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Blood Glucose, Curcumin, Sugar, And Coffee

October 2017

Curcumin

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed as emerging components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Curcuminoids are natural polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of supplementation with a bioavailable curcuminoid preparation on measures of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with MetS. Our secondary aim was to perform a meta-analysis of data from all randomized controlled trials in order to estimate the effect size of curcuminoids on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 117 subjects with MetS (according to the NCEP-ATPIII diagnostic criteria) were randomly assigned to curcuminoids (n = 59; drop-outs = 9) or placebo (n = 58; drop-outs = 8) for eight weeks. Curcuminoids were administered at a daily dose of 1 g, and were co-supplemented with piperine (10 mg/day) in order to boost oral bioavailability. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and CRP were measured at baseline and at study end. Regarding the importance of CRP as a risk marker and risk factor of cardiovascular disease, a random-effects meta-analysis of clinical trials was performed to estimate the overall impact of curcuminoid therapy on circulating concentrations of CRP. The robustness of estimated effect size was evaluated using leave-one-out sensitivity analysis.RESULTS: Supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improved serum SOD activities (p < 0.001) and reduced MDA (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) concentrations compared with placebo. Quantitative data synthesis revealed a significant effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in reducing circulating CRP concentrations (weighed mean difference: -2.20 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.96, -0.44; p = 0.01). This effect was robust in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improves oxidative and inflammatory status in patients with MetS. Curcuminoids could be regarded as natural, safe and effective CRP-lowering agents.

Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec;34(6):1101-8.

Curcumin as a potential candidate for treating hyperlipidemia: A review of cellular and metabolic mechanisms.

Curcumin is an herbal polyphenol extensively investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidaemic properties. In the present review, the efficacy of curcumin for improving a plasma lipid profile has been evaluated and compared with statins, a well-known class of medicines for treating hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidaemia. Curcumin is presumably most effective in reducing triglyceride (TG), while statins are most efficient in lowering low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C). Additionally, various molecular and metabolic mediators of cholesterol and plasma lipid homeostasis are discussed in relation to how they are modulated by curcumin or statins. Overall, curcumin influences the same mediators of plasma lipid alteration as statins do. Almost all the pathways through which cholesterol trafficking takes place are affected by these agents. These include gastrointestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol, hepatocellular removal of plasma cholesterol, the mediators of reverse cholesterol transport, and removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potential of curcumin limits the risk of lipid peroxidation that triggers inflammatory responses causing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Taken together, curcumin could be used as a safe and well-tolerated adjunct to statins to control hyperlipidaemia more effectively than statins alone.

J Cell Physiol. 2016 Dec 24. doi: 10.

Lipid-modifying effects of adjunctive therapy with curcuminoids-piperine combination in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an established feature of metabolic syndrome (MS) that is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Curcuminoids are natural products with anti-atherosclerotic and lipid-modifying effects but their efficacy in patients with MS has not yet been tested. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of bioavailability-enhanced curcuminoids, as adjunctive to standard of care, on serum lipid concentrations in patients with MS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria who were receiving standard of care were assigned to either curcuminoids (C3 complex®; 1000 mg/day; n=50) or placebo (n=50; matched with drug capsules in shape and color) for 8 weeks. In order to improve the oral bioavailability, curcuminoids were co-administered with piperine (bioperine®) in a ratio of 100:1. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, small dense LDL (sdLDL), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and non-HDL-C were determined at baseline and at the end of 8-week treatment period. RESULTS: Curcuminoids were more effective than placebo in reducing serum LDL-C, non-HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Lp(a), and elevating HDL-C concentrations. However, changes in serum sdLDL levels were found to be comparable between the study groups. The effects of curcuminoids on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, total cholesterol and Lp(a) remained significant after adjustment for baseline values of lipids and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Curcuminoids-piperine combination is an efficacious adjunctive therapy in patients with MS and can modify serum lipid concentrations beyond what is achieved with sandard of care.

Complement Ther Med. 2014 Oct;22(5):851-7.

Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Cytokines are involved in the development of metabolic abnormalities that may result in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Since curcumin has shown anti-inflammatory properties, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on serum cytokines concentrations in subjects with MetS. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which males and females with diagnosis of MetS, according to the criteria defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, were studied. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to either curcumin (daily dose of 1g/day) or a matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen subjects were assigned to either curcumin (n=59) or placebo (n=58) groups. Within-group analysis revealed significant reductions in serum concentrations of TNF-a, IL-6, TGF-b and MCP-1 following curcumin supplementation (p<0.001). In the placebo group, serum levels of TGF-b were decreased (p=0.003) but those of IL-6 (p=0.735), TNF-a (p=0.138) and MCP-1 (p=0.832) remained unaltered by the end of study. Between-group comparison suggested significantly greater reductions in serum concentrations of TNF-a, IL-6, TGF-b and MCP-1 in the curcumin versus placebo group (p<0.001). Apart from IL-6, changes in other parameters remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders including changes in serum lipids and glucose levels, and baseline serum concentration of the cytokines. CONCLUSION: Results of the present study suggest that curcumin supplementation significantly decreases serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in subjects with MetS.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Aug;82:578-82.

Effects of curcumin on HDL functionality.

Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels. Therefore, research efforts are now focused on improving HDL functionality, independent of HDL-C levels. The quality of HDL particles can vary considerably due to heterogeneity in composition. Consistent with its complexity in composition and metabolism, a wide range of biological activities is reported for HDL, including antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-apoptotic and immune modulatory activities. Protective properties of curcumin may influence HDL functionality; therefore, we reviewed the literature to determine whether curcumin can augment HDL function. In this review, we concluded that curcumin may modulate markers of HDL function, such as apo-AI, CETP, LCAT, PON1, MPO activities and levels. Curcumin may subsequently improve conditions in which HDL is dysfunctional and may have potential as a therapeutic drug in future. Further clinical trials with bioavailability-improved formulations of curcumin are warranted to examine its effects on lipid metabolism and HDL function.

Pharmacol Res. 2017 May;119:208-218.

Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study.

AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement of diabetic microangiopathy in patients suffering from this condition since at least five years, and whose disease was managed without insulin. METHODS: Curcumin, the orange pigment of turmeric, has recently received increasing attention because of its antioxidant properties, mediated by both direct oxygen radical quenching and by induction of anti-oxidant responses via Nrf2 activation. This aspect, combined with the beneficial effects on endothelial function and on tissue and plasma inflammatory status, makes curcumin potentially useful for the management of diabetic microangiopathy. To further evaluate this, Meriva, a lecithinized formulation of curcumin, was administered at the dosage of two tablets/day (1 g Meriva/day) to 25 diabetic patients for four weeks. A comparable group of subjects followed the best possible management for this type of patients. RESULTS: All subjects in the treatment and control group completed the follow-up period; there were no dropouts. In the treatment group, at four weeks, microcirculatory and clinical evaluations indicated a decrease in skin flux (P<0.05) at the surface of the foot, a finding diagnostic of an improvement in microangiopathy, the flux being generally increased in patients affected by diabetic microangiopathy. Also, a significant decrease in the edema score (P<0.05) and a corresponding improvement in the venoarteriolar response (P<0.05) were observed. The PO2 increased at four weeks (P<0.05), as expected from a better oxygen diffusion into the skin due to the decreased edema. These findings were present in all subjects using Meriva, while no clinical or microcirculatory effects were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: Meriva was, in general, well tolerated, and these preliminary findings suggest the usefulness of this curcumin formulation for the management of diabetic microangiopathy, opening a window of opportunities to be evaluated in more prolonged and larger studies. The molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of curcumin on microcirculation and edema are also worth investigation.

Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):43-9.

Curcumin attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose and insulin via the PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway.

AIM: To investigate the potential effect of curcumin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a possible mechanism involving the PPARg/Akt/NO signaling pathway in diabetes. METHODS: The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose (25.5mmol/L) and insulin (0.1µmol/L) (HGI) and the antihypertrophic effect of curcumin were evaluated in primary culture by measuring the cell surface area, protein content and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression. The mRNA and protein expressions were assayed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, whereas the NO concentration and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity were determined using nitrate reduction and ELISA methods, respectively. RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HGI was characterized by increasing ANF mRNA expression, total protein content, and cell surface area, with downregulated mRNA and protein expressions of both PPARγ and Akt, which paralleled the declining eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS content, and NO concentration. The effects of HGI were inhibited by curcumin (1, 3, 10µmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner. GW9662 (10µmol/L), a selective PPARg antagonist, could abolish the effects of curcumin. LY294002 (20µmol/L), an Akt blocker, and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (100µmol/L), a NOS inhibitor, could also diminish the effects of curcumin. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that curcumin supplementation can improve HGI-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy in vitro through the activation of PPARg/Akt/NO signaling pathway.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 May;108(2):235-42.