Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Neuropathy (Diabetic)


Aaberg ML, Burch DM, Hud ZR, Zacharias MP. Gender differences in the onset of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes Complications, 2008;22(2):83-7.

Acar A, Akil E et al. Oxidative Damage is Ameliorated by Curcumin Treatment in Brain and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Neuroscience, 2012; 122(7): 367-372.

Adriaensen H, Plaghki L et al. Critical Review of Oral Drug Treatments for Diabetic Neuropathic Pain – Clinical Outcomes Based on Efficacy and Safety Data from Placebo-Controlled and Direct Comparative Studies. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 2005; 21: 231-240.

Ahmed N and Thornalley PJ. Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2007;9:233-245.

Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts--role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2005;67(1):3-21.

Alexeev M, Grosenbaugh DK, Mott DD, Fisher JL. The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Neuropharmacology. Jun 2012;62(8):2507-2514.

American Diabetes Association.  "Neuropathy (Nerve Damage)." Living With Diabetes. 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

American Diabetes Association. “Additional Types of Neuropathy.” Living With Diabetes. Accessed 6/20/2013.

Artukoglu BB, Beyer C, Zuloff-Shani A, Brener E, Bloch MH. Efficacy of Palmitoylethanolamide for Pain: A Meta-Analysis. Pain Physician. Jul 2017;20(5):353-362.

Attia HN, Rasheed AL et al. Protective effects of combined therapy of gliclazide with curcumin in experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 2012; 23(2): 153-161.

Bacci C, Cassetta G, Emanuele B, Berengo M. Randomized split-mouth study on postoperative effects of palmitoylethanolamide for impacted lower third molar surgery. ISRN Surgery. 2011;2011:917350.

Bach-Rojecky, Salkovic-Petrisic M et al. Botulinum Toxin Type A Reduces Pain Supersensitivity in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy: Bilateral Effect After Unilateral Injection. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2010; 6

Balakumar P, Rohilla A et al. The Multifaceted Therapeutic Potential of Benfotiamine. Pharmacological Research, 2010; 61: 482-488.

Balducci S, Iacobellis G et al. Exercise Training Can Modify the Natural History of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complication, 2006; 20: 216-223.

Bansal V, Kalita J et al. Diabetic Neuropathy. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2006; 82: 95-100.

Beckman JS. -OONO: rebounding from nitric oxide. Circulation Research, 2001;89(4):295-7.

Bell DSH. Reversal of the Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy through Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Type 1 Diabetic Patient. Case Reports in Endocrinology, 2012.

Bernaskova M, Schoeffmann A, Schuehly W, Hufner A, Baburin I, Hering S. Nitrogenated honokiol derivatives allosterically modulate GABAA receptors and act as strong partial agonists. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Oct 15 2015;23(20):6757-6762.

Bertolotto F and Massone A. Combination of Alpha Lipoic Acid and Superoxide Dismutase Leads to Physiological and Symptomatic Improvements in Diabetic Neuropathy. Drugs Research and Development, 2012; 12(1): 29-34.

Bestard JA and Toth CC. An Open-label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy. Pain Practice, 2011; 11(4): 353-368.

Bharat S, Cochran BC, Hsu M, Liu J, Ames BN, Andersen JK. Pre-treatment with R-lipoic acid alleviates the effects of GSH depletion in PC12 cells: implications for Parkinson's disease therapy. Neurotoxicology. Oct 2002;23(4-5):479-486.

Bierhaus A, Chevion S, Chevion M, Hofmann M, Quehenberger P, Illmer T, . . . Nawroth PP. Advanced glycation end product-induced activation of NF-kappaB is suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid in cultured endothelial cells. Diabetes. Sep 1997;46(9):1481-1490.

Booya F, Bandarian F et al. Potential Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy: A Case Control Study. BMC Neurology, 2005; 5: 24-28.

Boulton AJM. Diabetic Neuropathy: Is Pan God’s Greatest Gift to Mankind? Seminars in Vascular Surgery, 2012; 25: 61-65.

Bril V. Treatments for diabetic neuropathy. Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. May 2012;17 Suppl 2:22-27.

Brownlee M. Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology of Diabetic Complications. Nature, 2001; 414: 813-820.

Callaghan BC, Cheng HT et al. Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Manifestations and Current Treatments. Lancet Neurology, 2012a; 11: 521-534

Callaghan BC, Little AA et al. Enhanced Glucose Control for Preventing and Treating Diabetic Neuropathy. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012b.

Cameron NE, Cotter MA et al. The effects of evening primrose oil on nerve function and capillarization in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: modulation by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flurbiprofen. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1993; 109 972-979.

Cao H, Chen G et al. Neuroprotective of Curcumin and Vit.B Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats. American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, 2010.

Carlson DA, Smith AR, Fischer SJ, Young KL, Packer L. The plasma pharmacokinetics of R-(+)-lipoic acid administered as sodium R-(+)-lipoate to healthy human subjects. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Dec 2007;12(4):343-351.

Cefalu WT and Hu FB. Role of Chromium in Human Health and in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27(11): 2741-2751.

Chirchiglia D, Chirchiglia P, Signorelli F. Nonsurgical lumbar radiculopathies treated with ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (umPEA): A series of 100 cases. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska. Nov 14 2017.

Cocito D, Peci E, Ciaramitaro P, Merola A, Lopiano L. Short-term efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide in peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain Research and Treatment. 2014;2014:854560.

Coste TC, Gerbi A et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid–Enriched Phospholipids in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes, 2003; 52: 2578-2585.

Coutaux A. Non-pharmacological treatments for pain relief: TENS and acupuncture. Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme. Dec 2017;84(6):657-661.

Cremon C, Stanghellini V, Barbaro MR, Cogliandro RF, Bellacosa L, Santos J, . . . Barbara G. Randomised clinical trial: the analgesic properties of dietary supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin in irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Apr 2017;45(7):909-922.

Cui XP, Li BY, Gao HQ, Wei N, Wang WL, Lu M. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), 2008;54(4):321-8.

Davis TME, Yeap BB et al. Lipid-Lowering Therapy and Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia, 2007.

De Caterina R and Madonna R. n-3 Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 2007l 30(4): 1012-1026.

De Grandis D and Minardi C. Acetyl-L-Carnitine (Levacecarnine) in the Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy. Drugs Research and Development, 2002; 3(4): 223-231.

De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, et al. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnesium Research. 2004;17(2):109-114.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of Intensive Lifestyle and Metformin Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28(4): 888-894.

Di Cesare Mannelli L, D'Agostino G, Pacini A, Russo R, Zanardelli M, Ghelardini C, Calignano A. Palmitoylethanolamide is a disease-modifying agent in peripheral neuropathy: pain relief and neuroprotection share a PPAR-alpha-mediated mechanism. Mediators of Inflammation. 2013;2013:328797.

Dominguez CM, Martin AD, Ferrer FG, Puertas MI, Muro AL, Gonzalez JM, . . . Taberna IR. N-palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with lumbosciatica. Pain Management. Mar 2012;2(2):119-124.

Dominguez JC, Ng AR, Damian LF. A prospective, open label, 24-week trial of methylcobalamin  in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2012; 2(4): 408-412.

Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. Jan 12 2010;74(2):173-176.

Dyck PJ, Davies JL et al. Risk Factors for Severity of Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care, 1999; 22: 1479-1486.

Edwards JL, Vincent AM et al. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2008: 1-34.

England JF, Gronseth GS et al. Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy: A Definition for Clinical Research. Neurology, 2005; 64: 199-210

Evans JD, Jacobs TF et al. Role of Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2008; 42: 1686-1691.

Evcimen ND and King GL. The Role of Protein Kinase C Activation and the Vascular Complications of Diabetes. Pharmacological Research, 2007; 55: 498-510.

Fahmy E, Amer H et al. Estimation of Serum Homocysteine Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Neuropathy. Egyptian Journal of Neurology Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, 2010; 47(1): 59-66.

Farvid MS, Homayouni F et al. Improving neuropathy scores in type 2 diabetic patients using micronutrients supplementation. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2011; 93: 86-94.

Feldman EL, Stevens MJ et al. A Practical Two-Step Quantitative Clinical and Electrophysiological Assessment for the Diagnosis and Staging of Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 1994; 17(11): 1281-1289.

Feldman, Eva L. "Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy."UpToDate. UpToDate, Nov. 2012c. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Epidemiology and Classification of Diabetic Neuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Feb. 2012a. Web. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diabetic Polyneuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Nov. 2012b. Web. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Jan. 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Fiçicioğlu C, Aydin A, Haktan M, Kiziltan M. Peripheral neuropathy in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 1994;36(2):97-104.

Fonseca VA, Lavery LA et al. Metanx in Type 2 Diabetes with Peripheral Neuropathy:  A Randomized Trial. The American Journal of Medicine (2013) 126, 141-149.

Forrest KY-Z, Maser RE et al. Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes, 1997; 46: 665-660.

Forst T, Nguyen M, Forst S, Disselhoff B, Pohlmann T, Pfutzner A. Impact of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on symptomatic diabetic neuropathy using the new Salutaris device. Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism. Jun 2004;17(3):163-168.

Francisco GE, Tan H et al. Do Botulinum Toxins Have a Role in the Management of Neuropathy? American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2012; 91(10): 899-909.

Fujita H, Fujishima H, Chida S, Takahashi K, Qi Z, Kanetsuna Y, Breyer MD, Harris RC, Yamada Y, Takahashi T. Reduction of renal superoxide dismutase in progressive diabetic nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2009;20(6):1303-13.

Gabrielsson L, Mattsson S, Fowler CJ. Palmitoylethanolamide for the treatment of pain: pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Oct 2016;82(4):932-942.

Gannon MC and Nuttal FQ. Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, 2004; 53: 2375-2383.

Gatti A, Lazzari M, Gianfelice V, Di Paolo A, Sabato E, Sabato AF. Palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of chronic pain caused by different etiopathogenesis. Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.). Sep 2012;13(9):1121-1130.

Genuth S. Insights from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study on the Use of Intensive Glycemic Treatment to Reduce the Risk of Complications of Diabetes. Endocrinology Practice, 2006; 12 (S1): 34-41.

Gerbi A, Maixent J-M et al. Fish Oil Supplementation Prevents Diabetes-Induced Nerve Conduction Velocity and Neuroanatomical Changes in Rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 1999; 129: 207-213.

Gertsch J, Anavi-Goffer S. Methylhonokiol attenuates neuroinflammation: a role for cannabinoid receptors? Journal of Neuroinflammation. Jun 20 2012;9:135.

Giudice PL, Careddu A et al. Autonomic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats: Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2002; 56: 173-180.

Global Stem Cell Network (GSCN). Accessed 6/20/2013,

Golbidi S, Badran M et al. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2011; 2.

Gonzalez-Clemente JM, Mauriciio D et al. Diabetic Neuropathy is Associated with Activation of the TNF-a System in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Endocrinology, 2005; 63: 525-529.

Gruden G, Bruno G et al. Serum Heat Shock Protein 24 and Diabetes Complications in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Diabetes, 2006; 57: 1966-1970.

Gul Kazi T, Afridi H et al. Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Biol Trace Elem Res (2008) 122:1–18

Gupta R, Garg VK et al. Oral zinc Therapy in Diabetic Neuropathy. Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 1998; 46(11): 939-942.

Halushka MK, Selvin E, Lu J, Macgregor AM, Cornish TC. Use of human vascular tissue microarrays for measurement of advanced glycation endproducts. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 2009;57(6):559-66.

Han T, Bai K et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. European Journal of Endocrinology, 2012; 167: 465-471.

Haupt E, Ledermann H, and Köpcke W. Benfotamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy—a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;43(2):71-77.

Hayee MA, Mohammad QD et al. Diabetic Neuropathy and Zinc Therapy. Bangladesh Medical Reseanch Council Bull, 2005; 31(2): 62-67.

Head KA. Peripheral Neuropathy: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Alternative Therapies. Alternative Medicine Review, 2006; 11(4): 294-329.

Hesselink JM, Hekker TA. Therapeutic utility of palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with various pathological conditions: a case series. Journal of Pain Research. 2012;5:437-442.

Hosseini A, Abdollahi M. Diabetic neuropathy and oxidative stress: therapeutic perspectives. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013;2013:168039.

Hosseini A, Sharifzadeh M et al. Benefit of magnesium-25 carrying porphyrinfullerenenanoparticles in experimental diabetic neuropathy. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010:5 517–523.

Hsieh ST. Pathology and functional diagnosis of small-fiber painful neuropathy. Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, 2010;19(2):82-9.

Indraccolo U, Indraccolo SR, Mignini F. Micronized palmitoylethanolamide/trans-polydatin treatment of endometriosis-related pain: a meta-analysis. Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Apr-Jun 2017;53(2):125-134.

Jabbari B and Machado D. Treatment of Refractory Pain with Botulinum Toxins---An Evidence-Based Review. Pain Medicine, 2011; 12: 1594-1606

Jacobs AM, Cheng D et al. Management of Diabetic Small-Fiber neuropathy with Combination L-Methylfolate, Methylcobalamin, and Pyridocal 5’-Phosphate. Reviews of Neurological Diseases, 2011; 8(1/2): 1-9.

Jamal GA and Carmichael H. The Effect of γ-Linolenic Acid on Human Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. Diabetic Medicine, 1990; 7(4): 319-323.

Jayawardena R, Ranasinghe P et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012, 4:13

Jian-bo L, Cheng-ya W et al. The Preventive Efficacy of Methylcobalamin on Rat Peripheral Neuropathy Influenced by Diabetes Via Neural IGF-1 Levels. Nutritional Neuroscience, 2010; 13(2): 79-86.

Jin DM, Xu Y, Geng DF, Yan TB. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Jul 2010;89(1):10-15.

Joshi RP, Negi G et al. SNEDDS curcumin formulation leads to enhanced protection from pain and functional deficits associated with diabetic neuropathy: An insight into its mechanism for neuroprotection. Nanomedicine, 2013; pii: S1549-9634(13)00006-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Julka IS, Alvaro M, Kumar D. Beneficial effects of electrical stimulation on neuropathic symptoms in diabetes patients. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. May-Jun 1998;37(3):191-194.

Kamboj SS, Vasishta RK et al. N-Acetylcysteine Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Markers in Diabetic Neuropathy. Journal of Neurochemistry, 2010; 112: 77-91.

Kassem HS, Azar ST et al. Hypertriglyceridemia and Peripheral Neuropathy in Neurologically Asymptomatic Patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2005; 26(6): 775-779.

Kasznicki J, Kosmalski M, Sliwinska A, Mrowicka M, Stanczyk M, Majsterek I, Drzewoski J. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Molecular biology Reports. Sep 2012;39(9):8669-8678.

Keen H, Payan J et al. Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy With 7-Linolenic Acid. Diabetes Care, 1993; 16(1): 8-15.

Keppel Hesselink JM, Kopsky DJ. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Pain Research. 2015;8:729-734.

Khasabova IA, Xiong Y, Coicou LG, Piomelli D, Seybold V. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates acute effects of palmitoylethanolamide on sensory neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep 12 2012;32(37):12735-12743.

Kim, Julie, and Young-Sup Yoon. Peripheral Neuropathy - Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches. N.p.: Intech, 2012. Print.

Korotchkina LG, Sidhu S, Patel MS. R-lipoic acid inhibits mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free radical research. Oct 2004;38(10):1083-1092.

Kulkarni SK and Dhir A. An Overview of Curcumin in Neurological Disorders. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Mar-Apr; 72(2): 149–154.

Kumar A, Kaundal RK, Iyer S, Sharma SS. Effects of resveratrol on nerve functions, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Life Sciences, 2007;80(13):1236-44.

Kumar A, Sharma SS. NF-kappaB inhibitory action of resveratrol: a probable mechanism of neuroprotection in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2010;394(2):360-5.

Kumar D, Alvaro MS, Julka IS, Marshall HJ. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Effectiveness of electrotherapy and amitriptyline for symptomatic relief. Diabetes Care. Aug 1998;21(8):1322-1325.

Kumar D, Marshall HJ. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: amelioration of pain with transcutaneous electrostimulation. Diabetes Care. Nov 1997;20(11):1702-1705.

Kunt T, Forst T, Wilhelm A, Tritschler H, Pfuetzner A, Harzer O, . . . Beyer J. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial adhesion of human monocytes after stimulation with advanced glycation end products. Clinical science. Jan 1999;96(1):75-82.

Lakshmanan AP, Watanabe K et al. Curcumin attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated AMPK activation and oxidative stress in cerebrum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Free Radical Research, July 2011; 45(7): 788–795.

Lee P and Chen R. Vitamin D as an Analgesic for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathic Pain. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2008;  168(7): 771-772.

Leeuw ID, Engelen W. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg‐depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnesium Research, 2004; 17(2): 109-14.

Leiter LA. The prevention of diabetic microvascular complications of diabetes: is there a role for lipid lowering? Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2005;68 Suppl 2:S3-14.

Li Y, Zhang Y et al. Curcumin Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathic Pain by Downregulating TNF-α in a Rat Model. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2013; 10(4): 377-381.

Lin YR, Chen HH, Ko CH, Chan MH. Effects of honokiol and magnolol on acute and inflammatory pain models in mice. Life Sciences. Sep 08 2007;81(13):1071-1078.

Lin YR, Chen HH, Lin YC, Ko CH, Chan MH. Antinociceptive actions of honokiol and magnolol on glutamatergic and inflammatory pain. Journal of Biomedical Science. Oct 16 2009;16:94.

Lockett MJ and Tomlinson DR. The effects of dietary treatment with essential fatty acids on sciatic nerve conduction and activity of the Na+/K+ pump in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1992; 105: 335-360.

Look AHEAD Research Group, Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010 ;170(17):1566-75.

Love A, Cotter MA et al. Effects of the sulphydryl donor N-acetyl-L-cysteine on nerve conduction, perfusion, maturation and regeneration following freeze damage in diabetic rats. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1996; 26: 698-706.

LoVerme J, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, Piomelli D. The search for the palmitoylethanolamide receptor. Life Sciences. Aug 19 2005;77(14):1685-1698.

Margolis DJ, Malay DS, Hoffstad OJ, Leonard CE, MaCurdy T, de Nava KL, Tan Y, Molina T, Siegel KL. Incidence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Lower Extremity Amputation Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 2006 to 2008: Data Points #2. 2011 Feb 17. Data Points Publication Series [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011-. Available From PMID: 22049565.

Marini I, Bartolucci ML, Bortolotti F, Gatto MR, Bonetti GA. Palmitoylethanolamide versus a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of temporomandibular joint inflammatory pain. Journal of Orofacial Pain. Spring 2012;26(2):99-104.

Martinello F, Fardin P et al. Supplemental therapy in isolated vitamin E deficiency improves the peripheral neuropathy and prevents the progression of ataxia. Journal of Neurological Sciences 156 (1998) 177–179

Martini C, Yassen A et al. Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Analgesic Effect of Capsaicin 8% Patch on Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Patients: Detection of Distinct Response Groups. Journal of Pain Research, 2012; 5: 51-59.

Mattace Raso G, Russo R, Calignano A, Meli R. Palmitoylethanolamide in CNS health and disease. Pharmacological Research. Aug 2014;86:32-41.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 21 June 2011. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Mayo Clinic. Diabetic Neuropathy. 2012. Available at Accessed May 10, 2013.

McIlduff CE and Rutkove SB. Critical Appraisal of the Use of Alpha Lipoic Acid (Thiooctic Acid) in the Treatment of Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 2011; 7: 377-385.

Medline Plus. Diabetic Neuropathy. 2012. Available at: Accessed on May 22, 2013.

Meijer J-WG, Smit AJ et al. Back to Basics in Diagnosing Diabetic Polyneuropathy with the Tuning Fork!. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28(9): 2201-2205.

Merck Manual. Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The Merck Manual online. diabetes_mellitus_and_disorders_of_carbohydrate_metabolism/diabetes_mellitus_dm.html#v988257. Last updated January 2013. Accessed 6/20/2013.

Mijnhout GS, Alkhalad A et al. Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A New Treatment for Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Diabetes. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 2010; 68(4): 158-162.

Mizukami H, Ogasawara S et al. Methylcobalamin Effects of Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Protein Kinase C in Rats. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2011; 41(4): 442-450.

Morales-Vidal S, Morgan C et al. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and the Management of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain. Postgraduate Medicine, 2012; 124(4).

Moree SS, Kavishankar GB, Rajesha J. Antidiabetic effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine, 2013;20(3-4):237-45.

Nakayama M, Izumi G, Nemoto Y, Shibata K, Hasegawa T, Numata M, . . . Hosoya T. Suppression of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine generation by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. May-Jun 1999;19(3):207-210.

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Home. "Diabetic Neuropathies."  Feb. 2009. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Nie C, Bao HP. [Analysis of the related risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi, 2012 Dec;26(6):467-9.

NIH. National Institutes of Health: Pub Chem: Polydatin. Available at - section=Top. Last update 11/26/2017. Accessed 11/28/2017. 2017.

Noor R, Mittal S, Iqbal J. Superoxide dismutase--applications and relevance to human diseases. Medical Science Monitor, 2002;8(9):RA210-5.

Okada K, Tanaka H et al. Methylcobalamin Increases Erk1/2 and Akt Activities through the Methylation Cycle and Promotes Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model. Experimental Neurology, 2010;222: 191-203.

Pacher P, Obrosova IG, Mabley JG, Szabó C. Role of nitrosative stress and peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Emerging new therapeutical strategies. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005;12(3):267-75.

Paladini A, Fusco M, Cenacchi T, Schievano C, Piroli A, Varrassi G. Palmitoylethanolamide, a Special Food for Medical Purposes, in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Pooled Data Meta-analysis. Pain Physician. Feb 2016;19(2):11-24.

Paladini A, Varrassi G, Bentivegna G, Carletti S, Piroli A, Coaccioli S. Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. Pain Research and Treatment. 2017;2017:1486010.

Papanas N and Maltezos E. Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Diabetic Neuropathy and Nathan’s Prophecy. Angiology, 2012; 63: 81-83.

Rizkalla SW, Tagirid L et al. Improved Plasma Glucose Control, Whole-Body Glucose Utilization, and Lipid Profile on a Low-Glycemic Index Diet in Type 2 Diavetic Men. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27(8): 1866-1872.

Romeo L, Intrieri M, D'Agata V, Mangano NG, Oriani G, Ontario ML, Scapagnini G. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces heme oxygenase in rat neurons and acts as an effective neuroprotective agent against oxidative stress. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2009;28 Suppl:492S-499S.

Rondon LJ, Privat AM et al. Magnesium attenuates chronic hypersensitivity and spinal cord NMDA receptor phosphorylation in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Journal of Physiology, 2010; 588(21): 4205-4215.

Sagara M, Satoh J. Inhibition of Development of Peripheral Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats with N-Acetylcysteine. Diabetologia, 1996; 39: 263-269.

Sakai A, Nakayama M, Numata M, Takesawa S, Nakamoto M. Sodium sulfite and N-acetylcysteine: new additives to dialysate for inhibiting formation of glucose degradation products and advanced glycation end-products. Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis. 2001;17:66-70.

Sanchez-Ramirez GM, Caram-Salas NL et al. Benfotiamine Relieves Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2006; 530: 48-53.

Selhub J, Bagley LC, Miller J, Rosenberg IH. B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Feb 2000;71(2):614s-620s.

Sharma M, Katyal T et al. Effect of antioxidants such as β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative stress, thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology, 2009.

Sharma S, Chopra K et al. Effect of Insulin and its Combination withResveratrol or Curcumin in Attenuation of Diabetic Neuropathic Pain: Participation of Nitric Oxide and TNF-alpha. Phytotherapy Research, 2007; 21: 278-283.

Sharma S, Julkarni SK et al. Curcumin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2006; 536: 256-261.

Shehab D, Al-Jarallah K, Mojiminiyi OA, Al Mohamedy H, Abdella NA. Does Vitamin D deficiency play a role in peripheral neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes? Diabetic Medicine, 2012;29(1):43-9.

Sibal L, Law HN et al. Cardiovascular risk Factors Predicting the Development of Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy in People with Type 1 Diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2006’ 304-318.

Sima AAF, Alvani M et al. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients with Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28(1): 89-94.

Sinclair AJ, Taylor PB et al. Low Plasma Ascorbate Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Consuming Adequate Dietary Vitamin C. Diabetic Medicine, 1994; 11(9): 893-898.

Sino Stem Cells. "Stem Cell Treatment For Diabetes." Stem Cell Transplantation Department, 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Skaper SD, Facci L. Mast cell-glia axis in neuroinflammation and therapeutic potential of the anandamide congener palmitoylethanolamide. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. Dec 5 2012;367(1607):3312-3325.

Skyler JS. The Importance of Glucose Control. Chronic Complications of Diabetes, 1996; 25(2): 243-254

Smith AG, Russell J et al. Lifestyle Intervention for Pre-Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 2006; 20(6): 1294-1299.

Soderstrom LH, Johnson SP, Diaz VA, Mainous AG 3rd. Association between vitamin D and diabetic neuropathy in a nationally representative sample: results from 2001-2004 NHANES. Diabetic Medicine, 2012;29(1):50-5.

Stein C, Eibel B, Sbruzzi G, Lago PD, Plentz RD. Electrical stimulation and electromagnetic field use in patients with diabetic neuropathy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Braz J Phys Ther. Mar-Apr 2013;17(2):93-104.

Stracke H, Gaus W et al. Benfotiamine in Diabetic Polyneuropathy (BENDIP): Results of a Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology of Diabetes, 2008.

Sugimoto K, Yasujima M, Yagihashi S. Role of advanced glycation end products in diabetic neuropathy. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2008;14(10):953-61.

Sugiyama S, Miyata T, Horie K, Iida Y, Tsuyuki M, Tanaka H, Maeda K. Advanced glycation end-products in diabetic nephropathy. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1996;11 Suppl 5:91-4.

Talaei A, Siavash M, Majidi H, Chehrei A. Vitamin B12 may be more effective than nortriptyline in improving painful diabetic neuropathy. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2009;60 Suppl 5:71-6.

Tamamogullari N, Silig Y, Icagasioglu S, Atalay A. Carnitine deficiency in diabetes mellitus complications. Journal of diabetes and its complications. Sep-Dec 1999;13(5-6):251-253.

Tanabe M, Takasu K, Takeuchi Y, Ono H. Pain relief by gabapentin and pregabalin via supraspinal mechanisms after peripheral nerve injury. Journal of neuroscience research. Nov 15 2008;86(15):3258-3264.

Tesfaye S, Boulton AJM et al. Diabetic Neuropathies: Update on Definitions, Diagnostic Criteria, Estimation of Severity and Treatments. Diabetes Care, 2010; 33(1): 2285-2293

Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N et al. Vascular Risk Factors and Diabetic Neuropathy. New England Journal of Medicine, 2005; 352: 341-350.

Thirunavukkarasu V, Anitha Nandhini AT, Anuradha CV. Lipoic acid improves glucose utilisation and prevents protein glycation and AGE formation. Die Pharmazie. Oct 2005;60(10):772-775.

Thorne Research. Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA). Alternative Medicine Review, 2004; 9(1): 70-78.

Toledo FGS, Menshikova EV et al. Eddects of Physical Activity and Weight Loss on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Relationship with Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, 2007; 56: 2142-2147.

Topiwala, Shezad. "Diabetic Neuropathy." PubMed Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Toth C, Mwani S et al. An Enriched-Enrolment, Randomized Withdrawal, Flexible-Dose, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Assignment Efficacy Study of Nabilone as Adjuvant in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain. Pain, 2012; 153: 2073-2082.

Tutuncu NB, Bayraktat M et al. Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a preliminary study. Diabetes Care. 1998 Nov;21(11):1915-8.

Ulvi H, Aygul R et al. Effect of L_Carnitine on Diabetic Neuropathy and Ventricular Dispersion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Turkish Journal of Medical Science, 2010; 40(2): 169-175.

Unger J, Cole BE. Recognition and management of diabetic neuropathy. Primary care. Dec 2007;34(4):887-913, viii.

University of Calgary. Drug offers new pain management therapy for diabetics. Science Daily. 2012, October 30Retrieved January 21, 2013, from­ /releases/2012/10/121030161406.htm

Vallianou N, Evangelopoulos A et al. Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Diabetic Neuropathy. The Review of Diabetic Studies, 2009; 6(4): 230-236.

Vance CG, Dailey DL, Rakel BA, Sluka KA. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence. Pain Management. May 2014;4(3):197-209.

Varkonyi T and Kempler P. Diabetic Neuropathy: New Strategies for Treatment. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 2008; 10: 99-108.

Vincent AM, Callaghan BC, Smith AD, et al. Diabetic neuropathy: cellular mechanisms as therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7(10): 573-583.

Vincent AM, McLean LL et al. Short-Term Hyperglycemia Produces Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis in Neurons. The FASEB Journal, 2005; 19: 638-640.

Vincent AM, Russell JW et al. Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy. Endocrine Reviews, 2004; 25: 612-628.

Vinik A, Ullal J, Parson HK, Casellini CM. Diabetic neuropathies: clinical manifestations and current treatment options. Nat Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2006;2(5):269-81.

Wade RL and Cal Q. Impact of L-Methylfolate Combination therapy Among Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients. American Journal of Pharmacological Benefits, 2012l 4(5): 218-225.

Walker MJ, Morris LM et al. Improvement of Cutaneous Sensitivity in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy with Combination L-Methylfolate, Methylcobalamin, and Pyridoxal 5’Phosphate. Reviews in Neurological Diseases, 2010; 7(4): 132-139.

Wang SY, Calderon J, Kuo Wang G. Block of neuronal Na+ channels by antidepressant duloxetine in a state-dependent manner. Anesthesiology. Sep 2010;113(3):655-665.

Waterman RS, Morgenweck J et al. Anti-Inflammatory Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC2) Attenuate Symptoms of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 2012; 1: 557-565.

WebMD. Diabetic Neuropathy. 2011. Available at: Last accessed May 10, 2013.

Webster LR, Peppein JF et al. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of NGX-4010, Capsaicin 8% Patch, in an Open-Label Study of Patients with Peripheral Neruopathic Pain. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2011; 93: 187-197.

Wiggin TD, Sullivan KA et al. Elevated Triglycerides Correlate with Progression of Diabetic Neuropathy. Diaebtes, 2009; 58: 1634-1640.

Wing RR, Koeske R et al. Long-Term Effects of Modest Weight Loss in Type II Diabetic Patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1987; 147: 1749-1753.

Winkler G, Pál B, Nagybéganyi E, et al. Effectiveness of different benfotamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Arzeimittelforschung. 1999;49(3):220-224.

Woodbury A, Yu SP, Chen D, Gu X, Lee JH, Zhang J, ... Wei L. Honokiol for the Treatment of Neonatal Pain and Prevention of Consequent Neurobehavioral Disorders. Journal of Natural Products. Nov 25 2015;78(11):2531-2536.

Woodbury A, Yu SP, Wei L, Garcia P. Neuro-modulating effects of honokiol: a review. Frontiers in Neurology. 2013;4:130.

Yagihashi S, Yamagishi S et al. Pathology and Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Diabetic Neuropathy: Correlation with Clinical Signs and Symptoms. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2007; 77s: S184-S189.

Yu X, Zhang L, Yang X, Huang H, Huang Z, Shi L, Zhang H, Du G. Salvianolic acid A protects the peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis. Molecules, 2012 Sep 20;17(9):11216-28.

Yuan RY, Sheu KK et al. Botulinum Toxin for Diabetic Neuropathic Pain. Neurology, 2009; 72(17): 1473-1478.

Ziegler D, Low PA et al. Efficacy and Safety of Antioxidant Treatment with Alpha-Lipoic Acid Over 4 Years in Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care, 2011; 34: 2054-2060.

Ziegler D, Sohr CGH et al. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Relation to the Severity of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27: 2178-2183.

Ziegler D. Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 2009; 32(2): 5414-5419.