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Fungal Infections (Candida)


AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians). Patient Education: Fungal Infections of Fingernails and Toenails. State University of New York at Buffalo, 2008.

Abdelmonem AM, Rasheed SM, Mohamed AS. Bee-honey and yogurt: a novel mixture for treating patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;8:8.

Abe S. Development of murine experimental model for candidiasis and its application. Nihon IshinkinGakkaiZasshi. 2004;45(4):227-231.


AdvanDx. Press Release: AdvanDx Receives FDA 510(k) Clearance for 90 Minutes PNA FISH® Protocol for Identifying Candida Bloodstream Pathogens. Woburn, MA, U.S.A. and Vedbaek, Denmark – March 31, 2010. Accessed 6/25/12. Available at

Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78(922):455-459.

Al-Sheikh H. Effect of lactoferrin and iron on the growth of human pathogenic Candida species. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009;12(1):91-94.

Andrés MT, Viejo-Diaz M, Fierro JF. Human lactoferrin induces apoptosis-like cell death in Candida albicans: critical role of K+-channel-mediated K+ efflux. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(11):4081-4088.

Aridogan IA, Izol V, and Ilkit M. Superficial fungal infections of the male genitalia: a review. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011 Aug;37(3):237-44.

Aviello G, Abenavoli L, Borrelli F, et al. Garlic: empiricism or science? Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4(12):1785-1796.

Azimi H, Fallah-Tafti M, Karimi-Darmiyan M, Abdollahi M.A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14(21):960-966.

Baddley JW, Winthrop KL, Nivedita M, et al.Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States.Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;17(9):1664-9.

Badiee P and Alborzi A. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.ExpClin Transplant. 2011 Dec;9(6):355-62.

Bahadoran P, Rokni FK, Fahami F. Investigating the therapeutic effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15(Suppl 1):343-349.

Balish E, Wagner RD. Probiotic bacteria for prophylaxis and therapy of candidiasis. Rev IberoamMicol. 1998;15(4):261-264.

Baron S. Medical Microbiology.4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Available at: Accessed 7/16/2012.

Bassetti M, Aversa F, Ballerini F, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex in the management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Clin Drug Investig. 2011 Nov 1;31(11):745-58.

Birdsall TC. Gastrointestinal Candidiasis: Fact or Fiction? 1997.

Brown GD, Denning DW, Levitz SM. Tackling human fungal infections: Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):647.

Brown Univ. Health Education.Yeast Infection. Available at: Accessed. 7/13/2012.

Carrara MA, Donatti L, Damke E, Svidizinski TI, Consolaro ME, Batista MR. A new model of vaginal infection by Candida albicans in rats. Mycopathologia. 2010;170(5):331-338.

Catalán A, Pacheco JG, Martinez A, Mondaca MA. In vitro and in vivo activity of Melaleucaalternifolia mixed with tissue conditioner on Candida albicans. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral RadiolEndod. 2008;105(3):327-332.

Cater RE 2nd. Chronic intestinal candidiasis as a possible etiological factor in the chronic fatigue syndrome.Med Hypotheses. 1995 Jun;44(6):507-15.

Cheng SC, Joosten LA, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG. Interplay between Candida albicans and the mammalian innate host defense. Infect Immun. 2012;80(4):1304-1313.

Chung I, Kwon SH, Shim ST, Kyung KH. Synergistic antiyeast activity of garlic oil and allyl alcohol derived from alliin in garlic. J Food Sci. 2007;72(9):M437-440.

Crook W.The Yeast Connection: A Medical Breakthrough. Vintage Books; Upd Rev Su edition (September 12, 1986)

Curtis L. Better hospital nutrition needed to reduce morbidity and mortality from fungal infections: Crit Care Med. 2010 Dec;38(12):2428-9; author reply 2429.

Cydulka R., Garber B. (2009) Chapter 118: Dermatologic Presentations (pg. 1531). In: Marx, J. (Ed.), Rosen's Emergency Medicine (7th ed). Mosby, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Dabrowska K, Kozlowski Z, Durko T, Stanczyk R, Pietruszewska W. [Fungal rhinosinusitis - still unsolved problem]: Otolaryngol Pol. 2011 Sep-Oct;65(5):369-76.

Dai T, Bil de Arce VJ, Tegos GP, Hamblin MR. Blue dye and red light, a dynamic combination for prophylaxis and treatment of cutaneous Candida albicans infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(12):5710-5717.

das Neves J, Pinto E, Teixeira B, et al. Local treatment of vulvovaginalcandidosis : general and practical considerations. Drugs. 2008;68(13):1787-1802.

deAraujo DA, Freitas C, Cruz JS. Essential oils components as a new path to understand ion channel molecular pharmacology. Life Sci. 2011;89(15-16):540-544.

Di Santo R. Natural products as antifungal agents against clinically relevant pathogens. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27(7):1084-1098.

Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2011;47(4):465-73.

Donders GG, Bellen G, Mendling W. Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness. GynecolObstet Invest. 2010;70(4):306-321.

Douglas LM, Wang HX, Keppler-Ross S, Dean N, Konopka JB. Sur7 promotes plasma membrane organization and is needed for resistance to stressful conditions and to the invasive growth and virulence of Candida albicans. MBio. 2011;3(1):00254-00211.

Emiroglu M. Micafungin use in children. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9(9):821-834.

Ettefagh KA, Burns JT, Junio HA, Kaatz GW, Cech NB. Goldenseal (Hydrastiscanadensis L.) extracts synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of berberine via efflux pump inhibition. Planta Med. 2011;77(8):835-40.

Evans EC, Gray M. What interventions are effective for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous candidiasis? Journal of WOCN. 2003;30(1):11-16.

Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. J AntimicrobChemother. 2006;58(2):266-272.

Ferri’s Netter Patient Advisor (2012). Managing your candidiasis.Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Fungal Research Trust. How Common are Fungal Diseases? Updated 10/8/2011. Available at: Accessed 7/17/2012.

Gaby A. Nutritional Medicine. Copyright 2011.Concord, NH. Fritz Perlberg Publishing.

Giannini PJ, Shetty KV. Diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis.OtolaryngolClin North Am. 2011;44(1):231-240.

Ginter E, Simko V. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases. BratislLekListy. 2010;111(8):452-456.

Gonsalves WC, Chi AC, Neville BW. Common oral lesions: Part I. Superficial mucosal lesions. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(4):501-507.

Groschwitz KR, Hogan SP. Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis. J Allergy ClinImmunol. 2009 Jul;124(1):3-20; quiz 21-2.

Hall L, Le Febre KM, Deml SM, Wohlfiel SL, Wengenack NL. Evaluation of the Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH probes for identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures. J ClinMicrobiol. 2012;50(4):1446-1448.

Hamad M, Muta'eb E, Abu-Shaqra Q, Fraij A, Abu-Elteen K, Yasin SR. Utility of the oestrogen-dependent vaginal candidosis murine model in evaluating the efficacy of various therapies against vaginal Candida albicans infection. Mycoses. 2006;49(2):104-108.

Haney EF, Nazmi K, Bolscher JG, Vogel HJ. Structural and biophysical characterization of an antimicrobial peptide chimera comprised of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin. BiochimBiophysActa. 2012;1818(3):762-775.

Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H, et al. Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly--a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res. 2007;86(2):125-130.

Hibino K, Wong RW, Hagg U, Samaranayake LP. The effects of orthodontic appliances on Candida in the human mouth.Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009;19(5):301-308.

Horne S. Colon cleansing: a popular, but misunderstood natural therapy. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):93-100.

Hsu JL, Ruoss SJ, Bower ND, Lin M, Holodniy M, Stevens DA. Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients.Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(4):277-312.

Iavazzo C, Gkegkes ID, Zarkada IM, Falagas ME. Boric acid for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: the clinical evidence. J Womens Health. 2011;20(8):1245-1255.

Ikeda T, Ishibashi H, Fujisaki R, et al. [Prophylactic efficacy of a basidiomycetes preparation AHCC against lethal Candida albicans infection in experimental granulocytopenic mice]. Nihon IshinkinGakkaiZasshi. 2003;44(2):127-131.

Ilkit M, Guzel AB. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginalcandidosis: a mycological perspective. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(3):250-261.

Ivker R,. (2012) Chapter 15 - Chronic Sinusitis: Fungal Sinusitis (pg. 137). In: Rakel D. (Ed.), Integrative Medicine (3rd ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Iwazaki RS, Endo EH, Ueda-Nakamura T, Nakamura CV, Garcia LB, Filho BP.In vitro antifungal activity of the berberine and its synergism with fluconazole.Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2010;97(2):201-5.

Jadhav A, Mortale S, Halbandge S, Jangid P, Patil R, Gade W, . . . Karuppayil SM. The Dietary Food Components Capric Acid and Caprylic Acid Inhibit Virulence Factors in Candida albicans Through Multitargeting. Journal of medicinal food. Nov 2017;20(11):1083-1090.

Jayatilake JA. A review of the ultrastructural features of superficial candidiasis.Mycopathologia. 2011;171(4):235-250.

Jung HJ, Seu YB, Lee DG. Candicidal action of resveratrol isolated from grapes on human pathogenic yeast C. albicans. J MicrobiolBiotechnol. 2007;17(8):1324-1329.

Junqueira JC. Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis. AdvExp Med Biol. 2012;710:95-105.

Kagami S, Rizzo HL, Kurtz SE, et al. IL-23 and IL-17A, but not IL-12 and IL-22, ar required for optimal skin host defense against Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2010 Nov;185(9):5453-62.

Katoh T. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis. Nihon IshinkinGakkaiZasshi. 2009;50(4):207-212.

Kauffman C. (2011) Chapter 346: Candidiasis (pg. 1987). In: Goldman L. (Ed.), Goldman's Cecil Medicine (24th ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Kauffman C. (2011) Chapter 346: Candidiasis (pg. 1987). In: Goldman L. (Ed.), Goldman’s Cecil Medicine (24th ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Kauffman C., Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults. In: UpToDate, Kieren M., Thorner A., (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012a.

Kauffman C., Overview of Candida infections. In: UpToDate, Kieren M., Thorner A., (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012b.

Kauffman C., Treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults. In: UpToDate, Kieren M., Thorner A., (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012c.

Kauffman C., Treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. In: UpToDate, Kieren M., Thorner A., (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012d.

Khan MS, Malik A, Ahmad I. Anti-candidal activity of essential oils alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole against multi-drug resistant isolates of Candida albicans. Med Mycol. 2012;50(1):33-42.

Khodavandi A, Harmal NS, Alizadeh F, et al. Comparison between allicin and fluconazole in Candida albicans biofilm inhibition and in suppression of HWP1 gene expression. Phytomedicine. 2011;19(1):56-63.

Kim J, Sudbery P. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen. J Microbiol. 2011;49(2):171-177.

Kobayashi T, Kakeya H, Miyazaki T, et al. Synergistic antifungal effect of lactoferrin with azole antifungals against Candida albicans and a proposal for a new treatment method for invasive candidiasis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64(4):292-296.

Kumamoto CA. Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization.CurrOpinMicrobiol. 2011;14(4):386-391.

Kysenius K, Brunello CA, Huttunen HJ. Mitochondria and NMDA receptor-dependent toxicity of berberine sensitizes neurons to glutamate and rotenone injury. PloS one. 2014;9(9):e107129.

Larson D, Jacob SE. Tea tree oil. Dermatitis. 2012;23(1):48-49.

Liu X, Han Y, Peng K, Liu Y, Li J, Liu H. Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Candida spp. from patients with HIV/AIDS.Adv Dent Res. 2011;23(1):56-60.

Long: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Revised Reprint, 3rd ed. Copyright © 2009 Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier. Available at: Accessed 7/16/2012.

Low CF, Chong PP, Yong PV, Lim CS, Ahmad Z, Othman F. Inhibition of hyphae formation and SIR2 expression in Candida albicans treated with fresh Allium sativum (garlic). J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105(6):2169-2177.

Mailander-Sanchez D, Wagener J, Schaller M. Potential role of probiotic bacteria in the treatment and prevention of localisedcandidosis. Mycoses. 2012;55(1):17-26.

Manevitch Z, Lev D, Hochberg M, Palhan M, Lewis A, Enk CD. Direct Antifungal Effect of Femtosecond Laser on TrichophytonrubrumOnychomycosis. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2010;86(2):476-479.

Martinez RC, Franceschini SA, Patta MC, et al. Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.LettApplMicrobiol. 2009;48(3):269-274.

Maruyama N, Takizawa T, Ishibashi H, et al. Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(8):1501-1506.

Merck Manual. Overview of Fungal Infections.Reviewed 10/2008. Available at: Accessed: 7/16/2012.

Mikes V, Dadak V. Berberine derivatives as cationic fluorescent probes for the investigation of the energized state of mitochondria. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1983;723(2):231-239.

Mikes V, Yaguzhinskij LS. Interaction of fluorescent berberine alkyl derivatives with respiratory chain of rat liver mitochondria. Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes. 1985;17(1):23-32.

Mondello F, De Bernardis F, Girolamo A, Cassone A, Salvatore G. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of MelaleucaalternifoliaCheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:158.

Monteiro DR, Silva S, Negri M, et al. Silver nanoparticles: influence of stabilizing agent and diameter on antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. LettApplMicrobiol. 2012;54(5):383-391.

Montone KT, Livolsi VA, Feldman MD, et al. Fungal rhinosinusitis: a retrospective microbiologic and pathologic review of 400 patients at a single university medical center. Int J Otolaryngol. 2012;684835:8.

Murzyn A, Krasowska A, Stefanowicz P, Dziadkowiec D, Lukaszewicz M. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation. PLoS One. 2010;5(8).

NCBI. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. CID=379. Last updated 3/9/2019. Accessed Mar. 4, 2019.

NIH (National Institute of Health) MeSH Term definition: Active Hexose Correlated Compound [Supplementary Concept]. Accessed 6/25/12a. Available at:

NIH (National Institute of Health) MeSH Term definition: Oils, Volatile. Accessed 6/7/12b. Available at:

NIH (National Institute of Health) MeSH Term definition: Onychomycosis. Accessed 6/25/12c. Available at:

NIH (National Institute of Health) MeSH Term definition: Paronychia. Accessed 6/25/12d. Available at: http

NIH (National Institute of Health). Boron.Last Reviewed: 01/05/2012e. Available at:  Accessed 6/25/12.

NIH (National Institute of Health). Cutaneous candidiasis. Update Date: 9/15/2010. Available at: Accessed 6/2/12.

NIH (National Institute of Health). Thrush. Update Date: 8/24/2011. Available at: Accessed 6/4/12.

Nozaki A, Takahashi E, Okamoto K, Ito H, Hatano T. [Antifungal activity of essential oils and their constituents against Candida spp. and their effects on activity of amphotericin B]. YakugakuZasshi. 2010;130(6):895-902.

Okamoto-Shibayama K, Sato Y, Azuma T. Resveratrol impaired the morphological transition of Candida albicans under various hyphae-inducing conditions. J MicrobiolBiotechnol. 2010;20(5):942-945.

OlivaMde L, Carezzano ME, Gallucci MN, Demo MS. Antimycotic effect of the essential oil of Aloysiatriphylla against Candida species obtained from human pathologies. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6(7):1039-1043.

Omura Y, O'Young B, Jones M, Pallos A, Duvvi H, Shimotsuura Y. Caprylic acid in the effective treatment of intractable medical problems of frequent urination, incontinence, chronic upper respiratory infection, root canalled tooth infection, ALS, etc., caused by asbestos & mixed infections of Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori & cytomegalovirus with or without other microorganisms & mercury. AcupunctElectrother Res. 2011;36(1-2):19-64.

Pammi M., Treatment of Candida infection in neonates. In: UpToDate, Weisman L., Kim M., (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012.

Park KD, Cho SJ, Moon JS, Kim SU. Synthesis and antifungal activity of a novel series of 13-(4-isopropylbenzyl)berberine derivatives. Bioorg Med ChemLett. 2010;20(22):6551-4.

Park KD, Lee JH, Kim SH, Kang TH, Moon JS, Kim SU.Synthesis of 13-(substituted benzyl) berberine and berberrubine derivatives as antifungal agents.Bioorg Med ChemLett. 2006;16(15):3913-6.

Park KK, Brodell RT, Helms SE. Angular cheilitis, part 1: local etiologies. Cutis. 2011;87(6):289-295.


Pfaller MA. Antifungal drug resistance: mechanisms, epidemiology, and consequences for treatment. Am J Med. 2012;125(1 Suppl):S3-13.

Powell K. Vaginal thrush: quality of life and treatments. Br J Nurs. 2010;19(17):1106-1111.

Rao A, Zhang Y, Muend S, Rao R. Mechanism of antifungal activity of terpenoid phenols resembles calcium stress and inhibition of the TOR pathway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Dec;54(12):5062-9.

Rautemaa R, Ramage G. Oral candidosis--clinical challenges of a biofilm disease. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(4):328-336.

Reid G, Charbonneau D, Erb J, et al.  Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Mar 20;35(2):131-4.

Reid G, Dols J, Miller W. Targeting the vaginal microbiota with probiotics as a means to counteract infections.CurrOpinClinNutrMetab Care. 2009 Nov;12(6):583-7.

Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2 Suppl):437S-443S.

Relloso M, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, et al. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91(1):159-165.

Riechelmann H. [Fungal sinusitis]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2011;90(6):374-381.

Ritz BW. Supplementation with active hexose correlated compound increases survival following infectious challenge in mice. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(9):526-531.

Rodaki A, Bohovych IM, Enjalbert B, et al. Glucose promotes stress resistance in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. MolBiol Cell. 2009 Nov;20(22):4845-55. Epub 2009 Sep 16.

Rodrigues Martins HP, Da Silva MC, FariasPaiva LC, et al. Efficacy of Fluconazole and Nystatin in the Treatment of Vaginal Candida Species.ActaDermVenereol 2012; 92(1): 78–82.

Saad A, Fadli M, Bouaziz M, Benharref A, Mezrioui NE, Hassani L. Anticandidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus maroccanus and Thymus broussonetii and their synergism with amphotericin B and fluconazol. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(13):1057-1060.

Sabitha P, Adhikari PM, Shenoy SM, et al. Efficacy of garlic paste in oral candidiasis. Trop Doct. 2005;35(2):99-100.

Scheinfeld NS, Lambiase MC. Candidiasis, Cutaneous.Updated August 2011. Available at:

Schulze J, Sonnenborn U. Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. DtschArztebl Int. 2009;106(51-52):837-842.

Sharon V, Fazel N. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis. DermatolTher. 2010;23(3):230-242.

Singal A and Khanna D. Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management. Indian J DermatolVenereolLeprol. 2011 Nov-Dec;77(6):659-72.

Sobel J, Candida vulvovaginitis. In: UpToDate, Barbieri R., Barss V. (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012.

Špaček J, Buchta V, Jílek P, Förstl M. Clinical aspects and luteal phase assessment in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2007;131(2):198-202.

Spence D. Candidiasis (vulvovaginal). ClinEvid. 2007;1.

Sudjana AN, Carson CF, Carson KC, Riley TV, Hammer KA. Candida albicans adhesion to human epithelial cells and polystyrene and formation of biofilm is reduced by sub-inhibitory Melaleucaalternifolia (tea tree) essential oil. Med Mycol. 2012;15:15.

Tampakakis E, Peleg AY, Mylonakis E. Interaction of Candida albicans with an intestinal pathogen, Salmonella entericaserovarTyphimurium.Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8(5):732-737.

Tani N, Rahnasto-Rilla M, Wittekindt C, et al. Antifungal activities of novel non-azole molecules against S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;47(1):270-277.

Truss CO. Tissue Injury Induced By Candida Albicans Mental and Neurologic Manifestations. ORTHOMOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, 1978, Pp. 17-37

Venkatesh MP, Rong L. Human recombinant lactoferrin acts synergistically with antimicrobials commonly used in neonatal practice against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida albicans causing neonatal sepsis. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57(Pt 9):1113-1121.

Warnke PH, Becker ST, Podschun R, et al. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37(7):392-397.

Watt LS, Adams JN, Payne WJ. Cytological and physiological effects of sodium caprylate on Candida albicans. Antibiotics & chemotherapy (Northfield, Ill.). Mar 1962;12:173-181.

Wei GX, Xu X, Wu CD. In vitro synergism between berberine and miconazole against planktonic and biofilm Candida cultures. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56(6):565-72.

Weig M, Werner E, Frosch M, Kasper H. Limited effect of refined carbohydrate dietary supplementation on colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy subjects by Candida albicans.Am J ClinNutr. 1999;69(6):1170-1173.

Werth V.,(2011) Chapter 445: Principles of Therapy of Skin Diseases (pg. 2512). In: Goldman, L. (Ed.), Goldman's Cecil Medicine (24th ed). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.

Willcox M. An evaluation of tea tree oil as an alternative microbicide.Nurs Times. 2005;101(11):32-33.

Williams A. Yogurt: still a favorite for vaginal candidiasis?: J Natl Med Assoc. 2002 Apr;94(4):A10.

Workowski KA, Berman S. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-12):1-110.

Xu Y, Wang Y, Yan L, et al. Proteomic analysis reveals a synergistic mechanism of fluconazole and berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: endogenous ROS augmentation. J Proteome Res. 2009;8(11):5296-304.

Yamaguchi H, Abe S, Takakura N. Potential usefulness of bovine lactoferrrin for adjunctive immunotherapy for mucosal Candida infections. Biometals. 2004;17(3):245-248.

Yamamoto T. Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control. RinshoByori. 2010;58(10):1027-1034.

Yano J, Fidel PL, Jr. Protocols for vaginal inoculation and sample collection in the experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis. J Vis Exp. 2011;8(58).

Yen CC, Shen CJ, Hsu WH, et al. Lactoferrin: an iron-binding antimicrobial protein against Escherichia coli infection.Biometals. 2011;24(4):585-594.

Yordanov M, Dimitrova P, Patkar S, Saso L, Ivanovska N. Inhibition of Candida albicans extracellular enzyme activity by selected natural substances and their application in Candida infection. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54(6):435-40.

Zlatkina AR. [Intestinal candidiasis: modern therapeutic tactics]. EkspKlinGastroenterol. 2005;6:15-18.

Zuber TJ and Baddam K. Superficial fungal infection of the skin. Where and how it appears help determine therapy. Postgrad Med. 2001 Jan;109(1):117-20, 123-6, 131-2.