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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)


Abdel-Rahman ME. Effect of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pop L.) diets on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): chemical and morphometric evaluation in rats. World Journal of Chemistry. 2006;1(1):33-40.

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Alt. Med. Rev. Urtica dioica; Urtica urens (Nettle). Monograph. Alternative medicine review. Sep 2007;12(3):280-4.

Altavilla D, Bitto A, Polito F, et al. the combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene is more effective than serenoa repens alone to prevent hormone dependent prostatic growth. The Journal of Urology. 2011;186:1524-1529.

Altavilla D, Minutoli L, Polito F, Irrera N, Arena S, Magno C, . . . Bitto A. Effects of flavocoxid, a dual inhibitor of COX and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes, on benign prostatic hyperplasia. British journal of pharmacology. Sep 2012;167(1):95-108.

Arnouk R, Suzuki Bellucci CH, Stull RB, de Bessa Junior J, Malave CA, Gomes CM. Botulinum neurotoxin type a for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: randomized study comparing two doses. TheScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:463574.

Avins AL, Bent S, Staccone S, et al. A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2008;16:147-154.

Azzouni F and Mohler J. Role of 5α-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic diseases. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 2012;15:222-230.

Barnard RJ, Aronson WJ. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: does lifestyle play a role? The Physician and sportsmedicine. Dec 2009;37(4):141-146.

Berges RR, Kassen A, Senge T. Treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia with beta-sitosterol: an 18-month follow-up. BJU international. May 2000;85(7):842-846.

Berges RR, Windeler J, Trampisch HJ, Senge T. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group. Lancet. Jun 17 1995;345(8964):1529-1532.

Borawski KM and Culley CC. Detrusor-directed therapy in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cur Bladder Dysfunc Rep. 2011;6:218-223.

Brossner C, Petritsch K, Fink K, et al. Phytoestrogen tissue levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and their association with prostatic diseases. Urology. 2004;64:707-711.

Burnett-Bowie SA, Roupenian KC, Dere ME, Lee H, Leder BZ. Effects of aromatase inhibition in hypogonadal older men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical endocrinology. Jun 25 2008.

Choi YH, Cho SY, Cho IR. The different reduction rate of prostate-specific antigen in dutasteride and finasteride. Korean journal of urology. Oct 2010;51(10):704-708.

Choudhary SP, Tran LS. Phytosterols: perspectives in human nutrition and clinical therapy. Current medicinal chemistry. 2011;18(29):4557-4567.

Coleman CI, Hebert JH, Reddy P. The effect of phytosterols on quality of life in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Pharmacotherapy. Nov 2002;22(11):1426-1432.

Dedhia RC and McVary KT. Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology., 2008;179:2119-2125.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate specific antigen. Urology. 2004;63(5):900-904.

Devrim E and Dursk I. Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2007;51:1319-1323.

Eichholzer M, Steinbrecher A, Kaaks R, et al. Effects of selenium status, dietary glucosinolate intake and serum glutathione s-transferase a activity on the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU International. 2012;Epub.

Elterman DS, Barkin J, Kaplan SA. Optimizing the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therapeutic Advances in Urology. 2012;4(2):77-83.

Espinosa G, Esposito R, Kazzazi A, and Djavan B. Vitamin D and benign prostatic hyperplasia -- a review. Can J Urol. 2013; 20(4): 6820-6825.

Evans BA, Griffiths K, Morton MS. Inhibition of 5a-redutase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids. Journal of Endocrinology. 1995;147:295-302.

Fenter TC, Davis EA, Shah MB, Lin PJ. Dutasteride vs finasteride: assessment of differences in acute urinary retention rates and surgical risk outcomes in an elderly population aged > or =65 years. The American journal of managed care. May 2008;14(5 Suppl 2):S154-159.

Festuccia C, Gravina GL, Muzi P, Pomante R, Angelucci A, Vicentini C, Bologna M. Effects of dutasteride on prostate carcinoma primary cultures: a comparative study with finasteride and MK386. The Journal of urology. Jul 2008;180(1):367-372.

Gacci M, Corona G, Salvi M, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors alone or in combination with a-blockers for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. European Urology. 2012;61:994-1003.

Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Research. 1999;59:1225-1230.

Genser B, Silbernagel G, De Backer G, Bruckert E, Carmena R, Chapman MJ, . . . Marz W. Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European heart journal. Feb 2012;33(4):444-451.

Gordan AE, Shaughnessy AF. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(6):1281-3.

Gossell-Williams M, Davis A, O’Connor N. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawly rats by pumpkin seed oil. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2006;9(2):284-286.

Gravenstein D. Transurethral resection of the prostate (turp) syndrome: a review of the pathophysiology and management. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1997;84:438-446.

Habib FK. Serenoa repens: the scientific basis for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. European Urology Supplements. 2009;8:887-893.

Hamidi Madani A, Enshaei A, Heidarzadeh A, Mokhtari G, Farzan A, Mohiti Asli M, Esmaeili S. Transurethral intraprostatic Botulinum toxin-A injection: a novel treatment for BPH refractory to current medical therapy in poor surgical candidates. World journal of urology. Mar 13 2012.

Harvard Health Publications. Special Health Reports. 2012 Annual Report of Prostate Diseases. Available at:,PA0212?Page=Section9. Accessed October 29, 2012.

Ho CK, Nanda J, Chapman KE, Habib FK. Oestrogen and benign prostatic hyperplasia: effects on stromal cell proliferation and local formation from androgen. The Journal of endocrinology. Jun 2008;197(3):483-491.

Hong H, Kim CS, Maeng S. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2009;3(4):323-327.

Hong SJ, Kim SI, Kwon SM, et al. Comparative study of concentration of isoflavones and lignans in plasma and prostatic tissues of normal control and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Yonaci Medical Journal. 2002;43(2):236-241.

Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Khatami A, Lodding P, . . . Lilja H. Mortality results from the Goteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. The lancet oncology. Aug 2010;11(8):725-732.

James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):343-348.

Jared RA, Keikha M, Dowling C, et al. Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate carcinoma by red clover-derived dietary isoflavones. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2002;11(12):1689-1696.

Jasuja GK, Travison TG, Davda M, Murabito JM, Basaria S, Zhang A, . . . Bhasin S. Age Trends in Estradiol and Estrone Levels Measured Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Community-Dwelling Men of the Framingham Heart Study. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Oct 25 2012.

Jones PJ, AbuMweis SS. Phytosterols as functional food ingredients: linkages to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Mar 2009;12(2):147-151.

Kjellman A, Akre O, Norming U, Tornblom M, Gustafsson O. 15-year followup of a population based prostate cancer screening study. The Journal of urology. Apr 2009;181(4):1615-1621; discussion 1621.

Klippel KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp B. A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. German BPH-Phyto Study group. British journal of urology. Sep 1997;80(3):427-432.

Kobayashi Y, Sugaya Y, Tokue A. [Clinical effects of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) on benign prostatic hyperplasia: preliminary study]. Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica. Dec 1998;44(12):865-868.

Kozak I, Bartsch W, Krieg M, Voigt KD. Nuclei of stroma: site of highest estrogen concentration in human benign  prostatic hyperplasia. The Prostate. 1982;3(5):433-438.

Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Sakr W, et al. Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 2001;10:861-868.

Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, et al. The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2004;59:141-147.

Lakhey M, Ghimire R, Shrestha R, Bhatta AD. Correlation of serum free prostate-specific antigen level with histological findings in patients with prostatic disease. Kathmandu University Medical Journal. 2010;8(2):158-163.

Laydner HK, Oliveira P, Oliveira CRA, et al. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. British Journal of urology International. 2010;107:1104-1109.

Lepor, H. Pathophysiology, epidemiology and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Reviews in Urology. 2004;6(9):S3-S10.

Lowe FC and Fagelman E. Phytotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update. Urology. 1999;53:671-678.

Lu M, Xia L, Hua H, Jing Y. Acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid induces apoptosis through a death receptor 5-mediated pathway in prostate cancer cells. Cancer research. Feb 15 2008;68(4):1180-1186.

Makridakis N, Reichardt JK. Pharmacogenetic analysis of human steroid 5 alpha reductase type II: comparison of finasteride and dutasteride. Journal of molecular endocrinology. Jun 2005;34(3):617-623.

Mangera A, Chapple CR. Use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders. Current status. Archivos espanoles de urologia. Dec 2010;63(10):829-841.

Matsuda T, Abe H, Suda K. [Relation between benign prostatic hyperplasia and obesity and estrogen]. Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology. Apr 2004;52(4):291-294.

Mayo Clinic. Prostate gland enlargement. Definition. Available at: Last updated December 6, 2011. Accessed October 29, 2012.

McNicholas T and Mitchell S. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Surgery. 2008;26(5):218-222.

McVary KT, Roherborn CG, Avins AL, et al. Update on aua guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Journal of Urology. 2011;185:1193-1903.

Merck Manual. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Available at: Last updated October 2008. Accessed October 29, 2012.

Murakami M, Tsukada O, Okihara K, et al. Beneficial effect of honeybee-collected pollen lump extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Food Science and Technology Research. 2008;14(3):306-310.

Nahara A and Dixit VK. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:396-409.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Prostate enlargement: benign prostatic hyperplasia. Available at: Last update March 23, 2012. Accessed October 29, 2012.

Nickel JC, Gilling P, Tammela TL, Morrill B, Wilson TH, Rittmaster RS. Comparison of dutasteride and finasteride for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia: the Enlarged Prostate International Comparator Study (EPICS). BJU international. Aug 2011;108(3):388-394.

Nickel JC. Inflammation and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 2008b February; 35(1): 109–115

Nickel, JC, Sander S, Moon TD. A meta-analysis of the vascular-related safety profile and efficacy of α-adrenergic blockers for symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2008a;62(10):1547-1559.

Obermuller-Jevic UC, Olano-Martin E, Corbacho AM, et al. Lycopene inhibits the growth of normal human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. biochemical and molecular actions of nutrients. Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133:3356-3360.

Othman RA, Moghadasian MH. Beyond cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterols: clinical and experimental evidence of anti-inflammatory properties. Nutrition reviews. Jul 2011;69(7):371-382.

Pang X, Yi Z, Zhang X, Sung B, Qu W, Lian X, . . . Liu M. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis. Cancer research. Jul 15 2009;69(14):5893-5900.

Parsons JK and Kashefi C. Physical activity, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and lower urinary tract symptoms. Eur Urol. 2008; 53(6): 1228-1235.

Parsons JK. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. Current bladder dysfunction reports. 2010; 5(4): 212-218.

Parsons JK, Carter HB, Partin AW, Windham BG, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Landis P, and Platz EA. Metabolic factors associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2006; 91(7): 2562-2568.

Pham H and Ziboh VA. 5a-Reductase-catalyzed conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is increased in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells: suppression by 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids. Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2002;82:393-400.

Preuss HG, Marcusen C, Regan J, Klimberg IW, Welebir TA, Jones WA. Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). International urology and nephrology. 2001;33(2):217-225.

Prins GS, Korach KS. The role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in normal prostate growth and disease. Steroids. Mar 2008;73(3):233-244.

Quiles MT, Arbos MA, Fraga A, et al. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the herbal agent pygeum africanum on cultured prostate stromal cells from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The Prostate. 2010;70:1044-1053.

Reich O, Gratzke C, Bachmann A, et al. Morbidity, mortality and early outcome of transurethral resection of the prostate: a prospective multicenter evaluation of 10,654 patients. The Journal of Urology. 2008;180:146-249.

Rocha M, Banuls C, Bellod L, Jover A, Victor VM, Hernandez-Mijares A. A review on the role of phytosterols: new insights into cardiovascular risk. Current pharmaceutical design. Dec 1 2011;17(36):4061-4075.

Roehrborn CG. Sexual function and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Reviews in Urology. 1999: 157-157.

Roumeguere T, Boudjeltia KZ, Hauzeur C, et al. Is there a rationale for the chronic use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia? British Journal of Urology International. 2009;103:511-517.

Safarinejad MR. Urtica dioica for Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy. 2005;5(4):1-11.

Sandblom G, Varenhorst E, Rosell J, Lofman O, Carlsson P. Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up. Bmj. 2011;342:d1539.

Sarma AV and Wei JT. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;367(3):248-257.

Sarma AV and Wei JT. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. NEJM. 2012;367:248-57.

Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TL, Ciatto S, Nelen V, . . . Auvinen A. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. The New England journal of medicine. Mar 26 2009;360(13):1320-1328.

Schroeck FR, Hollingsworth JM, Kaufman SR, Hollenbeck BK, Wei JT. Introduction of laset technology and procedure use for benign prostatic hyperplasia: data from Florida. Urology. 2012;80:678-683.

Sciarra F, Toscano V. Role of estrogens in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. Archives of andrology. May-Jun 2000;44(3):213-220.

Shaikh SR. Biophysical and biochemical mechanisms by which dietary N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil disrupt membrane lipid rafts. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Feb 2012;23(2):101-105.

Shenouda NS, Sakla MS, Newton LG, Besch-Williford C, Greenberg NM, MacDonald RS, Lubahn DB. Phytosterol Pygeum africanum regulates prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Endocrine. Feb 2007;31(1):72-81.

Shi H, Cheng L, Zheng X, Tu L. [Study of effects and mechanism of phytosterols on chronic abacterial prostatitis]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica. Nov 2010;35(22):3033-3037.

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Sokeland J. Combined sabal and urtica extract compared with finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of prostate volume and therapeutic outcome. BJU International. 2000;86:439-442.

Sorenson WR, Sullivan D. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International. May-Jun 2007;90(3):670-678.

Suter A, Saller R, Riedi E, Heinrich M. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto  preparation? Results from a pilot trial. Phytotherapy Research. 2013; 27(2):218-26. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

Suzuki K, Okazaki H, Ono Y, Kurokawa K, Suzuki T, Onuma E, . . . Yamanaka H. Effect of dual inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase and aromatase on spontaneously developed canine prostatic hypertrophy. The Prostate. Oct 1 1998;37(2):70-76.

Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Cochrane Library, 2012;5.

Tavani A, Longoni E, Bosetti C, et al. Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgical treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy. European Urology. 2006;50:549-554.

Thomas JA. Diet, micronutritents and the prostate gland. Nutrition Reviews. 1999;57(4):95-103.

Thomas LN, Douglas RC, Lazier CB, Gupta R, Norman RW, Murphy PR, . . . Too CK. Levels of 5alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2 are increased in localized high grade compared to low grade prostate cancer. The Journal of urology. Jan 2008;179(1):147-151.

Traish AM, Hassani J, Guay AT, et al. Adverse side effects of 5α-reductase inhibitors therapy: persistent diminished libido and erectile dysfunction and depression in a subset of patients. Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2011;8:872-881

Tsai YS, Tong YC, Cheng JT, et al. Pumpkin seed oil and phytosterol-f can block testosterone/prazosin-induced prostate growth in rats. Urologia Internationalis. 2006;77:269-274.

Untergasser G, Madersbacher S, Berger P. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: age-related tissue-remodeling. Experimental Gerontology. 2005;40:121-128.

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Wilt T, Ishani A, MacDonald R, Stark G, Mulrow C, Lau J. Beta-sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2000(2):CD001043.

Wilt TJ and Ishani A. Pygeum africanum for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Cochrane Library. 2011;9.

Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, et al. Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998;280(18):1604-1614.

Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Ishani A. beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. BJU international. Jun 1999;83(9):976-983.

Wong CW, Wong EL, Li H, et al. Isoflavones in treating watchful waiting benign prostate hyperplasia: a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012;18(1):54-60.

Xu J, Qian WQ, Song JD. A comparative study on different doses of cernilton for preventing the clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Zhonghua Nan Ke Zue. 2008;14(6):533-537.

Yokoyama T, Yamamoto Y, Suzuki T, Oguma K, Nagai A. Intraprostatic botulinum neurotoxin type a injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia: preliminary results with a newly purified neurotoxin. Acta medica Okayama. 2012;66(4):291-297.

Yuan HQ, Kong F, Wang XL, Young CY, Hu XY, Lou HX. Inhibitory effect of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid on androgen receptor by interference of Sp1 binding activity in prostate cancer cells. Biochemical pharmacology. Jun 1 2008;75(11):2112-2121.

Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Effects of dietary flaxseed lignan extract on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2008;11(2):207-214.

Zhang W, Zheng X, Wang Y, and Xiao H. Vitamin D Deficiency as a Potential Marker of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urology. 2016; 97: 212-218.