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Lipid Metabolism Disorders

March 2007

Association between postprandial remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLP-TG) levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: assessment by meal tolerance tests (MTT).

Our study evaluated the relationship between the pathologic changes associated with atherosclerosis, as primarily represented by postprandial remnant-like lipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), in type 2 diabetic patients. Meal tolerance tests (MTT) were performed in 68 patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were divided by pre-meal and 2-h postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels into the normotriglyceridemia (NTG) group; the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) group; and the fasting hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG) group. HOMA-R values were significantly higher in the FHTG group than in the NTG group, with the plasma pre-heparin LPL mass and serum adiponectin levels in the FHTG and PHTG groups significantly lower than in the NTG group. One- and two hour postprandial RLP-TG levels were significantly higher in the PHTG group than in the NTG group, while there was no significant difference in postprandial glucose levels between the two groups. The IMT values were significantly higher in both the FHTG and PHTG groups than in the NTG group. Logistics regression analysis of the 1- and 2-h RLP-TG values using IMT as an induced variable showed the odds ratio for high IMT values to be 5.17 (p < 0.05) for the 1-h RLP-TG values and 3.01 (p = 0.105) for the 2-h RLP-TG values. Our study results suggest that delayed TG metabolism leading to the retention of remnants in type 2 diabetic patients appears to be closely associated with atherosclerosis, and that postprandial hyperlipidemia is an independent risk factor for the early onset of atherosclerosis.

Endocrine. 2005 Nov;28(2):157-63

Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects.

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN) and healthy subjects. RESULTS: OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III), 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG) into TG > or = 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22)] or < 150 mg/dl [MetS-TG (n = 11)], and into those with or without hypertension [MetS+HTN (n = 24), MetS-HTN (n = 9), respectively]. TG concentrations were measured before and at 4, 6 and 8 h after OFTT and the postprandial response was quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) for TG. The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD) in mg/dl/h; 2534 +/- 1016 vs. 1620 +/- 494 and 1019 +/- 280, respectively, p < or = 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022), 6 (p < 0.001) and 8 hours (p < 0.001). The TG were increased significantly in MetS-TG compared to healthy subjects at 4 (p = 0.011), 6 (p = 0.001) and 8 hours (p = 0.015). In linear regression analysis only fasting TG levels were a significant predictor of the AUC (Coefficient B = 8.462, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.

Lipids Health Dis. 2005 Sep 30;4:21

Hyperinsulinemia is associated with increased production rate of intestinal apolipoprotein B-48-containing lipoproteins in humans.

OBJECTIVE: Whereas postprandial hyperlipidemia is a well-described feature of insulin-resistant states and type 2 diabetes, no previous studies have examined intestinal lipoprotein production rates (PRs) in relation to hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48)-containing lipoprotein metabolism was examined in the steady-state fed condition with a 15-hour primed constant infusion of [D3]-l-leucine in 14 nondiabetic men with a broad range of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity. To examine the relationship between indices of insulin resistance and intestinal lipoprotein PR data were analyzed in 2 ways: by correlation and by comparing apoB-48 PRs in those whose fasting plasma insulin concentrations were above or below the median for the 14 subjects studied (60 pmol/L). ApoB-48 PR was significantly higher in hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant subjects (1.73+/-0.39 versus 0.88+/-0.13 mg/kg per day; P<0.05) and correlated with fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r=0.558; P=0.038), despite great heterogeneity in apoB-48 kinetic parameters, particularly among the obese subjects. There was no significant difference in clearance of apoB-48 between the 2 groups, nor was there a significant correlation between apoB-48 fractional clearance rate and fasting insulin or homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first human data to conclusively demonstrate that intestinal apoB-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein PR is increased in hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant humans. Intestinal lipoprotein particle overproduction is a newly described feature of insulin resistance in humans.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Jun;26(6):1357-63

Postprandial lipaemia induces an acute decrease of insulin sensitivity in healthy men independently of plasma NEFA levels.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Typical Western diets cause postprandial lipaemia for 18 h per day. We tested the hypothesis that postprandial lipaemia decreases insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Employing a randomised crossover design, we administered two types of virtually isocaloric meals to ten healthy volunteers on two separate occasions. The meals (Meals 1 and 2) were both designed to produce a rise in triglycerides, but only Meal 1 generated a rise in NEFA, too. Insulin sensitivity, as quantified by an IVGTT with minimal model analysis, was calculated postabsorptively at 08.00 h and postprandially at 13.00 h, i.e. 3 h after meal ingestion. RESULTS: Triglycerides rose from 0.91+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively to 2.08+/-0.70 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and from 0.92+/-0.41 to 1.71+/-0.79 mmol/l with Meal 2 (p=0.005). Neither the triglyceride levels at 13.00 h, nor the post-meal AUCs for triglycerides were statistically different between Meal 1 and Meal 2. NEFA rose from 0.44+/-0.17 mmol/l postabsorptively to 0.69+/-0.16 mmol/l postprandially with Meal 1 (p=0.005) and showed no significant change with Meal 2 (0.46+/-0.31 mmol/l postabsorptively vs 0.36+/-0.32 mmol/l postprandially, p=0.09). Both the NEFA level at 13.00 h and the post-meal AUC for NEFA were significantly higher after Meal 1 than Meal 2. Compared with the postabsorptive state, insulin sensitivity decreased postprandially after each of the two meals to a comparable degree (Meal 1: -53%, p=0.02; Meal 2: -45%, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study reveals a drop in insulin sensitivity during postprandial lipaemia and strongly suggests that decreased insulin sensitivity is brought about by elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of plasma NEFA levels.

Diabetologia. 2006 Jul;49(7):1612-8

Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined lipoprotein subclass profile in the DCCT/EDIC cohort: associations with carotid intima-media thickness.

AIMS: To relate nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSP) and other lipoprotein-related factors with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Lipoprotein-related factors were determined in sera (obtained in 1997-1999) from 428 female [age 39 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD)] and 540 male (age 40 +/- 7 years) Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) participants. NMR quantifies chylomicrons, three very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, two high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, mean VLDL, LDL and HDL size, and LDL particle concentration. Conventional lipids, ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) and in vitro LDL oxidizibility were also measured. IMT was determined (in 1994-1995) using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Relationships between IMT and lipoproteins were analysed by multiple linear regression, controlling for age, diabetes-related factors, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. RESULTS: IMT associations with lipoproteins were stronger for the internal than the common carotid artery, predominantly involving LDL. Internal carotid IMT was positively (P < 0.05) associated with NMR-based LDL subclasses and particle concentration, and with conventional LDL-cholesterol and ApoB in both genders. Common carotid IMT was associated, in men only, with large VLDL, IDL, conventional LDL cholesterol and ApoB. CONCLUSIONS: NMR-LSP reveals significant associations with carotid IMT in Type 1 diabetic patients, even 4 years after IMT measurement. NMR-LSP may aid early identification of high-risk diabetic patients and facilitate monitoring of interventions. Longer DCCT/EDIC cohort follow-up will yield CVD events and IMT progression, permitting more accurate assessment of pre-morbid lipoprotein profiles as determinants of cardiovascular risk in Type 1 diabetes.

Diabet Med. 2006 Sep;23(9):955-66

Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia is neutralized by addition of proteins to the fatty meal.

BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia is known to reduce endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Because postprandial lipemia can be acutely mitigated when proteins are added to the fatty meal, we investigated whether this mitigation could neutralize the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. DESIGN: Sixteen healthy students (aged 19-23, eight males and eight females) received three different test meals at intervals of 1 week between successive tests. Each meal contained whipping cream alone or whipping cream together with either caseinate or soy protein. The whipping cream contained 33% fat, and 3 ml (= 1 g fat) was given per kg body weight. The proteins added were either 50 g sodium caseinate or 50 g soy protein. FMD was assessed by two-dimensional ultrasonography of the brachial artery in the fasting state and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8h after the fatty meal. Blood was withdrawn at the same time-points from the other arm. Triglycerides, free fatty acids, and insulin were determined using routine methods, and both L-arginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were determined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Postprandial lipemia reduced FMD, the reduction reaching a maximum of 58% after 3 h. This impairment of endothelial function was not observed when either of the test proteins had been added to the fatty meal (p < 0.01 for caseinate and p < 0.001 for soy protein). The effects of the protein addition were decreases in triglycerides and free fatty acids, increased insulin concentrations at all time-points, and an increased arginine/ADMA ratio between 1 and 5h after the meal, particularly in the case of the soy protein. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the neutralization of the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction is caused by direct and indirect effects of the proteins insulinotropy and, secondly, by an increased supply of L-arginine.

Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr;185(2):313-9

Prescribing aerobic exercise for the regulation of postprandial lipid metabolism : current research and recommendations.

Prolonged presence of elevated plasma triglycerides (TGs) during the postprandial period has been suggested to increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Aerobic exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and this has generally been described as a short-term effect of the exercise. Effects of exercise on postprandial lipaemia have mostly been investigated, and documented, with large exercise-induced energy expenditures (i.e. 1000 kcal). The exact mechanisms involved in the attenuation of postprandial lipaemia with exercise are not completely understood, but it appears that at least two mechanisms are involved: a decrease in TG secretion by the liver and an increase in plasma TG clearance by the muscle. Changes in the metabolism of other lipids, such as those in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, have been documented only when the exercise is performed some hours before the fat meal. Although factors such as the physical fitness and percentage body fat of an individual are likely to also be involved, the most important factors determining the magnitude of the attenuation in postprandial lipaemia appear to be the magnitude of the exercise-induced energy expenditure and the intensity of exercise. To date, the evidence suggests that healthy individuals can generally induce favourable changes in postprandial lipaemia with aerobic exercise that: (i) is completed during the period extending from 16 hours before a meal through 1.5 hours after a meal; (ii) is of moderate intensity; and (iii) results in an energy expenditure of approximately 500 kcal (or more).

Sports Med. 2006;36(7):547-60

Lipoprotein remnants and endothelial dysfunction in the postprandial phase.

The objective of this work was to study whether changes in remnant lipoprotein (RLP) plasma levels during the postprandial phase relate to alterations of the endothelial function. Fasted patients (15 moderately dyslipidemic men) were given an oral fat load (OFL), and blood samples were collected before the OFL ingestion (T0) and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h (T2, T4, T6, T8) thereafter. Endothelial function, determined as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was assessed at the same time points. Triglyceridemia peaked between T4 (5.48 +/- 0.64 mmol/liter) and T6 (5.34 +/- 0.89 mmol/liter) and decreased at 8 h (4.36 +/- 0.87 mmol/liter) after the OFL. FMD decreased significantly 6 h after the OFL consumption (from 16.03 +/- 1.32% to 11.53 +/- 1.42%, P < 0.01). Cholesterol in RLPs increased steadily up to 6 h and decreased at 8 h (T0 0.53 +/- 0.10, T6 0.81 +/- 0.11, T8 0.73 +/- 0.13 mmol/liter). Fasting levels of triglycerides and cholesterol-RLPs (C-RLPs) correlated significantly with FMD at baseline. The decrease in endothelial function at 6 h also significantly correlated with the area under the curve of triglycerides (R = 0.53, P = 0.04). Postprandial C-RLPs (area under the curve), however, showed the best correlation with the decrease of FMD (R = 0.63, P = 0.012). The correlation persisted in a multivariate analysis. We concluded that C-RLPs contribute significantly to the endothelial dysfunction occurring during the postprandial lipemia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2946-50

Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease.

Postprandial lipemia, characterized by a rise in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after eating, is a dynamic, nonsteady-state condition in which humans spend the majority of time. There are several lines of evidence suggesting that postprandial lipemia increases risk of atherogenesis. Clinical data show a correlation between postprandial lipoproteins and the presence/progression of coronary artery disease and carotid intimal thickness. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants may have adverse effects on endothelium and can penetrate into the subendothelial space. Exchange of core lipids between postprandial lipoproteins and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is increased during prolonged lipemia, resulting in small, dense LDL particles and reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Hemostatic variables, including clotting factors, platelet reactivity, and monocyte cytokine expression, may be increased during postprandial lipemia. Collectively, these data suggest that assessment and treatment of atherosclerosis should include parameters related to postprandial lipemia.

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):437-44

Early alterations in the post-prandial VLDL1 apoB-100 and apoB-48 metabolism in men with strong heredity for type 2 diabetes.

OBJECTIVES: To study the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, specifically the concentrations of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL); from intestine (apoB-48) and liver (apoB-100), in men with normal fasting triglycerides but at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: Sixteen healthy men with at least two first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes were individually matched with 16 control subjects without known diabetes heredity for: age, body mass index, and fasting triglyceride level. They underwent an 8-h meal tolerance test (919 kcal, 51 g fat) during which lipoproteins were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. They were characterized by euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, peak VO2, 7-day diet registration and computed tomography. RESULTS: The relatives were, as expected, more insulin resistant than the controls and had increased concentration of postprandial VLDL1 particles (49% higher for VLDL1 apoB-48, P = 0.04 and 21% higher for VLDL1 apoB-100, P = 0.048). The elevation was related to insulin sensitivity, but not to lifestyle and body composition. Moreover, the concentration of postprandial triglycerides in VLDL1 fraction was inversely related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size in both relatives (rs = -0.60, P = 0.03) and controls (rs = -0.72, P = 0.004). There were no differences in the concentration of triglycerides or apoB-48 and apoB-100 particles in the other fractions (plasma, chylomicron or VLDL2). CONCLUSION: Increased postprandial concentration of TRLs in the VLDL1 fraction seems to be present at an early stage in the development of diabetes and probably contributes to the excess risk of future coronary events in insulin-resistant men.

J Intern Med. 2004 Feb;255(2):273-9