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Acid Reflux, Glycation, Mediterranean Trim, and Oxidized LDL

June 2015

By Life Extension

Acid reflux

Effect of esomeprazole 40 mg vs omeprazole 40 mg on 24-hour intragastric pH in patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Maintenance of intragastric pH > 4 is vital for effective management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esomeprazole 40 mg, the first proton pump inhibitor developed as an optical isomer, demonstrates improved acid inhibition over omeprazole 20 mg. Our aim was to compare esomeprazole 40 mg with omeprazole 40 mg, once-daily, on intragastric acidity in patients with symptoms of GERD. In this open-label, crossover study, 130 patients with symptoms of GERD received esomeprazole 40 mg or omeprazole 40 mg once-daily for five days. The 24-hr intragastric pH was monitored on days 1 and 5 of each treatment period. The mean percentage of the 24-hr period with intragastric pH > 4 was significantly greater (P < 0.001) with esomeprazole 40 mg than with omeprazole 40 mg on days 1 (48.6% vs 40.6%) and 5 (68.4% vs 62.0%). Interpatient variability was significantly less with esomeprazole than omeprazole. Esomeprazole was well tolerated. In conclusion, esomeprazole 40 mg provides more effective acid control than twice the standard dose of omeprazole.

Dig Dis Sci. 2002 May;47(5):954-8

Use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. We aimed to confirm this association and to identify the risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study using data from the County of Funen, Denmark. Cases (n=7642) were defined as all patients with a first-discharge diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia from a hospital during 2000 through 2004. We also selected 34 176 control subjects, who were frequency matched to the cases by age and sex. Data on the use of PPIs and other drugs, on microbiological samples, on x-ray examination findings, and on comorbid conditions were extracted from local registries. Confounders were controlled by logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associating current use of PPIs with community-acquired pneumonia was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.7). No association was found with histamine(2)-receptor antagonists (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) or with past use of PPIs (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.6). Recent initiation of treatment with PPIs (0-7 days before index date) showed a particularly strong association with community-acquired pneumonia (OR, 5.0; 95% 2.1-11.7), while the risk decreased with treatment that was started a long time ago (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4). Subgroup analyses revealed high ORs for users younger than 40 years (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.0). No dose-response effect could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The use of PPIs, especially when recently begun, is associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):950-5

Systematic review: the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection.

BACKGROUND: The use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is increasing worldwide. Suppression of gastric acid alters the susceptibility to enteric bacterial pathogens. AIM:  This systematic review was undertaken to examine the relationship between PPI use and susceptibility to enteric infections by a specific pathogen based on published literature and to discuss the potential mechanisms of PPI enhanced pathogenesis of enteric infections. METHODS:  PubMed, OVID Medline Databases were searched. Search terms included proton pump inhibitors and mechanisms of, actions of, gastric acid, enteric infections, diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. RESULTS: The use of PPIs increases gastric pH, encourages growth of the gut microflora, increases bacterial translocation and alters various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Enteric pathogens show variable gastric acid pH susceptibility and acid tolerance levels. By multiple mechanisms, PPIs appear to increase susceptibility to the following bacterial enteropathogens: Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, invasive strains of Escherichia coli, vegetative cells of Clostridium difficile, Vibrio cholerae and Listeria. We describe the available evidence for enhanced susceptibility to enteric infection caused by Salmonella, Campylobacter and C. difficile by PPI use, with adjusted relative risk ranges of 4.2-8.3 (two studies); 3.5-11.7 (four studies); and 1.2-5.0 (17 of 27 studies) for the three respective organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Severe hypochlorhydria generated by PPI use leads to bacterial colonisation and increased susceptibility to enteric bacterial infection. The clinical implication of chronic PPI use among hospitalized patients placed on antibiotics and travellers departing for areas with high incidence of diarrhoea should be considered by their physicians.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Dec;34

Rebound acid hypersecretion after long-term inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

BACKGROUND: Rebound acid hypersecretion develops after the use of acid inhibitors. AIM: To estimate the duration of hypersecretion and to elucidate the role of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in rebound acid hypersecretion. METHODS: Patients waiting for anti-reflux surgery who had used a proton pump inhibitor daily > 1 year were included. All patients discontinued taking acid inhibiting drugs after the operation. Basal and pentagastrin stimulated acid output was measured at 4, 8, 16 and 26 weeks postoperatively. Oxyntic mucosal biopsies were collected before and 26 weeks after the operation for counting of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) immunoreactive cells. Serum chromogranin A (CgA) and gastrin were measured before and at 4, 8, 16 and 26 weeks after the operation. RESULTS: Pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion was higher at 4 and 8 weeks than at 26 weeks after the operation. Gastrin and CgA were significantly reduced at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The number of HDC immunoreactive cells was reduced by 60% at 26 weeks postoperative. DISCUSSION: Rebound acid hypersecretion lasts more than 8 weeks, but less than 26 weeks after long-term proton pump inhibition. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that not only the parietal cell mass, but also ECL cell mass and activity are involved in the mechanism of acid hypersecretion.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jan 15;21(2):149-54

Proton pump inhibitor use, hip fracture, and change in bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative.

BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medications have been inconsistently shown to be associated with osteoporotic fractures. We examined the association of PPI use with bone outcomes (fracture, bone mineral density [BMD]). METHODS: This prospective analysis included 161 806 postmenopausal women 50 to 79 years old, without history of hip fracture, enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study and Clinical Trials with a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.8 (1.6) years. Analyses were conducted for 130 487 women with complete information. Medication information was taken directly from drug containers during in-person interviews (baseline, year 3). The main outcome measures were self-reported fractures (hip [adjudicated], clinical spine, forearm or wrist, and total fractures) and for a subsample (3 densitometry sites), 3-year change in BMD. RESULTS: During 1,005 126 person-years of follow-up, 1500 hip fractures, 4,881 forearm or wrist fractures, 2,315 clinical spine fractures, and 21,247 total fractures occurred. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for current PPI use were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.40) for hip fracture, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.18-1.82) for clinical spine fracture, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05-1.51) for forearm or wrist fracture, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.15-1.36) for total fractures. The BMD measurements did not vary between PPI users and nonusers at baseline. Use of PPIs was associated with only a marginal effect on 3-year BMD change at the hip (P = .05) but not at other sites. CONCLUSION: Use of PPIs was not associated with hip fractures but was modestly associated with clinical spine, forearm or wrist, and total fractures.

Arch Intern Med. 2010 May 10;170(9):765-71

Recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in patients starting acid-suppressing drugs.

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2s) increase risk of community-acquired pneumonia. To test this hypothesis, we examined a prospective population-based cohort predisposed to pneumonia: elderly patients (> or =65 years) who had survived hospitalization for pneumonia. METHODS: This study featured a nested case-control design where cases were patients hospitalized for recurrent pneumonia (> or =30 days after initial episode) and controls were age, sex, and incidence-density sampling matched but never had recurrent pneumonia. PPI/H2 exposure was classified as never, past, or current use before recurrent pneumonia. The association between PPI/H2s and pneumonia was assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: During 5.4 years of follow-up, 248 recurrent pneumonia cases were matched with 2,476 controls. Overall, 71 of 608 (12%) current PPI/H2 users had recurrent pneumonia, compared with 130 of 1,487 (8%) nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.1). Stratifying the 608 current users according to timing of PPI/H2 initiation revealed incident current-users (initiated PPI/H2 after initial pneumonia hospitalization, n=303) bore the entire increased risk of recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (15% vs 8% among nonusers, aOR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). The 305 prevalent current-users (PPI/H2 exposure before and after initial community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization) were equally likely to develop recurrent pneumonia as nonusers (aOR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.63-1.57). CONCLUSION: Acid-suppressing drug use substantially increased the likelihood of recurrent pneumonia in high-risk elderly patients. The association was confined to patients initiating PPI/H2s after hospital discharge. Our findings should be considered when deciding to prescribe these drugs in patients with a recent history of pneumonia.

Am J Med. 2010 Jan;123(1):47-53

Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

BACKGROUND: The causes of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia are poorly understood. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of the possible association between gastroesophageal reflux and these tumors. METHODS: We performed a nationwide, population-based, case-control study in Sweden. Case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were classified uniformly. Information on the subjects’ history of gastroesophageal reflux was collected in personal interviews. The odds ratios were calculated by logistic regression, with multivariate adjustment for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Of the patients interviewed, the 189 with esophageal adenocarcinoma and the 262 with adenocarcinoma of the cardia constituted 85 percent of the 529 patients in Sweden who were eligible for the study during the period from 1995 through 1997. For comparison, we interviewed 820 control subjects from the general population and 167 patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Among persons with recurrent symptoms of reflux, as compared with persons without such symptoms, the odds ratios were 7.7 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.3 to 11.4) for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.9) for adenocarcinoma of the cardia. The more frequent, more severe, and longer-lasting the symptoms of reflux, the greater the risk. Among persons with long-standing and severe symptoms of reflux, the odds ratios were 43.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 18.3 to 103.5) for esophageal adenocarcinoma and 4.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 11.0) for adenocarcinoma of the cardia. The risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma was not associated with reflux (odds ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong and probably causal relation between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma. The relation between reflux and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia is relatively weak.

N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 18;340(11):825-31

Post-prandial reflux suppression by a raft-forming alginate (Gaviscon Advance) compared to a simple antacid documented by magnetic resonance imaging and pH-impedance monitoring: mechanistic assessment in healthy volunteers and randomised, controlled, double-blind study in reflux patients.

BACKGROUND: Alginates form a raft above the gastric contents, which may suppress gastro-oesophageal reflux; however, inconsistent effects have been reported in mechanistic and clinical studies. AIMS: To visualise reflux suppression by an alginate-antacid [Gaviscon Advance (GA), Reckitt Benckiser, UK] compared with a nonraft-forming antacid using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the feasibility of pH-impedance monitoring for assessment of reflux suppression by alginates. METHODS: Two studies were performed: (i) GA and antacid (Alucol, Wander Ltd, Switzerland) were visualised in the stomach after ingestion in 12 healthy volunteers over 30 min after a meal by MRI, with reflux events documented by manometry. (ii) A randomised controlled, double-blind cross-over trial of post-prandial reflux suppression documented by pH-impedance in 20 patients randomised to GA or antacid (Milk of Magnesia; Boots, UK) after two meals taken 24 h apart. RESULTS: MRI visualized a “mass” of GA form at the oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ); simple antacid sank to the distal stomach. The number of post-prandial common cavity reflux events was less with GA than antacid [median 2 (0-5) vs. 5 (1-11); P < 0.035]. Distal reflux events and acid exposure measured by pH-impedance were similar after GA and antacid. There was a trend to reduced proximal reflux events with GA compared with antacid [10.5 (8.9) vs. 13.9 (8.3); P = 0.070]. CONCLUSIONS: Gaviscon Advance forms a ‘mass’ close to the OGJ and significantly suppresses reflux compared with a nonraft-forming antacid. Standard pH-impedance monitoring is suitable for clinical studies of GA in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients where proximal reflux is the primary outcome.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1093-102

Review article: alginate-raft formulations in the treatment of heartburn and acid reflux.

Alginate-based raft-forming formulations have been marketed word-wide for over 30 years under various brand names, including Gaviscon. They are used for the symptomatic treatment of heartburn and oesophagitis, and appear to act by a unique mechanism which differs from that of traditional antacids. In the presence of gastric acid, alginates precipitate, forming a gel. Alginate-based raft-forming formulations usually contain sodium or potassium bicarbonate; in the presence of gastric acid, the bicarbonate is converted to carbon dioxide which becomes entrapped within the gel precipitate, converting it into a foam which floats on the surface of the gastric contents, much like a raft on water. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that alginate-based rafts can entrap carbon dioxide, as well as antacid components contained in some formulations, thus providing a relatively pH-neutral barrier. Several studies have demonstrated that the alginate raft can preferentially move into the oesophagus in place, or ahead, of acidic gastric contents during episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux; some studies further suggest that the raft can act as a physical barrier to reduce reflux episodes. Although some alginate-based formulations also contain antacid components which can provide significant acid neutralization capacity, the efficacy of these formulations to reduce heartburn symptoms does not appear to be totally dependent on the neutralization of bulk gastric contents. The strength of the alginate raft is dependant on several factors, including the amount of carbon dioxide generated and entrapped in the raft, the molecular properties of the alginate, and the presence of aluminium or calcium in the antacid components of the formulation. Raft formation occurs rapidly, often within a few seconds of dosing; hence alginate-containing antacids are comparable to traditional antacids for speed of onset of relief. Since the raft can be retained in the stomach for several hours, alginate-based raft-forming formulations can additionally provide longer-lasting relief than that of traditional antacids. Indeed, clinical studies have shown Gaviscon is superior to placebo, and equal to or significantly better than traditional antacids for relieving heartburn symptoms. Alginate-based, raft-forming formulations have been used to treat reflux symptoms in infants and children, and in the management of heartburn and reflux during pregnancy. While Gaviscon is effective when used alone, it is compatible with, and does not interfere with the activity of antisecretory agents such as cimetidine. Even with the introduction of new antisecretory and promotility agents, alginate-rafting formulations will continue to have a role in the treatment of heartburn and reflux symptoms. Their unique non-systemic mechanism of action provides rapid and long-duration relief of heartburn and acid reflux symptoms.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun;14(6):669-90

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and tooth erosion.

The increasing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adults, and of “silent refluxers” in particular, increases the responsibility of dentists to be alert to this potentially severe condition when observing unexplained instances of tooth erosion. Although gastroesophageal reflux is a normal physiologic occurrence, excessive gastric and duodenal regurgitation combined with a decrease in normal protective mechanisms, including an adequate production of saliva, may result in many esophageal and extraesophageal adverse conditions. Sleep-related GERD is particularly insidious as the supine position enhances the proximal migration of gastric contents, and normal saliva production is much reduced. Gastric acid will displace saliva easily from tooth surfaces, and proteolytic pepsin will remove protective dental pellicle. Though increasing evidence of associations between GERD and tooth erosion has been shown in both animal and human studies, relatively few clinical studies have been carried out under controlled trial conditions. Suspicion of an endogenous source of acid being associated with observed tooth erosion requires medical referral and management of the patient as the primary method for its prevention and control.

Int J Dent. 2012;2012:479850

Patterns of food and acid reflux in patients with low-grade oesophagitis—the role of an anti-reflux agent.

BACKGROUND: Food and acid have been shown to be refluxed independently of each other in healthy volunteers, and anti-reflux agents decrease the reflux of both parameters. Until now this phenomenon had not been studied in patients with low-grade oesophagitis, who are the group most likely to use anti-reflux medication. AIM: To assess patterns of gastro-oesophageal reflux of acid and food in 12 ambulant patients with endoscopically proven oesophagitis of between grades I and II, but who were otherwise healthy. Also to assess the effectiveness of a single dose of an alginate-containing anti-reflux agent in controlling food and acid reflux in this patient group. METHODS: Oesophageal pH monitoring and external ambulatory gamma detection were used to study food and acid reflux. A pH electrode was positioned 5 cm above the cardia and the gamma detector was positioned externally over the pH electrode. The patients then received a technetium-99m labelled meal designed to provoke reflux. Thirty minutes later the patients were given a 20 ml dose of alginate (Liquid Gaviscon), or 20 ml of tap water. Incidence of reflux was monitored for approximately 4 h from the end of the meal. Allocation to treatment group was randomized, with patients receiving the alternative treatment on the second study day after approximately a 7-day washout period. RESULTS: The mean percentage time oesophageal pH remained below 4 was 16.3 min for the control group and 5.4 min for the treatment group (P = 0.03). Food reflux was detected 23.7% of the time in the control group compared to 12% of the time in the treatment group (P = 0.02). The anti-reflux agent was also successful in decreasing the number of events, but the duration of the reflux events was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with grades I and II oesophagitis reflux food and acid independently, and are predominantly either food refluxers or acid refluxers, but not both. Liquid alginate decreases the number of both food and acid reflux events, but does not change their duration.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jan;12(1):53-8

A comparison of the efficacy of the alginate preparation, Gaviscon Advance, with placebo in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the sodium alginate preparation, Gaviscon Advance, with placebo in the relief of symptoms of reflux oesophagitis. This was a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study conducted at 13 GP centres in the UK. Patients aged between 18 and 70 years, who had experienced symptoms of reflux oesophagitis within the previous 24 h, and on two other occasions within the previous week, were recruited into the study. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and then reassessed after two and four weeks of treatment with sodium alginate or placebo, for symptoms of reflux oesophagitis in the previous 24 h. Patients were required to fill out a diary card twice daily, from which frequency and severity of symptoms were assessed, and the percentage of symptom-free days and nights calculated. Of the 100 patients recruited into the study, 98 received medication (safety population; placebo, n = 50; sodium alginate, n = 48) and 94 were eligible for inclusion in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo, n = 48; sodium alginate, n = 46). For this population, sodium alginate was assessed as significantly superior by both investigators and patients at week two (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and at week four (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Significantly more patients in the safety population on placebo withdrew from the study (40%) compared with sodium alginate (21%; p = 0.04), due primarily to lack of effect and adverse events. The sodium alginate preparation demonstrated a superior efficacy compared with placebo, which was achieved in a more acceptable volume of medication than a previous standard preparation, Liquid Gaviscon. The reduced dosage volume of the ‘new’ preparation (Gaviscon Advance) may be expected to improve patient compliance, and thereby increase treatment efficacy.

Curr Med Res Opin. 1999;15(3):152-9