Anatomy and physiology of subcutaneous adipose tissue by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy: relationships with sex and presence of cellulite.
BACKGROUND: Little is still known concerning subcutaneous adipose tissue and cellulite, and controversial questions are still under discussion. AIMS: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to address two unresolved questions relating to the anatomy and physiology of subcutaneous adipose tissue. METHODS: Using high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging we characterized the topography of the dermo- hypodermal junction, and the three-dimensional architecture of the subcutaneous fibrous septae. Using proton spectroscopy, we measured water and lipid fractions within a fat lobule, and T1 and T2 values of the detected compounds. All these data were analysed according to sex and presence of cellulite. RESULTS: MR imaging quantified deeper indentations of adipose tissue into the dermis, and evidenced for the first time a great increase in the thickness of the inner fat layer in women with cellulite. Moreover, 3D reconstruction of the fibrous septae network showed a higher percentage of septae in a direction perpendicular to the skin surface in women with cellulite; but our study also depicted the tortuous aspect of this network. MR proton spectroscopy could not show any differences related to sex or presence of cellulite concerning T1 and T2 relaxation times of the detected compounds within a fat lobule, neither the unsaturated lipid fraction, the saturated lipid fraction, nor the water fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the 3D architecture of fibrous septae couldn’t be modelled simply as perpendicular planes for women and tilted planes at 45 degrees for men. MR spectroscopy did not confirm the hypothesis of increased water content in the adipose tissue of women with cellulite as suggested by others, except if such water would be located in the connective septae.
Skin Res Technol. 2002 May;8(2):118-24
Cellulite: a review of its physiology and treatment.
Cellulite affects 85-98% of post-pubertal females of all races. While not a pathologic condition, it remains an issue of cosmetic concern to a great number of individuals. Despite its high prevalence, there have been few scientific investigations into the physiology of cellulite. There have only been a few dozen peer-reviewed articles devoted to cellulite in the medical literature in the past 30 years. There is no definitive explanation for its presentation. This greatly complicates the ability to treat or improve it. The four leading hypotheses that purport to explain the physiology of cellulite include: sexually dimorphic skin architecture, altered connective tissue septae, vascular changes and inflammatory factors. Treatment modalities can be divided into four main categories: attenuation of aggravating factors, physical and mechanical methods, pharmacological agents and laser. There are no truly effective treatments for cellulite.
J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2004 Dec;6(4):181-5
Cellulite—the greatest skin problem in healthy people? An approach.
Cellulite or so called orange peel skin affects 80-90% of all females. It is not considered as a pathological condition but as aesthetically disturbing dimpling of the skin seen most commonly on the thighs and buttocks. Despite its high prevalence, there have been only a few scientific investigations into the pathophysiology of cellulite reflected in the medical literature. A lack of knowledge regarding specific aetiopathogenetic factors and pathogenesis at large currently limits treatment options. The preferred hypotheses about the origin of cellulite include: gender specific dimorphic skin architecture, altered connective tissue septae, vascular changes and inflammatory processes. The most widely discussed management options include: attenuation of aggravating factors, physical procedures including laser therapy and application of topical incorporating actives. The latter approach has been evidence-based with respect to caffeine liposomal cream and retinol cream.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2006 Oct;4(10):861-70
Cellulite and skin ageing: is there any interaction?
Objective: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of cellulite in women of different age and to appreciate whether cellulite could interfere with skin ageing or not. Methods: 94 healthy females, divided into three age groups (21-30yrs; 31-40yrs; 51-60yrs) and two grade groups of cellulite (grade 2; grade 0 or control group), were investigated using non invasive techniques. The “orange peel appearance” was quantified by measuring the shadowed surfaces under low angle light. The biomechanichal properties were measured (extensibility-retractability-elasticity). The thicknesses of the skin structures were also evaluated using ultrasound. Echogenicity of the dermis was recorded and dermis density determined in two bands (superficial and low dermis). Results: In grade 2, the shadowed surfaces are significantly different according to age; i.e. smaller and more numerous after age of 30; the total skin thickness including hypodermis is increased of about 30% irrespective to age, compared to control group. The biomechanical properties of the skin are significantly modified as age increases without any grade effect. In grade 2, retractability and elasticity parameters are altered from age 30 whilst only from age 50 in the control group. Echogenicities of the superficial and deep dermis also decrease from age 30 and become significantly lower than the ones of grade 0. Conclusion: Population with cellulite presents earlier skin ageing characteristics than the control population. Two sub-populations may exist: the under 30 age with large dimpled surfaces, normal biomechanical and density properties; and the over 30 age with smaller and numerous dimpled surfaces and already altered dermis properties. This premature skin ageing should be prevented accordingly.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008 Feb 25.
Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women.
Licorice has been considered a medicinal plant for thousands of years. The most common side effect is hypokalemic hypertension, which is secondary to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 at the level of the kidney, leading to an enhanced mineralocorticoid effect of cortisol. We have investigated the effect of licorice on androgen metabolism in nine healthy women 22-26 years old, in the luteal phase of the cycle. They were given 3.5 g of a commercial preparation of licorice (containing 7.6% W.W. of glycyrrhizic acid) daily for two cycles. They were not on any other treatment. Plasma renin activity, serum adrenal and gonadal androgens, aldosterone, and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay. Total serum testosterone decreased from 27.8+/-8.2 to 19.0+/-9.4 in the first month and to 17.5+/-6.4 ng/dL in the second month of therapy (p<0.05). It returned to pre-treatment levels after discontinuation. Androstenedione, 17OH-progesterone, and LH levels did not change significantly during treatment. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone were depressed during therapy, while blood pressure and cortisol remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Licorice can reduce serum testosterone probably due to the block of 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-20 lyase. Licorice could be considered an adjuvant therapy of hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Steroids. 2004 Oct-Nov;69(11-12):763-6
Clinical implications of glucocorticoid metabolism by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in target tissues.
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) are microsomal enzymes that catalyze the conversion of active glucocorticoids (GC) to their inactive 11-dehydro products and vice versa. Two isoenzymes of 11beta-HSD have been characterized and cloned in human tissues. The tissue-specific metabolism of GC by these enzymes is important for mineralocorticoid (MC) and GC receptor occupancy and seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as apparent MC excess syndrome, and may play roles in hypertension, obesity and impaired hepatic glucose homeostasis. This article reviews the literature and examines the role and importance of 11beta-HSD in humans.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2001 Feb;144(2):87-97
A randomized, double-blind,vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis.
OBJECTIVE: Only a few clinical trials have been published on the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis with herbal ointments. An ointment containing extracts from Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica has previously been studied in open uncontrolled trials with children. However, no data exist on adult patients in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis were enrolled in a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized, half-side comparison. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age were treated for 4 weeks with an ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica. The primary endpoint was a summary score for erythema, edema/papulation, oozing/crust, excoriation and lichenification according to a 4-point scale. Secondary efficacy variables were assessment of pruritus severity (10 cm VAS) and a global assessment of effectiveness as well as tolerability. RESULTS: The study ointment reduced the primary and secondary endpoints slightly more than the base cream which was used as vehicle; the differences were not statistically significant. Since the climatic conditions during the study duration varied from very mild and sunny to very cold and dry, a post-hoc subanalysis was performed with a subset of 64 patients whose treatment was at a mean outside temperature of 10 degrees C or less. Under these conditions the primary endpoint showed high statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In this trial, an ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica could not be proven to be superior to a base cream for patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. However, a subanalysis indicated that the cream might be effective under conditions of cold and dry weather.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Nov;45(11):583-91
Effects of horse-chestnut seed extract on transcapillary filtration in chronic venous insufficiency.
The effect of horse-chestnut seed extract (standardized on aescin; Venostasin retard) was assessed in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover double-blind trial of 22 patients with proven chronic venous insufficiency by measuring the capillary filtration coefficient and the intravascular volume of the lower leg by venous-occlusion plethysmography. Three hours after taking two capsules of Venostasin (600 mg; each capsule containing 50 mg aescin) the capillary filtration coefficient had decreased by 22%, whereas after administration of an identical-looking placebo capsule it rose but slightly over three hours. The difference in the effect of Venostasin and placebo is statistically significant (P = 0.006). The intravascular volume was reduced 5% more after Venostasin than the placebo, but this is not statistically significant. It is concluded that Venostasin has an inhibitory effect on oedema formation via a decrease in transcapillary filtration and thus improves oedema-related symptoms in venous diseases of the legs.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1986 Aug 29;111(35):1321-9
Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.
BACKGROUND: Diseases of the venous system are widespread disorders sometimes associated with modern civilisation and are among the major concerns of social and occupational medicine. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy (oedema reduction) and safety of compression stockings class II and dried horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE, 50 mg aescin, twice daily). METHODS: Equivalence of both therapies was examined in a novel hierarchical statistical design in 240 patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Patients were treated over a period of 12 weeks in a randomised, partially blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel study design. FINDINGS: Lower leg volume of the more severely affected limb decreased on average by 43.8 mL (n = 95) with HCSE and 46.7 mL (n = 99) with compression therapy, while it increased by 9.8 mL with placebo (n = 46) after 12 weeks therapy for the intention-to-treat group (95% CI: HCSE: 21.1-66.4; compression: 30.4-63.0; placebo: 40.0-20.4). Significant oedema reductions were achieved by HCSE (p = 0.005) and compression (p = 0.002) compared to placebo, and the two therapies were shown to be equivalent (p = 0.001); in this design, however, compression could not be proven as standard with regard to oedema reduction in the statistical test procedure. Both HCSE and compression therapy were well tolerated and no serious treatment-related events were reported. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that compression stocking therapy and HCSE therapy are alternative therapies for the effective treatment of patients with oedema resulting from chronic venous insufficiency.
Lancet. 1996 Feb 3;347(8997):292-4
Antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.
Japanese horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE) dose-dependently inhibited the autooxidation of linoleic acid (IC(50): 0.2 mg/ml), and the inhibition was almost complete at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The HCSE scavenged DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and superoxide anions with EC(50)s of 0.65 and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. However, it had no effect on hydrogen peroxide. The HCSE inhibited the genotoxicities of furylfuramide, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, 2-aminoanthracene and aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 1 mg/ml or more. Total polyphenol content of the HCSE was 21 mg/g (13 mg/g-seeds). These results indicate that the Japanese horse chestnut seed is an antioxidative and antimutagenic botanical resource.
J Vet Med Sci. 2005 Jul;67(7):731-4