Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More! Ends January 31st.

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Vertigo and Dizziness


AAFM. American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. Vertigo--a type of dizziness. American family physician. Mar 15 2005;71(6):1129-1130.

Agrawal Y, Ward BK, Minor LB. Vestibular dysfunction: prevalence, impact and need for targeted treatment. Journal of vestibular research : equilibrium & orientation. 2013;23(3):113-117.

Agus S, Benecke H, Thum C, Strupp M. Clinical and Demographic Features of Vertigo: Findings from the REVERT Registry. Frontiers in neurology. 2013;4:48.

AHRQ. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Guideline Summary: Evaluation of vertigo in the adult patient. 5/2014. Accessed 1/20/2016.

American Academy of Otolaryngology. Patient Health page. Dizziness and Motion Sickness. Copyright 2016. Accessed 4/25/2016.

Arakawa M, Ito Y. N-acetylcysteine and neurodegenerative diseases: basic and clinical pharmacology. Cerebellum (London, England). 2007;6(4):308-314.

Baggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC, Passeri M, Carmosino G. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. CoQ10 Drug Surveillance Investigators. Molecular aspects of medicine. 1994;15 Suppl:s287-294.

Ballatori N, Krance SM, Notenboom S, Shi S, Tieu K, Hammond CL. Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biological chemistry. 2009;390(3):191-214.

Barona de Guzman R, Armengot Carceller M. [Vestibular compensation. Rehabilitation of a patient with vertigo]. Acta otorrinolaringologica espanola. Nov-Dec 1994;45(6):401-405.

Berlinger NT. Meniere's disease: new concepts, new treatments. Minnesota medicine. Nov 2011;94(11):33-36.

Bhattacharyya N, Baugh RF, Orvidas L, Barrs D, Bronston LJ, Cass S, . . . Haidari J. Clinical practice guideline: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Nov 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-81.

Bigelow RT, Semenov YR, du Lac S, Hoffman HJ, Agrawal Y. Vestibular vertigo and comorbid cognitive and psychiatric impairment: the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. Apr 17 2015.

Bisdorff A, Bosser G, Gueguen R, Perrin P. The epidemiology of vertigo, dizziness, and unsteadiness and its links to co-morbidities. Frontiers in neurology. 2013;4:29-29.

Bounous G, Gervais F, Amer V, Batist G, Gold P. The influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of aging. Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale. Dec 1989;12(6):343-349.

Bouvier D. [Interest of S100B protein blood level determination in severe or moderate head injury]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). Mar-Apr 2013;71(2):145-150.

Briani C, Dalla Torre C, Citton V, Manara R, Pompanin S, Binotto G, Adami F. Cobalamin deficiency: clinical picture and radiological findings. Nutrients. Nov 2013;5(11):4521-4539.

Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leininger B, Triano J. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiropractic & osteopathy. 2010;18:3.

Buki B, Ecker M, Junger H, Lundberg YW. Vitamin D deficiency and benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo. Medical hypotheses. Feb 2013;80(2):201-204.

Burgess A, Kundu S. Diuretics for Meniere’s disease or syndrome. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2006;3.

Burkard R, Shepard N. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: They are the same as an auditory evoked potential, only different. [slides]. 2/9/2013. Accessed 2/3/2016.

Campellone JV. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Vertigo-associated disorders. Last updated 10/29/2013. Accessed 2/18/2016.

Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, Barozzi S, Verderio L, Boscani PF. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Advances in therapy. Sep-Oct 1998;15(5):291-304.

Chimirri S, Aiello R, Mazzitello C, Mumoli L, Palleria C, Altomonte M, . . . De Sarro G. Vertigo/dizziness as a Drugs' adverse reaction. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. Dec 2013;4(Suppl 1):S104-109.

Chiou KR, Chen CH, Ding PY, Chen YT, Ting CT, Huang JL, . . . Chang MS. Randomized, double-blind comparison of irbesartan and enalapril for treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed. May 2000;63(5):368-376.

Chiu HY, Yeh TH, Huang YC, Chen PY. Effects of Intravenous and Oral Magnesium on Reducing Migraine: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain physician. Jan 2016;19(1):E97-e112.

Chu CH, Liu CJ, Lin LY, Chen TJ, Wang SJ. Migraine is associated with an increased risk for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a nationwide population-based study. The journal of headache and pain. Dec 2015;16:62.

Clarke R, Refsum H, Birks J, Evans JG, Johnston C, Sherliker P, . . . Scott JM. Screening for vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in older persons. The American journal of clinical nutrition. May 2003;77(5):1241-1247.

Claussen CF, Bergmann J, Bertora G, Claussen E. [Clinical experimental test and equilibrimetric measurements of the therapeutic action of a homeopathic drug consisting of ambra, cocculus, Conium and mineral oil in the diagnosis of vertigo and nausea]. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 1984;34(12):1791-1798.

Claussen CF, Claussen E. [Antivertiginous action of vitamin B 6 on experimental minocycline-induced vertigo in man]. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Mar 1988;38(3):396-399.

Crawford C, Wallerstedt DB, Khorsan R, Clausen SS, Jonas WB, Walter JA. A systematic review of biopsychosocial training programs for the self-management of emotional stress: potential applications for the military. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2013;2013:747694.

Cureoglu S, Baylan MY, Paparella MM. Cochlear Otosclerosis. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery. 2010;18(5):357-362.

D'Avila C, Lavinsky L. Glucose and insulin profiles and their correlations in Meniere's disease. The international tinnitus journal. 2005;11(2):170-176.

DailyMed. Archived Drug Label. Vertigoheel. Accessed 3/28/2016.

De Natale C, Annuzzi G, Bozzetto L, Mazzarella R, Costabile G, Ciano O, . . . Rivellese AA. Effects of a plant-based high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet versus high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet on postprandial lipids in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes care. Dec 2009;32(12):2168-2173.

Demetroulakos JL, Scherger JE. First Consult. Ménière disease. 10/14/2010. Accessed 1/20/2016.

DeWood MA, Wolbach RA. Randomized double-blind comparison of side effects of nicardipine and nifedipine in angina pectoris. The Nicardipine Investigators Group. American heart journal. Feb 1990;119(2 Pt 2):468-478.

Edlow JA, Newman-Toker D. Using the Physical Examination to Diagnose Patients with Acute Dizziness and Vertigo. The Journal of emergency medicine. Apr 2016;50(4):617-628.

Egea-Guerrero JJ, Revuelto-Rey J, Murillo-Cabezas F, Munoz-Sanchez MA, Vilches-Arenas A, Sanchez-Linares P, . . . Leon-Carrion J. Accuracy of the S100beta protein as a marker of brain damage in traumatic brain injury. Brain injury. 2012;26(1):76-82.

Emary PC. Chiropractic management of a 40-year-old female patient with Meniere disease. Journal of chiropractic medicine. Mar 2010;9(1):22-27.

Erskine SK. The Pre-Travel Consultation. Chapter 2. Jet Lag: Motion Sickness. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Last updated 7/10/2015. Accessed 4/25/2016.

Espinosa-Sanchez JM, Lopez-Escamez JA. New insights into pathophysiology of vestibular migraine. Frontiers in neurology. 2015;6:12.

Esposito K, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Chiodini P, Panagiotakos D, Giugliano D. A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses. BMJ open. 2015;5(8):e008222.

Fang J. [Observation of curative effect on fixed-point spin reduction of spinal manipulation therapy for cervical vertigo]. Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology. Feb 2010;23(2):99-101.

Fernandez L, Breinbauer HA, Delano PH. Vertigo and Dizziness in the Elderly. Frontiers in neurology. 2015;6:144.

Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Labyrinthitis. pp. 735-735e1. Copyright 2016. Accessed 2/18/2016.

Fife TD, Kalra D. Persistent vertigo and dizziness after mild traumatic brain injury. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Apr 2015;1343:97-105.

Foster CA. Optimal management of Meniere's disease. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2015;11:301-307.

Foster CA, Ponnapan A, Zaccaro K, Strong D. A Comparison of Two Home Exercises for Benign Positional Vertigo: Half Somersault versus Epley Maneuver. Audiology and Neurotology Extra. 2012;2(1):16-23.

Fraix M. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and vertigo: a pilot study. PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation. Jul 2010;2(7):612-618.

Frohman EM, Kramer PD, Dewey RB, Kramer L, Frohman TC. Benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo in multiple sclerosis: diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutic techniques. Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England). Jun 2003;9(3):250-255.

Gacek RR. A perspective on recurrent vertigo. ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties. 2013;75(2):91-107.

Gallina S, Dispenza F, Kulamarva G, Riggio F, Speciale R. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS): effects on the vestibular system. Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale. Dec 2010;30(6):281-284.

Galm R, Rittmeister M, Schmitt E. Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 1998;7(1):55-58.

Genova ML, Lenaz G. New developments on the functions of coenzyme Q in mitochondria. BioFactors (Oxford, England). Sep-Oct 2011;37(5):330-354.

GOSH. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Flunarizine to prevent migraine. Copyright 2015. Accessed 1/21/2016.

Goto F, Nakai K, Kunihiro T, Ogawa K. Case report: a case of intractable Meniere's disease treated with autogenic training. BioPsychoSocial medicine. 2008a;2:3.

Goto F, Nakai K, Kunihiro T, Ogawa K. Phobic postural vertigo treated with autogenic training: a case report. Cases journal. 2008b;1(1):189.

Goto F, Nakai K, Ogawa K. Application of autogenic training in patients with Meniere disease. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Oct 2011;268(10):1431-1435.

Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta oto-laryngologica. Jan-Feb 1988;105(1-2):45-49.

Grontved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study. ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties. 1986;48(5):282-286.

Gurvich C, Maller JJ, Lithgow B, Haghgooie S, Kulkarni J. Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry. Brain Res. Nov 6 2013;1537:244-259.

Haguenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, Pierart H. [Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. A multicenter double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983). Sep 25 1986;15(31):1569-1572.

Hain TC. American Hearing Research Foundation. Hearing & Balance Disorders. Medical Treatment of Vertigo. Last updated 10/2008. Accessed 3/28/2016.

Hain TC. Cervicogenic causes of vertigo. Current opinion in neurology. Feb 2015;28(1):69-73.

Hain TC, Uddin M. Pharmacological treatment of vertigo. CNS drugs. 2003;17(2):85-100.

Haller H, Cramer H, Werner M, Dobos G. Treating the sequelae of postoperative meningioma and traumatic brain injury: a case of implementation of craniosacral therapy in integrative inpatient care. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). Feb 2015;21(2):110-112.

Haniadka R, Saldanha E, Sunita V, Palatty PL, Fayad R, Baliga MS. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Food & function. Jun 2013;4(6):845-855.

Health Canada. Flunarizine. Last updated 1/26/2015. Accessed 1/21/2016.

Heikkila H, Johansson M, Wenngren BI. Effects of acupuncture, cervical manipulation and NSAID therapy on dizziness and impaired head repositioning of suspected cervical origin: a pilot study. Manual therapy. Aug 2000;5(3):151-157.

Heinle H, Tober C, Zhang D, Jaggi R, Kuebler WM. The low-dose combination preparation Vertigoheel activates cyclic nucleotide pathways and stimulates vasorelaxation. Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation. 2010;46(1):23-35.

Hitier M, Barbier C, Marie-Aude T, Moreau S, Courtheoux P, Patron V. New treatment of vertigo caused by jugular bulb abnormalities. Surg Innov. Aug 2014;21(4):365-371.

Hogue JD. Office evaluation of dizziness. Primary care. Jun 2015;42(2):249-258.

Holmes S, Padgham ND. A review of the burden of vertigo. J Clin Nurs. Oct 2011;20(19-20):2690-2701.

Hong SM, Yeo SG, Kim SW, Cha CI. The results of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, with consideration of age-related changes, in vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and Meniere's disease. Acta oto-laryngologica. Aug 2008;128(8):861-865.

Huang Q. Fifty cases of vertebrobasilar ischemic vertigo treated by acupuncture. Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan / sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Jun 2009;29(2):87-89.

Issing W, Klein P, Weiser M. The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). Feb 2005;11(1):155-160.

Iwasaki S, Yamasoba T. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System. Aging Dis. Feb 2015;6(1):38-47.

James AL, Thorp MA. Menière's disease. BMJ Clinical Evidence. 03/01 2007;2007:0505.

Jeong SH, Kim JS, Shin JW, Kim S, Lee H, Lee AY, . . . Ghim Y. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. J Neurol. Mar 2013;260(3):832-838.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. Neurology and Neurosurgery. Vestibular Migraine. Accessed 4/22/2016.

Johnston CS, Meyer CG, Srilakshmi JC. Vitamin C elevates red blood cell glutathione in healthy adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition. July 1, 1993 1993;58(1):103-105.

Kartal AG, Yilmaz S, Yaka E, Pekdemir M, Sarisoy HT, Cekmen MB, Yuksel M. Diagnostic value of S100B protein in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo in the emergency department. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Jul 2014;21(7):736-741.

Kayabasi S, Iriz A, Cayonu M, Cengiz B, Acar A, Boynuegri S, . . . Eryilmaz A. Vestibular functions were found to be impaired in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The Laryngoscope. May 2015;125(5):1244-1248.

Kent KD, Harper WJ, Bomser JA. Effect of whey protein isolate on intracellular glutathione and oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate epithelial cells. Toxicology in vitro: an international journal published in association with BIBRA. Feb 2003;17(1):27-33.

Kerber KA. Vertigo and Dizziness in the Emergency Department. Emergency medicine clinics of North America. 2009a;27(1):39-viii.

Kerber KA. Vertigo and dizziness in the emergency department. Emergency medicine clinics of North America. Feb 2009b;27(1):39-50, viii.

Ketola S, Havia M, Appelberg B, Kentala E. Psychiatric symptoms in vertiginous patients. Nordic journal of psychiatry. May 2015;69(4):287-291.

Kim BW, Koppula S, Kim JW, Lim HW, Hwang JW, Kim IS, . . . Choi DK. Modulation of LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia by Gastrodia elata: 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is the bioactive candidate. Journal of ethnopharmacology. Jan 31 2012;139(2):549-557.

Kim HA, Yi HA, Lee H. Recent advances in orthostatic hypotension presenting orthostatic dizziness or vertigo. Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. Nov 2015;36(11):1995-2002.

Kirtane MV, Medikeri SB, Rao P. Blood levels of glucose and insulin in Meniere's disease. Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum. 1984;406:42-45.

Klopp R, Niemer W, Weiser M. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study. Microvascular research. Jan 2005;69(1-2):10-16.

Kolte D, Vijayaraghavan K, Khera S, Sica DA, Frishman WH. Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiology in review. Jul-Aug 2014;22(4):182-192.

Kornilova LN, Temnikova VV, Naumov IA, Ekimovskii GA, Solov'eva AD. [Computer-aided techniques for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients suffering vertigo and balance disorders]. Vestnik otorinolaringologii. 2010(6):38-43.

Kraft JR. Hyperinsulinemia: A Merging History with Idiopathic Tinnitus, Vertigo, and Hearing Loss. The international tinnitus journal. 1998;4(2):127-130.

Kumar A, Kaur H, Devi P, Mohan V. Role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in cardiac disease, hypertension and Meniere-like syndrome. Pharmacology & therapeutics. Dec 2009;124(3):259-268.

Lahmann C, Henningsen P, Brandt T, Strupp M, Jahn K, Dieterich M, . . . Schmid G. Psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial impairment among patients with vertigo and dizziness. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. Mar 2015;86(3):302-308.

Lazzini S, Polinelli W, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) extract supplementation on gastric motility: a pilot randomized study in healthy volunteers. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. Jan 2016;20(1):146-149.

Leclercq C, Molinaro MG, Piccinelli R, Baldini M, Arcella D, Stacchini P. Dietary intake exposure to sulphites in Italy--analytical determination of sulphite-containing foods and their combination into standard meals for adults and children. Food additives and contaminants. Dec 2000;17(12):979-989.

Lehrer JF, Poole DC, Seaman M, Restivo D, Hartman K. Identification and treatment of metabolic abnormalities in patients with vertigo. Archives of internal medicine. Aug 1986;146(8):1497-1500.

Lepcha A, Amalanathan S, Augustine AM, Tyagi AK, Balraj A. Flunarizine in the prophylaxis of migrainous vertigo: a randomized controlled trial. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Nov 2014;271(11):2931-2936.

Li HB, Chen F. Preparative isolation and purification of gastrodin from the Chinese medicinal plant Gastrodia elata by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Journal of chromatography. A. Oct 15 2004;1052(1-2):229-232.

Li JP, Cai J, Gan XM. [Observation of therapeutic effects on cervical vertigo treated with different methods]. Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion. May 2011;31(5):405-408.

Lin E, Aligene K. Pharmacology of balance and dizziness. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;32(3):529-542.

Luchikhin LA, Ganichkina I, Doronina OM. [Biological feedback techniques in rehabilitation of patients with impaired equilibrium function]. Vestnik otorinolaringologii. 2002(2):18-20.

Lynch JR, Blessing R, White WD, Grocott HP, Newman MF, Laskowitz DT. Novel diagnostic test for acute stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Jan 2004;35(1):57-63.

Mahajan SK, Aundhakar SC. A study of the prevalence of serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid deficiency in Western maharashtra. Journal of family medicine and primary care. Jan-Mar 2015;4(1):64-68.

Mangabeira Albernaz PL, Fukuda Y. Glucose, insulin and inner ear pathology. Acta oto-laryngologica. May-Jun 1984;97(5-6):496-501.

Marx W, Ried K, McCarthy AL, Vitetta L, Sali A, McKavanagh D, Isenring E. Ginger-Mechanism of Action in Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Apr 7 2015:0.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. Available at Last updated 05/28/2015. Accessed 10/22/2015.

McCormack PL, Wagstaff AJ. Lacidipine: a review of its use in the management of hypertension. Drugs. 2003;63(21):2327-2356.

Mercier E, Boutin A, Lauzier F, Fergusson DA, Simard JF, Zarychanski R, . . . Turgeon AF. Predictive value of S-100beta protein for prognosis in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2013;346:f1757.

Middleton N, Jelen P, Bell G. Whole blood and mononuclear cell glutathione response to dietary whey protein supplementation in sedentary and trained male human subjects. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. Mar 2004;55(2):131-141.

Mikulec AA, Kowalczyk KA, Pfitzinger ME, Harris DA, Jackson LE. Negative association between treated osteoporosis and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in women. The Journal of laryngology and otology. Apr 2010;124(4):374-376.

Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Pediatric neurology. Jan 2003;28(1):9-15.

Morawiec-Bajda A, Lukomski M, Latkowski B. The clinical efficacy of Vertigoheel in the treatment of vertigo of various etiology. Panminerva medica. Jun 1993;35(2):101-104.

Mraz M, Curzytek M, Mraz MA, Gawron W, Czerwosz L, Skolimowski T. Body balance in patients with systemic vertigo after rehabilitation exercise. Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society. Nov 2007;58 Suppl 5(Pt 1):427-436.

Murofushi T. Clinical application of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). Auris, nasus, larynx. Jan 11 2016.

Murofushi T, Nakahara H, Yoshimura E, Tsuda Y. Association of air-conducted sound oVEMP findings with cVEMP and caloric test findings in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders. Acta oto-laryngologica. Sep 2011;131(9):945-950.

Nadeau DA. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in self-motivated patients: optimized diet, exercise, and medication for weight loss and cardiometabolic fitness. The Physician and sportsmedicine. Nov 2014;42(4):49-59.

Nakayama M, Masuda A, Ando KB, Arima S, Kabaya K, Inagaki A, . . . Murakami S. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on the Manifestations of Meniere's Disease in Patients with Concomitant Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Oct 2015;11(10):1101-1107.

Naprienko MV. [Tanakan in the treatment of cognitive and autonomic impairments and headache in young patients]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniia i meditsinskoi promyshlennosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii, Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo nevrologov [i] Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo psikhiat. 2014;114(6):38-41.

Neuhauser HK, Lempert T. Vertigo: epidemiologic aspects. Seminars in neurology. Nov 2009;29(5):473-481.

NICE. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Migraine prophylaxis: flunarizine. Copyright 2016. Accessed 1/21/2016.

NIDCD. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communcation Disorders. Otosclerosis. Last updated 9/2013. Accessed 2/3/2016.

NIH. National Institutes of Health/US National Library of Medicine. Medline-Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Vertigo-Associated Disorders. Available at Last updated 10/21/2015. Accessed 10/22/2015.

Obermann M, Strupp M. Current treatment options in vestibular migraine. Frontiers in neurology. 2014;5:257.

Olszewski J, Repetowski M, Kusmierczyk K. [Comparative assessment of results in cervical vertigo pharmacotherapy vs physiotherapy treatment]. Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology. 2007;61(5):827-830.

Orendorz-Fraczkowska K, Pospiech L, Gawron W. [Results of combined treatment for vestibular receptor impairment with physical therapy and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761)]. Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology. 2002;56(1):83-88.

Osterloh IH. An update on the safety of amlodipine. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 1991;17 Suppl 1:S65-68.

Park JJ, Shen A, Keil S, Kuhl C, Westhofen M. Jugular bulb abnormalities in patients with Meniere's disease using high-resolution computed tomography. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Aug 2015;272(8):1879-1884.

Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. Jun 1996;16(4):257-263.

Peluso ET, Quintana MI, Gananca FF. Anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. Oct 9 2015.

Perez N, Santandreu E, Benitez J, Rey-Martinez J. Improvement of postural control in patients with peripheral vestibulopathy. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. May 2006;263(5):414-420.

Post RE, Dickerson LM. Dizziness: a diagnostic approach. American family physician. Aug 15 2010;82(4):361-368, 369.

Purrucker JC, Herrmann O, Lutsch JK, Zorn M, Schwaninger M, Bruckner T, . . . Veltkamp R. Serum protein S100beta is a diagnostic biomarker for distinguishing posterior circulation stroke from vertigo of nonvascular causes. European neurology. 2014;72(5-6):278-284.

Ramachandran U, Manavalan A, Sundaramurthi H, Sze SK, Feng ZW, Hu JM, Heese K. Tianma modulates proteins with various neuro-regenerative modalities in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Neurochemistry international. Jun 2012;60(8):827-836.

Rauch SD. Clinical hints and precipitating factors in patients suffering from Meniere's disease. Otolaryngologic clinics of North America. Oct 2010;43(5):1011-1017.

Rosengren SM, Kingma H. New perspectives on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Current opinion in neurology. Feb 2013;26(1):74-80.

Samuels MA, Pomerantz BJ, Sadow PM. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 14-2010. A 54-year-old woman with dizziness and falls. The New England journal of medicine. May 13 2010;362(19):1815-1823.

Schneider B, Klein P, Weiser M. Treatment of vertigo with a homeopathic complex remedy compared with usual treatments: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 2005;55(1):23-29.

Schroeter ML, Sacher J, Steiner J, Schoenknecht P, Mueller K. Serum S100B represents a new biomarker for mood disorders. Current drug targets. Oct 2013;14(11):1237-1248.

Schultz AR, Neves-Souza RD, Costa Vde S, Meneses-Barriviera CL, Franco PP, Marchiori LL. Is There a Possible Association between Dietary Habits and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Elderly? The Importance of Diet and Counseling. International archives of otorhinolaryngology. Oct 2015;19(4):293-297.

Sennaroglu L, Sennaroglu G, Gursel B, Dini FM. Intratympanic dexamethasone, intratympanic gentamicin, and endolymphatic sac surgery for intractable vertigo in Meniere's disease. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Nov 2001;125(5):537-543.

Serra AP, Lopes KdC, Dorigueto RS, Ganança FF. Blood glucose and insulin levels in patients with peripheral vestibular disease. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2009;75(5):701-705.

Shamliyan TA, kane RL, Ramakrishnan R, Taylor FR. Migraine in Children: Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US): 2013 Jun. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 108). Executive Summary. Accessed 2/18/2016.

Shutty MS, Jr., Dawdy L, McMahon M, Buckelew SP. Behavioral treatment of dizziness secondary to benign positional vertigo following head trauma. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Jun 1991;72(7):473-476.

Singh B, Arora S. Acute presentation of dizziness in vitamin B12 deficient old patient of cardiac disease: a case report. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. Dec 14 2010;411(23-24):2104-2106.

Sismanis A. Surgical management of common peripheral vestibular diseases. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery. Oct 2010;18(5):431-435.

Sokolova L, Hoerr R, Mishchenko T. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine. International journal of otolaryngology. 2014;2014:682439.

Someya S, Xu J, Kondo K, Ding D, Salvi RJ, Yamasoba T, . . . Prolla TA. Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice is mediated by Bak-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov 17 2009;106(46):19432-19437.

Sowerby LJ, Rotenberg B, Brine M, George CF, Parnes LS. Sleep apnea, daytime somnolence, and idiopathic dizziness--a novel association. The Laryngoscope. Jun 2010;120(6):1274-1278.

Span P. The New York Times [online]. Health page. An Easy Fix for Vertigo. 2/26/2016. Accessed 4/22/2016.

Steinberger A, Pansini M. The treatment of Meniere's disease by acupuncture. The American journal of Chinese medicine. 1983;11(1-4):102-105.

Strupp M, Brandt T. Diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Mar 2008;105(10):173-180.

Strupp M, Dieterich M, Brandt T. The treatment and natural course of peripheral and central vertigo. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Jul 2013;110(29-30):505-515; quiz 515-506.

Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. The Clinical journal of pain. Jun 2009;25(5):446-452.

Susanto M. Dizziness: if not vertigo could it be cardiac disease? Australian family physician. May 2014;43(5):264-269.

Syed I, Aldren C. Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management. International journal of clinical practice. Feb 2012;66(2):166-170.

Takumida M, Anniko M, Ohtani M. Radical scavengers for Meniere's disease after failure of conventional therapy: a pilot study. Acta oto-laryngologica. Aug 2003;123(6):697-703.

Talaat HS, Abuhadied G, Talaat AS, Abdelaal MS. Low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Sep 2015;272(9):2249-2253.

Talaat HS, Kabel AH, Khaliel LH, Abuhadied G, El-Naga HA, Talaat AS. Reduction of recurrence rate of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo by treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency. Auris, nasus, larynx. Sep 16 2015.

Tarnutzer AA, Berkowitz AL, Robinson KA, Hsieh YH, Newman-Toker DE. Does my dizzy patient have a stroke? A systematic review of bedside diagnosis in acute vestibular syndrome. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. Jun 14 2011;183(9):E571-592.

Thompson TL, Amedee R. Vertigo: a review of common peripheral and central vestibular disorders. The Ochsner journal. Spring 2009;9(1):20-26.

Torshin I, Gromova OA, Kalacheva AG, Oshchepkova EV, Martynov AI. [Meta-analysis of clinical trials of cardiovascular effects of magnesium orotate]. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2015;87(6):88-97.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Ginkgo biloba. Available at: Last updated 5/7/13a. Accessed 9/8/14.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Health Information: Medical Reference Guide: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide: Treatment: Relaxation techniques. Available at Last updated 09/24/2013b. Accessed 11/23/2015.

Vanni S, Pecci R, Casati C, Moroni F, Risso M, Ottaviani M, . . . Vannucchi P. STANDING, a four-step bedside algorithm for differential diagnosis of acute vertigo in the Emergency Department. Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale. Dec 2014;34(6):419-426.

VDA. Vestibular Disorders Association. About Vestibular Disorders page. Medication: Can Medication Help Me Feel Better? Copyright 2016a. Accessed 2/23/2016.

VDA. Vestibular Disorders Association. Educational Resources page. Labyrinthitis and Vestibular Neuritis: Infections of the Inner Ear. Copyright 2016b. Accessed 2/18/2016.

VDA. Vestibular Disorders Association. Educational Resources page. Vestibular Migraine (a.k.a. Migraine Associated Vertigo or MAV). Copyright 2016c. Accessed 3/14/2016.

Venhovens J, Meulstee J, Verhagen WI. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in central neurological disorders. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jan 2016;127(1):40-49.

von Brevern M. Acute dizziness and vertigo: The bedside testing is essential. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. Apr-Jun 2015;6(2):133-134.

Webster G, Sens PM, Salmito MC, Cavalcante JD, Santos PR, Silva AL, Souza EC. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia: risk factors for recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. Jul-Aug 2015;81(4):347-351.

Weinreich HM, Agrawal Y. The link between allergy and Meniere's disease. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery. Jun 2014;22(3):227-230.

Wetmore S. First Consult. Evaluation and initial management of vertigo. Copyright Elsevier BV, Inc. Last updated 8/11/2013. Accessed 11/2/2015.

Wipperman J. Dizziness and vertigo. Primary care. Mar 2014;41(1):115-131.

Xu L LZ, Cheng F, et al Clinical Curative Effect Exploration on the Treatment of Emergency Vertigo by Gastrodine combined with Promethazine. Available at Accessed 12/05/2015. 2013.

Yamanaka T, Shirota S, Sawai Y, Murai T, Fujita N, Hosoi H. Osteoporosis as a risk factor for the recurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The Laryngoscope. Nov 2013;123(11):2813-2816.

Yang YK, Wang LP, Chen L, Yao XP, Yang KQ, Gao LG, Zhou XL. Coenzyme Q10 treatment of cardiovascular disorders of ageing including heart failure, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. Aug 6 2015;450:83-89.

Yardan T, Erenler AK, Baydin A, Aydin K, Cokluk C. Usefulness of S100B protein in neurological disorders. J Pak Med Assoc. Mar 2011;61(3):276-281.

Ye C, Jiang S, Fang J, et al. Meta-Analysis of Gastrodin Injection in the Treatment of Vertigo. Available at Accessed 12/05/2015. 2009.

Young YH. Potential application of ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in Meniere's disease: a review. The Laryngoscope. Feb 2013;123(2):484-491.

Yu S, Liu F, Cheng Z, Wang Q. Association between osteoporosis and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a systematic review. BMC neurology. 2014;14:110.

Zanchetti A, Parati G, Malacco E. Zofenopril plus hydrochlorothiazide: Combination therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Drugs. 2006;66(8):1107-1115.