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Life Extension Magazine

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Arterial protect, Oral probiotics, Glycation, and Cognitive decline

May 2017

Oral probiotics

Influence of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 on indices of dental health in children: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

The prevalence of dental caries continues to increase, and novel strategies to reverse this trend appear necessary. The probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 offers the potential to confer oral health benefits as it produces bacteriocins targeting the important cariogenic species Streptococcus mutans, as well as the enzymes dextranase and urease, which could help reduce dental plaque accumulation and acidification, respectively. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 100 dental caries-active children, treatment with M18 was administered for 3 months and the participants were assessed for changes to their plaque score and gingival and soft-tissue health and to their salivary levels of S. salivarius, S. mutans, lactobacilli, β-haemolytic streptococci and Candida species. At treatment end, the plaque scores were significantly (P = 0.05) lower for children in the M18-treated group, especially in subjects having high initial plaque scores. The absence of any significant adverse events supported the safety of the probiotic treatment. Cell-culture analyses of sequential saliva samples showed no differences between the probiotic and placebo groups in counts of the specifically enumerated oral micro-organisms, with the exception of the subgroup of the M18-treated children who appeared to have been colonized most effectively with M18. This subgroup exhibited reduced S. mutans counts, indicating that the anti-caries activity of M18 probiotic treatments may be enhanced if the efficiency of colonization is increased. It was concluded that S. salivarius M18 can provide oral health benefits when taken regularly.

J Med Microbiol. 2013 Jun;62(Pt 6):875-84

Persistence of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 is dose dependent and megaplasmid transfer can augment their bacteriocin production and adhesion characteristics

Bacteriocin-producing probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 offers beneficial modulatory capabilities within the oral microbiome, apparently through potent inhibitory activity against potentially deleterious bacteria, such as Streptococcus pyogenes. The oral cavity persistence of S. salivarius M18 was investigated in 75 subjects receiving four different doses for 28 days. Sixty per cent of the subjects already had some inhibitor-producing S. salivarius in their saliva prior to probiotic intervention. Strain M18's persistence was dependent upon the dose, but not the period of administration. Culture analysis indicated that in some individuals the introduced strain had almost entirely replaced the indigenous S. salivarius, though the total numbers of the species did not increase. Selected subjects showing either high or low probiotic persistence had their salivary populations profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis indicated that while certain bacterial phenotypes were markedly modulated, the overall composition of the oral microbiome was not modified by the probiotic treatment. Megaplasmids encoding bacteriocins and adhesion factors were transferred in vitro to generate a transconjugant S. salivarius exhibiting enhanced antimicrobial production and binding capabilities to HEp-2 cells. Since no widespread perturbation of the existing indigenous microbiota was associated with oral instillation and given its antimicrobial activity against potentially pathogenic streptococci, it appears that application of probiotic strain M18 offers potential low impact alternative to classical antibiotic prophylaxis. For candidate probiotic strains having relatively poor antimicrobial or adhesive properties, unique derivatives displaying improved probiotic performance may be engineered in vitro by megaplasmid transfer.

PLoS One. 2013 Jun 13;8(6):e65991

Megaplasmids encode differing combinations of lantibiotics in Streptococcus salivarius.

Streptococcus salivarius strains commonly produce bacteriocins as putative anti-competitor or signalling molecules. Here we report that bacteriocin production by the oral probiotic strain S. salivarius K12 is encoded by a large (ca. 190 kb) plasmid. Oral cavity transmission of the plasmid from strain K12 to a plasmid-negative variant of this bacterium was demonstrated in two subjects. Tests of additional S. salivarius strains showed large (up to ca. 220 kb) plasmids present in bacteriocin-producing isolates. Various combinations (up to 3 per plasmid) of loci encoding the known streptococcal lantibiotics salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and SA-FF22 were localised to these plasmids. Since all bacteriocin-producing strains of S. salivarius tested to date appear to harbour plasmids, it appears that they may function as mobile repositories for bacteriocin loci, especially those of the lantibiotic class.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2006 Oct;90(3): 269-80

Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response.

OBJECTIVE: With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. METHODS: We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years) and younger men (ages 18 to 35), as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above) in our banked specimens. RESULTS: We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78), interleukin 7 (IL-7), p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40), macrophage inflammatory protein 1b (MIP-1b), platelet derived growth factor b (PDGFb) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon testosterone administration.

Immun Ageing. 2011 Jun 20;8(1):5

The C5a receptor impairs IL-12-dependent clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and is required for induction of periodontal bone loss.

The C5a anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR; CD88) is activated as part of the complement cascade and exerts important inflammatory, antimicrobial, and regulatory functions, at least in part, via crosstalk with TLRs. However, the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can control C5aR activation by generating C5a through its own C5 convertase-like enzymatic activity. In this paper, we show that P. gingivalis uses this mechanism to proactively and selectively inhibit TLR2-induced IL-12p70, whereas the same pathogen-instigated C5aR-TLR2 crosstalk upregulates other inflammatory and bone-resorptive cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF-a). In vivo, the ability of P. gingivalis to manipulate TLR2 activation via the C5a-C5aR axis allowed it to escape IL-12p70-dependent immune clearance and to cause inflammatory bone loss in a murine model of experimental periodontitis. In the latter regard, C5aR-deficient or TLR2-deficient mice were both resistant to periodontal bone loss, in stark contrast with wild-type control mice, which is consistent with the interdependent interactions of C5aR and TLR2 in P. gingivalis immune evasion and induction of bone-resorptive cytokines. In conclusion, P. gingivalis targets C5aR to promote its adaptive fitness and cause periodontal disease. Given the current availability of safe and effective C5aR antagonists, pharmacological blockade of C5aR could act therapeutically in human periodontitis and reduce associated systemic risks.

J Immunol. 2011 Jan 15;186(2):869-77

Inflammation as a potential mediator for the association between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease.

Periodontal disease (PDD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and mortality in many studies, while other studies have begun to suggest an association of PDD with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper discusses how infectious pathogens and systemic infection may play a role in AD. The roles of infection and inflammation are addressed specifically with regard to known AD pathologic lesions including senile plaques, neuron death, neurofibrillary tangles, and cerebrovascular changes. A testable model of proposed pathways between periodontal infection and AD is presented including three possible mechanisms: a) direct effects of infectious pathogens, b) inflammatory response to pathogens, and c) the effects on vascular integrity. The role of gene polymorphisms is discussed, including apolipoprotein (APOE) varepsilon4 as a pro-inflammatory and pro-infection genotype.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Oct;4(5):865-76