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November 2001

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Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT.

OBJECTIVE: In light of the rapidly increasing frequency of pediatric CT examinations, the purpose of our study was to assess the lifetime cancer mortality risks attributable to radiation from pediatric CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Organ doses as a function of age-at-diagnosis were estimated for common CT examinations, and estimated attributable lifetime cancer mortality risks (per unit dose) for different organ sites were applied. Standard models that assume a linear extrapolation of risks from intermediate to low doses were applied. On the basis of current standard practice, the same exposures (milliampere-seconds) were assumed, independent of age. RESULTS: The larger doses and increased lifetime radiation risks in children produce a sharp increase, relative to adults, in estimated risk from CT. Estimated lifetime cancer mortality risks attributable to the radiation exposure from a CT in a 1-year-old are 0.18% (abdominal) and 0.07% (head)-an order of magnitude higher than for adults-although those figures still represent a small increase in cancer mortality over the natrual background rate. In the United States, of approximately 600,000 abdominal and head CT examinations annually performed in children under the age of 15 years, a rough estimate is that 500 of these individuals might ultimately die from cancer attributable to the CT radiation. CONCLUSION: The best available risk estimates suggest that pediatric CT will result in significantly increased lifetime radiation risk over adult CT, both because of the increased dose per milliampere-second, and the increased lifetime risk per unit dose. Lower milliampere-second settings can be used for children without significant loss of information. Although the risk-benefit balance is still strongly tilted toward benefit, because the frequency of pediatric CT examinations is rapidly increasing, estimates that quantitative lifetime radiation risks for children undergoing CT are not negligible may stimulate more active reduction of CT exposure settings in pediatric patients.

Am J Roentgenol 2001 Feb;176(2):289-296

Radiation exposure and image quality in chest CT examinations.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in radiographic tube current affect patient dose and image quality in unenhanced chest CT examinations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten sets of CT images were obtained from patients undergoing CT-guided chest biopsies. For each patient, six images of the same region were obtained at settings between 40 and 280 mAs. CT data were used to reconstruct tomographic sections with a field of view limited to the normal contralateral lung. Images were printed using lung and mediastinal image display settings. Image quality was determined by asking radiologists to assess the perceived level of mottle in CT images. Five chest radiologists ranked the relative image quality of six images. Patient effective doses were computed for chest CT examinations performed at each milliampere-second setting. Radiologists indicated whether any perceived improvement of image quality at the higher radiation exposures was worth the additional radiation dose. RESULTS: The differences in quality of chest CT images generated at greater than or equal to 160 mAs were negligible. Reducing the radiographic technique factor below 160 mAs resulted in a perceptible reduction in image quality. Differences in CT image quality for radiographic techniques between 120 and 280 mAs were deemed to be insufficient to justify any additional patient exposure. However, the use of 40 mAs results in an inferior image quality that would justify increased patient exposure. CONCLUSION: Radiographic techniques for unenhanced chest CT examinations can be reduced from 280 to 120 mAs without compromising image quality.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001 Aug;177(2):279-284

Paranasal sinuses: low-dose CT.

While computed tomography (CT) has become an important imaging modality in the evaluation of the paranasal sinuses, the radiation dose remains higher than is necessary. With use of a head phantom and constant kilovolt peak setting, axial and coronal CT scans of the paranasal sinuses were obtained at each of six successively lower milliampere second settings than are commonly used in clinical practice. Although noise, as measured by the standard deviation of the CT numbers, did increase, images were of diagnostic quality even when dose levels were reduced by a factor of 28. In the same incremental manner, the milliampere second settings used in scanning 90 patients were reduced, with no loss of diagnostic quality. The authors discuss the methods of analysis and the advantages of use of lower milliampere second settings at CT scanning of the sinuses.

Radiology 1991 Dec;181(3):689-691

Ankle/arm pressure index in asymptomatic middle-aged males: an independent predictor of ten-year coronary heart disease mortality.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the predictive power of a reduced ankle/brachial pressure index (ABPI) (< or = .90) in an asymptomatic middle-aged male working population free of coronary heart disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2023 subjects forty to fifty-five years old were screened at their work place. Standard techniques were used. Blood was drawn in the fasting state. Ankle and brachial blood pressures were measured by Doppler signals and all measures were done by one observer, duly trained in epidemiologic methodology. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, an ABPI < or = .90 was significantly associated with age, total serum cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, and awareness of diabetes. In multivariate analysis, it was associated with awareness of diabetes, age, Ln triglycerides (P = .073), and smoking (P = .088). Relative risks for reduced versus normal ABPI are 2.77 (P = .010), 4.16 (P = .011) and 4.97 (P = .006) for ten-year all causes, cardiovascular, and coronary mortality, respectively. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the following variables were significant independent predictors of coronary mortality: smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.84), reduced ABPI (OR = 3.63), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR for 1 SD = 1.69). Reduced ABPI is also an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSION: a reduced ABPI is an independent risk factor for coronary and cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic middle-aged Belgian males.

Angiology 1995 Mar;46(3):211-219

Protective effects of melatonin against oxidation of guanine bases in DNA and decreased microsomal membrane fluidity in rat liver induced by whole body ionizing radiation.

The aim of the study was to examine the potential protective effect of melatonin against whole body ionizing radiation (800 cGy). Changes in 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, an index of DNA damage, and alterations in membrane fluidity (the inverse of membrane rigidity) and lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes, as indices of damage to lipid and protein molecules in membranes, were estimated. Measurements were made in rat liver, 12 h after their exposure to radiation. To test the potential protective effects of melatonin, the indole was injected (i.p. 50 mg/kg b.w.) at 120, 90, 60 and 30 min prior to radiation exposure. Both 8-OH-dG levels and microsomal membrane rigidity increased significantly 12 h after radiation exposure. Melatonin completely counteracted the effects of ionizing radiation. Changes in 8-OH-dG levels and membrane fluidity are early sensitive parameters of DNA and microsomal membrane damage, respectively, induced by ionizing radiation and our findings document the protective effects of melatonin against ionizing radiation.

Mol Cell Biochem 2000 Aug;211(1-2):137-144

Melatonin reduces X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative damages in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

Melatonin is a hormone with multiple functions in humans, produced by the pineal gland and stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin has been shown to have radioprotection properties, but there has been little progress toward identifying the specific mechanisms of its action. To clarify the role of melatonin as a radioprotective compound, in response to X-ray irradiation, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation and melatonin on cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and alteration of the cell cycle in cultured skin fibroblast. An 8 Gy dose of X radiation resulted in cell death in 63% of irradiated cells, i.e. the cell viability was 37%. The damage was associated with lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane, as shown by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). By pre-incubation with melatonin (10(-5) M), a significant preventive effect was noted on the increase in the absolute number of surviving cells (up to 68% of cells were survived), and the levels of MDA were markedly decreased. These findings suggest a close correlation between an increase of lipid peroxidation and a rate of cell death. Morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death were demonstrated by TEM. DNA flow-cytometry analysis revealed that X radiation increased pre-G1 apoptotic population by 7.6% compared to a very low level (1.3%) of non-irradiated cells. However, in the presence of melatonin, this apoptotic population decreased up to 4.5% at 10(-5) M. The p53 and p21 protein levels of skin fibroblasts increased 4 h after 8 Gy irradiation, but melatonin pretreatment did not change those levels. This study suggests that melatonin pretreatment inhibits radiation-induced apoptosis, and melatonin exerts its radioprotective effect by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and without any involvement of the p53/p21 pathway.

J Dermatol Sci 2001 Jul;26(3):194-200

Mechanism of protection against radiation-induced DNA damage in plasmid pBR322 by caffeine.

PURPOSE: Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine), a dietary component, has been shown to have widely varying effects on DNA damage induced by UV and ionizing radiation, depending upon pre- or post-irradiation administration and its concentration. Caffeine administered post-UV irradiation is known to inhibit enzymatic repair of DNA lesions, leading to potentiation of damage, whereas its presence before or during irradiation elicits protection in a wide range of test systems: bacteria, cultured human cells, plant seeds and mouse. The purpose of this study is to test whether caffeine present during gamma-irradiation of plasmid DNA, a system devoid of replication and repair, could elicit protection by scavenging free radicals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasmid pBR322 DNA was exposed to gamma-radiation in the presence or absence of caffeine at a dose-rate of 1.20 Gy min(-1) and damage measured as single-strand breaks. To understand the mechanisms of the observed protection, especially under oxic conditions, reaction of caffeine with superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the deoxyribose peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) were studied. RESULTS: Irradiation of pBR322 was observed to induce a dose-dependent increase in single-strand breaks. Caffeine itself did not induce strand breaks but reduced radiation-induced strand breaks at micromolar to millimolar concentrations. Caffeine has been shown to react with the radiation-derived oxidants. The reaction rate constants observed were 7.5x10(1) M(-1) s(-1) with O(2)(-) 1.05x10(8) M(-1) s(-1) with ROO(*) and 8.8x10(1) M(-1) s(-1) with H(2)O(2). CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine effectively protects DNA against ionizing radiation in a system devoid of repair and replication machinery. Thus, DNA protection shown by caffeine is possibly due to the scavenging of radiation-derived primary as well as secondary reactive oxygen species, and this physicochemical protective pathway possibly pre-empts any subsequent inhibitory effect of caffeine on the enzymatic repair of DNA.

Int J Radiat Biol 2001 May;77(5):617-623

Induction of nuclear factor kappa B after low-dose ionizing radiation involves a reactive oxygen intermediate signaling pathway.

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) have been found to be the messengers in the activation of the kappa B transcription regulator in mitogen- or cytokine-stimulated cells, operating in conjunction with or independently of various other mechanisms; these include Ca(++)-dependent and PKC-dependent cytoplasmic signaling pathways. We have recently reported that low-dose ionizing radiation induces NF-kappa B in human lymphoblastoid 244B cells. Since ionizing radiation generates free radicals in cells, we have investigated whether the ROIs generated by ionizing radiation induce NF-kappa B activity, and also whether they do so by a similar mechanism as in cells treated with PMA or H2O2. The results not only confirm a previous observation from our laboratory that low-dose ionizing radiation (0.1-2.0 Gy) activates kappa B transcription factor transiently with a maximal induction at 0.5 Gy exposure, but also demonstrate mechanistically that the activation of NF-kappa B by low-dose ionizing radiation can be inhibited considerably by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, indicating that at least the major part of the activation process is mediated by ROIs. These findings support the idea that ROIs can regulate the kappa B elements which in turn can serve as response elements for oxidant stress.

Radiat Res 1994 Oct;140(1):97-104

Influence of clinically used antioxidants on radiation-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on HUVEC.

PURPOSE: The effects of antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine [NAC] and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate [PDTC]) on radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of ICAM-1 on HUVEC was determined by flow cytometry up to 72 h after X-irradiation. Functional competence of induced ICAM-1 was assessed by adhesion experiments with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils on irradiated HUVEC. RESULTS: Preincubation of cells with both or either NAC and PDTC was unable to reduce radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression on HUVEC. In fact, by themselves, these antioxidants induced a significant increase of ICAM-1 expression, which in comparison with a radiation dose of 7 Gy after 24h was nine times higher for PDTC, and more than double for NAC. Treatment with NAC clearly restrained TNF-alpha-induced ICAM expression on HUVEC, while preincubation of cells with PDTC showed synergistic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The role of reactive oxygen intermediates in signal transduction pathways leading to ICAM-1 expression should be investigated further. Furthermore, antioxidants may exert a pro-inflammatory role, as revealed by the induction of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells. The inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression by NAC might have clinical implications because this substance is used as a radioprotector in radiotherapy.

Int J Radiat Biol 1999 Oct;75(10):1317-1325

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