddon A. Homocysteine in the context of cobalamin metabolism and deficiency states. Amino Acids. 2003;24(1-2):1-12.

Brodsky RA, Jones RJ. Aplastic anaemia. Lancet. May 7-13 2005;365(9471):1647-1656.

Bruno A, Dovizio M, Tacconelli S, Patrignani P. Mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in the gastrointestinal tract. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;26(4):e1-e13.

Bushra M, Elhassan EM, Ali NI, Osman E, Bakheit KH, Adam, II. Anaemia, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in central Sudan. Biol Trace Elem Res. Dec 2010;137(3):255-261.

Carmel R. Mandatory fortification of the food supply with cobalamin: an idea whose time has not yet come. J Inherit Metab Dis. Feb 2011;34(1):67-73.

Carrero JJ, Barany P, Yilmaz MI, Qureshi AR, Sonmez A, Heimburger O, . . . Stenvinkel P. Testosterone deficiency is a cause of anaemia and reduced responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in men with chronic kidney disease. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. Feb 2012;27(2):709-715.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR. Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States. 2001. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Cervinek L, Cerna O, Caniga M, et al. Efficacy of rituximab in primary immune thrombocytopenia: an analysis of adult pretreated patients from everyday hematological practice. Int J Hematol. Oct 26 2012.

Charache S, Terrin ML, Moore RD, et al. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. N Engl J Med. May 18 1995;332(20):1317-1322.

Chirico EN, Pialoux V. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. IUBMB life. Jan 2012;64(1):72-80.

Clark SF. Iron deficiency anemia. Nutr Clin Pract. Apr-May 2008;23(2):128-141. A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Active-controlled, Parallel-group Trial With an Open-label Extension Phase to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Oral E5501 Versus Eltrombopag, in Adults With Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia (Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura). 2012b; Accessed 11/24/2012. Dose-finding study of empegfilgrastim for neutropenia prophylaxis in cancer patients. 2012a; Accessed 11/24/2012.

Cooper KL, Fitzgerald P, Dillingham K, Helme K, Akehurst R. Romiplostim and eltrombopag for immune thrombocytopenia: methods for indirect comparison. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. Jul 2012;28(3):249-258.

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Czubkowski P, Socha P, Pawlowska J. Oxidative stress in liver transplant recipients. Ann Transplant. Jan-Mar 2011;16(1):99-108.

De la Cruz-Gongora V, Villalpando S, Rebollar R, Shamah-Levy T, Mendez-Gomez Humaran I. Nutritional causes of anemia in Mexican children under 5 years. Results from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Salud Publica Mex. Mar-Apr 2012;54(2):108-115.

Dean L. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005. Chapter 1, Blood and the cells it contains. Available from:

Deniau AL, Mosset P, Pedrono F, Mitre R, Le Bot D, Legrand AB. Multiple beneficial health effects of natural alkylglycerols from shark liver oil. Mar Drugs. 2010;8(7):2175-2184.

Deved V, Poyah P, James MT, Tonelli M, Manns BJ, Walsh M, Hemmelgarn BR. Ascorbic acid for anemia management in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. Dec 2009;54(6):1089-1097.

Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Block G. The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr. Aug 2005;24(4):266-274.

Egner PA, Munoz A, Kensler TW. Chemoprevention with chlorophyllin in individuals exposed to dietary aflatoxin. Mutation research. Feb-Mar 2003;523-524:209-216.

Ekman M, Reizenstein P. Comparative absorption of ferrous and heme-iron with meals in normal and iron deficient subjects. Z Ernahrungswiss. Mar 1993;32(1):67-70.

Elghetany MT and Banki K. McPherson: Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 22nd ed. Copyright © 2011. Chapter 32 – Erythrocytic Disorders. MD Consult web page. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Elmadfa I, Singer I. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective. Am J Clin Nutr. May 2009;89(5):1693S-1698S.

Erat M, Ciftci M. Effect of melatonin on enzyme activities of glutathione reductase from human erythrocytes in vitro and from rat erythrocytes in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. May 10 2006;537(1-3):59-63.

Farese AM, Cohen MV, Stead RB, Jackson W, 3rd, Macvittie TJ. Pegfilgrastim administered in an abbreviated schedule, significantly improved neutrophil recovery after high-dose radiation-induced myelosuppression in rhesus macaques. Radiat Res. Nov 2012;178(5):403-413.

FDA. FDA News Release. FDA approves Omontys to treat anemia in adult patients on dialysis. 2012. Accessed 12/09/2012.

Ferri FF. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Copyright © 2013a. Sickle Cell Disease. MD Consult web page. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Ferri FF. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2013, 1st ed. Copyright © 2013b. Thalassemia.  MD Consult web page. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Ferrucci L, Maggio M, Bandinelli S, Basaria S, Lauretani F, Ble A, . . . Longo DL. Low testosterone levels and the risk of anemia in older men and women. Archives of internal medicine. Jul 10 2006;166(13):1380-1388.

Fibach E, Rachmilewitz E. The role of oxidative stress in hemolytic anemia. Current molecular medicine. Nov 2008;8(7):609-619.

Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr. Jun 2000;3(2):125-150.

Fossati M, Cappelli B, Biral E, et al. Fatal vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium sepsis in a child undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for beta-thalassaemia major. J Med Microbiol. Jul 2010;59(Pt 7):839-842.

Franklin Institute. White Blood Cells: Battling Blood Cells. Available at: Accessed: 2/4/2013.

Freifeld AG, Bow EJ, Sepkowitz KA, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of A. Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. Feb 15 2011;52(4):e56-93.

Gaitan D, Olivares M, Lonnerdal B, Brito A, Pizarro F. Non-heme Iron as Ferrous Sulfate Does Not Interact with Heme Iron Absorption in Humans. Biol Trace Elem Res. Aug 31 2012.

Gammon CS, von Hurst PR, Coad J, Kruger R, Stonehouse W. Vegetarianism, vitamin B12 status, and insulin resistance in a group of predominantly overweight/obese South Asian women. Nutrition. Jan 2012;28(1):20-24.

Gao F, Hu XF. Analysis of the therapeutic effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin tablet in treating 60 cases of leukopenia. Chinese journal of integrative medicine. Dec 2005;11(4):279-282.

Garcia-de-la-Asuncion J, Gomez-Cambronero LG, Del Olmo ML, Pallardo FV, Sastre J, Vina J. Vitamins C and E prevent AZT-induced leukopenia and loss of cellularity in bone marrow. Studies in mice. Free radical research. Mar 2007;41(3):330-334.

Garrido-Martin P, Nassar-Mansur MI, de la Llana-Ducros R, et al. The effect of intravenous and oral iron administration on perioperative anaemia and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. Aug 31 2012.

Gelinas J, Stoddart, L, Snyder, E. Thrombocytopenia and Critical Care Medicine. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 2001;16:1-21.

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Giugliano RP. Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia: Is it a Serious Concern for Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors? J Thromb Thrombolysis. Jul 1998;5(3):191-202.

Gomez-Almaguer D, Jaime-Perez JC, Ruiz-Arguelles GJ. Antibodies in the treatment of aplastic anemia. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). Apr 2012;60(2):99-106.

Grady RW, Galanello R, Randolph RE, Kleinert D, Dessi C, Giardina PJ. Toward optimizing the use of deferasirox: potential benefits of combined use with deferoxamine. Haematologica. Aug 8 2012.

Guralnik JM, Eisenstaedt RS, Ferrucci L, Klein HG, Woodman RC. Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia. Blood. Oct 15 2004;104(8):2263-2268.

Haider BA, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 3:S19.

Haliotis FA, Papanastasiou DA. Comparative study of tolerability and efficacy of iron protein succinylate versus iron hydroxide polymaltose complex in the treatment of iron deficiency in children. International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. Jun 1998;36(6):320-325.

He XH, Li WT, Peng WJ, Li GD, Wang SP, Xu LC. Total embolization of the main splenic artery as a supplemental treatment modality for hypersplenism. World J Gastroenterol. Jun 28 2011;17(24):2953-2957.

Hegazy AA, Zaher MM, Abd El-Hafez MA, Morsy AA, Saleh RA. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children. BMC Res Notes. 2010;3:133.

Hematol. Jul 2012;91(7):1097-1105.

Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU, Galy B, Camaschella C. Two to tango: regulation of Mammalian iron metabolism. Cell. Jul 9 2010;142(1):24-38.

Herrera J, Nava M, Romero F, Rodriguez-Iturbe B. Melatonin prevents oxidative stress resulting from iron and erythropoietin administration. Am J Kidney Dis. Apr 2001;37(4):750-757.

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Hoffman HN, 2nd, Phyliky RL, Fleming CR. Zinc-induced copper deficiency. Gastroenterology. Feb 1988;94(2):508-512.

Hsu SP, Chiang CK, Yang SY, Chien CT. N-acetylcysteine for the management of anemia and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;116(3):c207-216.

Huang GC, Wu LS, Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC. Immuno-enhancement effects of Huang Qi Liu Yi Tang in a murine model of cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jan 19 2007;109(2):229-235.

Hvas AM, Nexo E. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency--an update. Haematologica. Nov 2006;91(11):1506-1512.

Iannitti T, Palmieri B. An update on the therapeutic role of alkylglycerols. Mar Drugs. 2010;8(8):2267-2300.

Ikeda T, Ishibashi H, Fujisaki R, Yamazaki M, Wakame K, Kosuna K, . . . Abe S. [Prophylactic efficacy of a basidiomycetes preparation AHCC against lethal Candida albicans infection in experimental granulocytopenic mice]. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of medical mycology. 2003;44(2):127-131.

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Jaing TH, Hung IJ, Yang CP, et al. Unrelated cord blood transplantation for thalassaemia: a single-institution experience of 35 patients. Bone Marrow Transplant. Jan 2012;47(1):33-39.

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Jaja SI, Aigbe PE, Gbenebitse S, Temiye EO. Changes in erythrocytes following supplementation with alpha-tocopherol in children suffering from sickle cell anaemia. The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal. Jun 2005;12(2):110-114.

Jilani T, Iqbal MP. Does vitamin E have a role in treatment and prevention of anemia? Pak J Pharm Sci.

Kamhieh-Milz J, Bal G, Sterzer V, Kamhieh-Milz S, Arbach O, Salama A. Reduced antioxidant capacities in platelets from patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Platelets. 2012;23(3):184-194.

KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis. Feb 2007;49(2 Suppl 2):S12-154.

Kedziora-Kornatowska K, Czuczejko J, Motyl J, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on activities of selected antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive patients treated with indapamide. A pilot study. Arch Med Sci. Aug 30 2010;6(4):513-518.

Kelly DA, Haber B, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, et al. Durability of sustained response shown in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C who were treated with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. J Viral Hepat. Apr 2012;19(4):263-270.

Khanduri U, Sharma A. Megaloblastic anaemia: prevalence and causative factors. Natl Med J India. Jul-Aug 2007;20(4):172-175.

Kiechl S, Aichner F, Gerstenbrand F, Egger G, Mair A, Rungger G, . . . Willeit J. Body iron stores and presence of carotid atherosclerosis. Results from the Bruneck Study. Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis : a journal of vascular biology / American Heart Association. Oct 1994;14(10):1625-1630.

Kletzmayr J, Horl WH. Iron overload and cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2002;17 Suppl 2:25-29.

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Kosenko EA, Aliev G, Tikhonova LA, Li Y, Poghosyan AC, Kaminsky YG. Antioxidant Status and Energy State of Erythrocytes in Alzheimer Dementia: probing for markers. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. Sep 17 2012.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, et al. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th ed. Copyright © 2009a. Chapter 14 – Red Blood Cell and Bleeding Disorders. MD Consult web page. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, et al. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th ed. Copyright © 2009b. Chapter 14 – Red Blood Cell and Bleeding Disorders. MD Consult web page. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2013.

Kuter DJ, Bussel JB, Lyons RM, et al. Efficacy of romiplostim in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. Feb 2 2008;371(9610):395-403.

Kutlar A, Ataga K, Reid M, Vichinsky EP, Neumayr L, Blair-Britt L, . . . Perrine SP. A phase 1/2 trial of HQK-1001, an oral fetal globin inducer, in sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. Nov 2012;87(11):1017-1021.

Labonia W, Rubio D, Arias C. Melatonin corrects reticuloendothelial blockade and iron status in haemodialysed patients. Nephrology (Carlton). Dec 2005;10(6):583-587.

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Mayo Clinic. Anemia. Diseases and Conditions 2011a; Accessed 11/20/2012.

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