Free Shipping on Orders Over $75! Ends January 31st.

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Fibrocystic Breast Changes

References

ACR. American College of Rheumatology. NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/medications/nsaids.asp. Last updated 8/2012. Accessed 3/6/2015.

ACS. American Cancer Society. Ductal or lobular hyperplasia. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/womenshealth/non-cancerousbreastconditions/non-cancerous-breast-conditions-hyperplasia . Last updated 5/1/2015. Accessed 5/4/2015.

ACS. American Cancer Society. Types of biopsy procedures. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/examsandtestdescriptions/forwomenfacingabreastbiopsy/breast-biopsy-biopsy-types. Last updated 7/21/2014 . Accessed 12/19/2014.

Adlercreutz H, Bannwart C, Wähälä K, Mäkelä T, Brunow G, Hase T, ... Vickery LE. Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2// 1993;44(2):147-153.

Alipour S, Hadji M, Hosseini L, Omranipour R, Saberi A, Seifollahi A, ... Shirzad N. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin d in benign and malignant breast masses. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2014;15(1):129-132.

Al-Sobhi SS, Helvie MA, Pass HA, Chang AE. Extent of lumpectomy for breast cancer after diagnosis by stereotactic core versus wire localization biopsy. Annals of surgical oncology. Jun 1999;6(4):330-335.

Altern Med Rev. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Mar 2009;14(1):67-71.

Alvero R. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Copyight 2015 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 10/14/2014.

Amin AL, Purdy AC, Mattingly JD, Kong AL, Termuhlen PM. Benign breast disease. The Surgical clinics of North America. Apr 2013;93(2):299-308.

Aydin Y, Atis A, Kaleli S, Uludag S, Goker N. Cabergoline versus bromocriptine for symptomatic treatment of premenstrual mastalgia: a randomised, open-label study. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. Jun 2010;150(2):203-206.

Baer HJ, Schnitt SJ, Connolly JL, Byrne C, Cho E, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Adolescent diet and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Nov 2003;12(11 Pt 1):1159-1167.

Beaumont H, Augood C, Duckitt K, Lethaby A. Danazol for heavy menstrual bleeding. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2002(2):Cd001017.

Bellmann O. [Hormonal regulation of lactation (author's transl)]. Klinische Padiatrie. Sep 1976;188(5):385-395.

Berkey CS, Tamimi RM, Rosner B, Frazier AL, Colditz GA. Young women with family history of breast cancer and their risk factors for benign breast disease. Cancer. Jun 1 2012;118(11):2796-2803.

Berkey CS, Willett WC, Frazier AL, Rosner B, Tamimi RM, Rockett HR, Colditz GA. Prospective study of adolescent alcohol consumption and risk of benign breast disease in young women. Pediatrics. May 2010;125(5):e1081-1087.

Berkey CS, Willett WC, Tamimi RM, Rosner B, Frazier AL, Colditz GA. Vegetable protein and vegetable fat intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, and risk for benign breast disease in young women. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2013;141(2):299-306.

Bessone F. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: What is the actual risk of liver damage? World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(45):5651-61.

Boccardo F, Lunardi G, Guglielmini P, Parodi M, Murialdo R, Schettini G, Rubagotti A. Serum enterolactone levels and the risk of breast cancer in women with palpable cysts. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). Jan 2004;40(1):84-89.

Boccardo F, Lunardi GL, Petti AR, Rubagotti A. Enterolactone in breast cyst fluid: correlation with EGF and breast cancer risk. Breast cancer research and treatment. May 2003;79(1):17-23.

BreastCancer.org. Symptoms & Diagnosis page. Biopsy. Available at: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/biopsy. Last updated 1/14/2015. Accessed 2/18/2015.

Bulun SE, Lin Z, Imir G, Amin S, Demura M, Yilmaz B, ... Deb S. Regulation of Aromatase Expression in Estrogen-Responsive Breast and Uterine Disease: From Bench to Treatment. Pharmacological Reviews. September 1, 2005 2005;57(3):359-383.

Cann SA, van Netten JP, van Netten C. Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer. Cancer causes & control : CCC. Feb 2000;11(2):121-127.

Carbonaro A, Ciotta L, Stracquadanio M, Formuso C, Giunta M, Agati A, ... Chammas F. Oral contraception and benign breast diseases. American Journal of Nursing. 2012;1(1):1-4.

Carmichael AR. Can Vitex Agnus Castus be Used for the Treatment of Mastalgia? What is the Current Evidence? Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. Sep 2008;5(3):247-250.

Castello A, Pollan M, Buijsse B, Ruiz A, Casas AM, Baena-Canada JM, ... Martin M. Spanish Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: case-control EpiGEICAM study. British journal of cancer. Sep 23 2014;111(7):1454-1462.

Castillo-Huerta E, Garibay-Valencia M, Mirabent-Gonzalez F. [Clinical comparision of alpha dihydroergocryptine against cabergoline in the treatment of the fibrocystic mastopathy]. Ginecologia y obstetricia de Mexico. Jul 2013;81(7):370-376.

CCS. Canadian Cancer Society. Cancer Information page. Breast cancer: Fibrocystic breast changes. Available at: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/breast/breast-cancer/benign-conditions/fibrocystic-changes/?region=on . Accessed 2/19/2015.

CGRDU. Clinical Governance Research and Development Unit. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 27. Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children. Section 12: Breast Cancer. London: Royal College of General Practiioners (UK). 2005. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45764/>.

Cleveland Clinic. Understanding Benign Breast Disease. 2014. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Breast_Cancer_An_Overview/hic_The_Diagnosis_is_Breast_Cancer/hic_Understanding_Benign_Breast_Disease

Clevenger CV, Plank TL. Prolactin as an autocrine/paracrine factor in breast tissue. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. Jan 1997;2(1):59-68.

Colak T, Ipek T, Kanik A, Ogetman Z, Aydin S. Efficacy of topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in mastalgia treatment. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Apr 2003;196(4):525-530.

de Barros A. UTHSC Professor Receives Grant To Study Ormeloxifene As Prostate Cancer Treatment. Prostate Cancer News Today webpage. Available at: http://prostatecancernewstoday.com/2014/11/19/uthsc-professor-receives-grant-study-ormeloxifene-prostate-cancer-treatment/ . Accessed 5/14/2015.

de Lorgeril M, Salen P. Do statins increase and Mediterranean diet decrease the risk of breast cancer? BMC medicine. 2014;12:94.

Dijkstra SC, Lampe JW, Ray RM, Brown R, Wu C, Li W, ... Thomas DB. Biomarkers of dietary exposure are associated with lower risk of breast fibroadenomas in Chinese women. The Journal of nutrition. Jul 2010;140(7):1302-1310.

Dupont WD, Page DL. Risk factors for breast cancer in women with proliferative breast disease. The New England journal of medicine. Jan 17 1985;312(3):146-151.

EBCTCG (Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;365(9472):1687-1717.

Eberl MM, Fox CH, Edge SB, Carter CA, Mahoney MC. BI-RADS classification for management of abnormal mammograms. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM. Mar-Apr 2006;19(2):161-164.

Escrich E, Moral R, Solanas M. Olive oil, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, and breast cancer. Public health nutrition. Dec 2011;14(12a):2323-2332.

Eskin BA. Iodine and mammary cancer. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1977;91:293-304.

Estevao RA, Nazario AC, Baracat EC. Effect of oral contraceptive with and without associated estriol on ultrasound measurements of breast fibroadenoma: randomized clinical trial. Sao Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina. Sep 6 2007;125(5):275-280.

Evans A. Hormone replacement therapy and mammographic screening. Clinical radiology. Jul 2002;57(7):563-564.

Fabian CJ, Kimler BF, Zalles CM, Klemp JR, Petroff BK, Khan QJ, ... Johnson KA. Reduction in Ki-67 in benign breast tissue of high-risk women with the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). Oct 2010;3(10):1342-1350.

Franco R, Onatibia-Astibia A, Martinez-Pinilla E. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients. Oct 2013;5(10):4159-4173.

Frazier AL, Rosenberg SM. Preadolescent and adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. May 2013;52(5 Suppl):S36-40.

Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, Tobinaga J, Wada M, Morita T, ... Takagi H. Suppressive effect of iodine on DMBA-induced breast tumor growth in the rat. Journal of surgical oncology. Mar 1996;61(3):209-213.

Galvan-Portillo M, Torres-Sanchez L, Lopez-Carrillo L. Dietary and reproductive factors associated with benign breast disease in Mexican women. Nutrition and cancer. 2002;43(2):133-140.

Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. Oct 1993;36(5):453-460.

Goss P, Li T, Theriault M, Pinto S, Thompson L. Effects of dietary flaxseed in women with cyclical mastalgia. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment; 2000.

Goyal A. Breast pain. Clin Evid (Online). 2011;2011.

Greenberg R, Skornick Y, Kaplan O. Management of breast fibroadenomas. Journal of general internal medicine. Sep 1998;13(9):640-645.

Gucalp A, Gupta GP, Pilewskie ML, Sutton EJ, Norton L. Advances in managing breast cancer: a clinical update. F1000prime reports. 2014;6:66.

Guglielmini P, Rubagotti A, Boccardo F. Serum enterolactone levels and mortality outcome in women with early breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Breast cancer research and treatment. Apr 2012;132(2):661-668.

Guray M, Sahin AA. Benign breast diseases: classification, diagnosis, and management. The oncologist. May 2006;11(5):435-449.

Halaska M, Beles P, Gorkow C, Sieder C. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). Aug 1999;8(4):175-181.

Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Frost MH, Lingle WL, Degnim AC, Ghosh K, ... Visscher DW. Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. The New England journal of medicine. Jul 21 2005;353(3):229-237.

Hawrysz DJ, Sevick-Muraca EM. Developments toward diagnostic breast cancer imaging using near-infrared optical measurements and fluorescent contrast agents. Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Sep-Oct 2000;2(5):388-417.

Heinig J, Witteler R, Schmitz R, Kiesel L, Steinhard J. Accuracy of classification of breast ultrasound findings based on criteria used for BI-RADS. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Sep 2008;32(4):573-578.

Higdon J, Drake V, Williams D. Oregon State University: Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Indole-3-Carbinol. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/i3c/. Last updated 12/2008. Accessed 6/12/2015.

Higdon J, Drake VJ, Lampe JW. Oregon State University: Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Lignans. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/lignans/. Last updated 1/2010. Accessed 2/19/2015.

Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Nov 2000;100(11):1368-1380.

Huang ML, Adrada BE, Candelaria R, Thames D, Dawson D, Yang WT. Stereotactic breast biopsy: pitfalls and pearls. Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology. Mar 2014;17(1):32-39.

Jain BK, Bansal A, Choudhary D, Garg PK, Mohanty D. Centchroman vs tamoxifen for regression of mastalgia: A randomized controlled trial. International journal of surgery (London, England). Mar 2015;15:11-16.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast. 2012; http://pathology.jhu.edu/breast/anatomy.php.

Jonas K, Johansson LM, Nissen E, Ejdeback M, Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Uvnas-Moberg K. Effects of intrapartum oxytocin administration and epidural analgesia on the concentration of plasma oxytocin and prolactin, in response to suckling during the second day postpartum. Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Jun 2009;4(2):71-82.

Jones R, Scherger JE, Murray JL, Danasas GT, deMarco BJ. First Consult. Fibrocystic breast changes. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com. Last updated 3/13/2011. Accessed 10/14/2014.

Kakkoura MG, Demetriou CA, Loizidou MA, Loucaides G, Neophytou I, Marcou Y, ... Kyriacou K. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes, Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in the Greek-Cypriot female population. Genes & nutrition. Mar 2015;10(2):453.

Kataria K, Dhar A, Srivastava A, Kumar S, Goyal A. A systematic review of current understanding and management of mastalgia. The Indian journal of surgery. Jun 2014;76(3):217-222.

Kaur G, Sivakumar S. Comparison of unsatisfactory aspirates in fine needle aspiration performed by surgical medical officers and pathologists. Journal of Cytology. 2007;24(2):82-84.

Kennedy G, Markert M, Alexander JR, Avisar E. Predictive value of BI-RADS classification for breast imaging in women under age 50. Breast cancer research and treatment. Dec 2011;130(3):819-823.

Kilicdag E, Tarim E, Bagis T, Erkanli S, Aslan E, Ozsahin K, Kuscu E. Fructus agni casti and bromocriptine for treatment of hyperprolactinemia and mastalgia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2004;85(3):292-293.

Kim EK, Ko KH, Oh KK, Kwak JY, You JK, Kim MJ, Park BW. Clinical application of the BI-RADS final assessment to breast sonography in conjunction with mammography. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. May 2008;190(5):1209-1215.

Klinge SA, Sawyer GA. Effectiveness and safety of topical versus oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a comprehensive review. The Physician and sportsmedicine. May 2013;41(2):64-74.

Kojima T, Tanaka T, Mori H. Chemoprevention of spontaneous endometrial cancer in female Donryu rats by dietary indole-3-carbinol. Cancer research. Mar 15 1994;54(6):1446-1449.

Kosir MA. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. Breast Disorders. Mastalgia (Breast Pain). Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology_and_obstetrics/breast_disorders/mastalgia_breast_pain.html. Last updated 9/2013. Accessed 3/17/2015.

Krouse TB, Eskin BA, Mobini J. Age-related changes resembling fibrocystic disease in iodine-blocked rat breasts. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. Nov 1979;103(12):631-634.

Kumar S, Rai R, Agarwal GG, Dwivedi V, Kumar S, Das V. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ormeloxifene in breast pain and nodularity. The National medical journal of India. Mar-Apr 2013;26(2):69-74.

Lampe JW. Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkers. The Journal of nutrition. Mar 2003;133 Suppl 3:956s-964s.

Lanng C, Eriksen BO, Hoffmann J. Lipoma of the breast: a diagnostic dilemma. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). Oct 2004;13(5):408-411.

Leonardi M. [Hormonal contraception and benign breast disease. Evaluation of a treatment protocol for chronic mastopathy with mastalgia]. Minerva ginecologica. Jun 1997;49(6):271-276.

Li W, Ray RM, Lampe JW, Lin MG, Gao DL, Wu C, ... Thomas DB. Dietary and other risk factors in women having fibrocystic breast conditions with and without concurrent breast cancer: a nested case-control study in Shanghai, China. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. Jul 20 2005;115(6):981-993.

Liu Y, Tamimi RM, Berkey CS, Willett WC, Collins LC, Schnitt SJ, ... Colditz GA. Intakes of alcohol and folate during adolescence and risk of proliferative benign breast disease. Pediatrics. May 2012;129(5):e1192-1198.

Liu Z, Saarinen NM, Thompson LU. Sesamin Is One of the Major Precursors of Mammalian Lignans in Sesame Seed (Sesamum indicum) as Observed In Vitro and in Rats. The Journal of nutrition. 2006;136(4):906-912.

Ljung BM, Drejet A, Chiampi N, Jeffrey J, Goodson WH, 3rd, Chew K, ... Miller TR. Diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy is determined by physician training in sampling technique. Cancer. Aug 25 2001;93(4):263-268.

London SJ, Stein EA, Henderson IC, Stampfer MJ, Wood WC, Remine S, ... Willett WC. Carotenoids, retinol, and vitamin E and risk of proliferative benign breast disease and breast cancer. Cancer causes & control : CCC. Nov 1992;3(6):503-512.

Lu WJ, Xu C, Pei Z, Mayhoub AS, Cushman M, Flockhart DA. The tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase (CYP19) and a potential lead compound for novel therapeutic agents. Breast cancer research and treatment. May 2012;133(1):99-109.

Maksim. Wikimedia Commons. Illu breast anatomy. Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Illu_breast_anatomy.jpg. Last updated 7/7/2014. Accessed 3/12/2015.

Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Antiestrogen action of progesterone in breast tissue. Breast cancer research and treatment. 1986;8(3):179-188.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions page. Fibrocystic breasts. Complications. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibrocystic-breasts/basics/complications/con-20034681 . 3/8/2013b. Accessed 5/4/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Diseases and Conditions page. Fibrocystic breasts. Definition. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibrocystic-breasts/basics/definition/con-20034681. 3/8/2013a. Accessed 4/7/2015.

Mayo Clinic. Patient Care & Health Info page. Slide show: Female breast anatomy. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/womens-health/multimedia/breast-cancer-early-stage/sls-20076628 . Accessed 2/18/2015a.

Mayo Clinic. Cabergoline (Oral Route). Side Effects. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/cabergoline-oral-route/side-effects/drg-20062485 . Last updated 4/1/2015b. Accessed 6/12/2015.

Miltenburg DM, Speights VO, Jr. Benign breast disease. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America. Jun 2008;35(2):285-300, ix.

NBCF. National Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc. Breast Self-Exam. Available at: http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-self-exam. Copyright 2012. Accessed 4/7/2015.

NCI. National Cancer Institute. Mammograms. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/mammograms. 3/25/2014. Accessed 12/22/2014.

Neville MC. Classic studies of mammary development and milk secretion: 1945 - 1980. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. Sep 2009;14(3):193-197.

Neville MC. Milk Secretion: An Overview. http://mammary.nih.gov/reviews/lactation/Neville001/. Accessed 11/11/2014.

NHS. National Health Service. Side effects page. Danazol (Danazol 100 mg capsules). Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Medicine-Guides/Pages/MedicineSideEffects.aspx?condition=Fibrocystic%20breast%20disease&medicine=Danazol. Accessed 2/18/2015. 2015.

NIH. U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Cabergoline. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a612020.html. Last updated 8/15/2012. Accessed 6/12/2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. PubChem. Compound Summary for CID 28417. danazol. Available at: http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/danazol#section=Top. Accessed 3/9/2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. PubMed Health. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®). Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0032825/#CDR0000062955__140. Last updated 11/25/2014. Accessed 3/6/2015.

NLM. U.S. National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Fibrocystic breast disease. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000912.htm. Last updated 11/15/2013 . Accessed 11/10/2014.

Nussey S, Whitehead S. Chapter 7: The pituitary gland. In: Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27/>.

Olawaiye A, Withiam-Leitch M, Danakas G, Kahn K. Mastalgia: a review of management. The Journal of reproductive medicine. Dec 2005;50(12):933-939.

O'Neil CK, Hanlon JT, Marcum ZA. Adverse effects of analgesics commonly used by older adults with osteoarthritis: focus on non-opioid and opioid analgesics. The American journal of geriatric pharmacotherapy. Dec 2012;10(6):331-342.

Onstad M, Stuckey A. Benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America. Sep 2013;40(3):459-473.

Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. Nov-Dec 2009;2(5):270-278.

Parker SJ, Harries SA. Phyllodes tumours. Postgraduate medical journal. Jul 2001;77(909):428-435.

Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Jun 2008;13(2):116-127.

Peters F, Schuth W, Scheurich B, Breckwoldt M. Serum prolactin levels in patients with fibrocystic breast disease. Obstetrics and gynecology. Sep 1984;64(3):381-385.

Plantinga L, Grubbs V, Sarkar U, Hsu CY, Hedgeman E, Robinson B, ... Powe N. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use among persons with chronic kidney disease in the United States. Annals of family medicine. Sep-Oct 2011;9(5):423-430.

Poellinger A. Near-infrared imaging of breast cancer using optical contrast agents. Journal of biophotonics. Nov 2012;5(11-12):815-826.

Prendergast P. Anatomy of the Breast. In: Shiffman MA, Di Giuseppe A, eds. Cosmetic Surgery: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2013:47-55.

Pruthi S, Wahner-Roedler DL, Torkelson CJ, Cha SS, Thicke LS, Hazelton JH, Bauer BA. Vitamin E and evening primrose oil for management of cyclical mastalgia: a randomized pilot study. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Apr 2010;15(1):59-67.

Qureshi S, Sultan N. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia. The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland. Feb 2005;3(1):7-10.

Rohan TE, Negassa A, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, Curb JD, Ginsberg M, ... Page DL. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of benign proliferative breast disease: a randomized, controlled dietary modification trial. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). 2008;1(4):275-284.

Rosa M. "Inflammatory" changes in breast: how to provide a better care to our patients. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. May 2010;281(5):901-905.

Rosolowich V, Saettler E, and Szuck B. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines, No. 170. Mastalgia. Available at: http://www.jogc.com/abstracts/full/200601_SOGCClinicalPracticeGuidelines_1.pdf . Jan 2006.

Schnitt SJ. Benign breast disease and breast cancer risk: morphology and beyond. The American journal of surgical pathology. Jun 2003;27(6):836-841.

Scott-Conner C. UI Health Care. Health Library page. FAQ: Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Available at: http://www.uihealthcare.org/fibrocystic-breast-disease-frequently-asked-questions/. Copyright 2015. Accessed 4/7/2015.

Seager JM, Hawkey CJ. ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Indigestion and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Nov 24 2001;323(7323):1236-1239.

Shannon J, King IB, Lampe JW, Gao DL, Ray RM, Lin MG, ... Thomas DB. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Jan 2009;89(1):265-276.

Sharma GN, Dave R, Sanadya J, Sharma P, Sharma KK. Various types and management of breast cancer: an overview. Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research. Apr 2010;1(2):109-126.

Sharma N, Gupta A, Jha PK, Rajput P. Mastalgia cured! Randomized trial comparing centchroman to evening primrose oil. The breast journal. Sep 2012;18(5):509-510.

Smyth PP. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer. Breast cancer research : BCR. 2003;5(5):235-238.

Srivastava A, Mansel RE, Arvind N, Prasad K, Dhar A, Chabra A. Evidence-based management of Mastalgia: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). Oct 2007;16(5):503-512.

Stoddard FR, 2nd, Brooks AD, Eskin BA, Johannes GJ. Iodine alters gene expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line: evidence for an anti-estrogen effect of iodine. International journal of medical sciences. 2008;5(4):189-196.

Su X, Colditz GA, Collins LC, Baer HJ, Sampson LA, Willett WC, ... Tamimi RM. Adolescent intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Breast cancer research and treatment. Jul 2012;134(2):783-791.

Su X, Tamimi RM, Collins LC, Baer HJ, Cho E, Sampson L, ... Colditz GA. Intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Cancer causes & control : CCC. Jul 2010;21(7):1033-1046.

Sugg S, Lizarraga I, Colwick SE. ePocrates. Fibrocystic breasts. Available at: https://online.epocrates.com/noFrame/showPage.do?method=diseases&MonographId=1003. Last updated 5/13/2014. Accessed 10/16/2014.

Suzuki R, Rylander-Rudqvist T, Saji S, Bergkvist L, Adlercreutz H, Wolk A. Dietary lignans and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by oestrogen receptor status: a prospective cohort study of Swedish women. British journal of cancer. Feb 12 2008;98(3):636-640.

Tamimi RM, Rosner B, Colditz GA. Evaluation of a breast cancer risk prediction model expanded to include category of prior benign breast disease lesion. Cancer. Nov 1 2010;116(21):4944-4953.

Tejwani PL, Srivastava A, Nerkar H, Dhar A, Hari S, Thulkar S, ... Kumar S. Centchroman regresses mastalgia: a randomized comparison with danazol. The Indian journal of surgery. Jun 2011;73(3):199-205.

Thompson LU, Seidl MM, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, Fong HH. Antitumorigenic effect of a mammalian lignan precursor from flaxseed. Nutrition and cancer. 1996;26(2):159-165.

UCSF. University of California San Francisco. Patient Education page. The Menstrual Cycle. 2015. Available at: http://www.ucsfhealth.org/education/the_menstrual_cycle/.

Vaidyanathan L, Barnard K, Elnicki DM. Benign breast disease: when to treat, when to reassure, when to refer. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. May 2002;69(5):425-432.

van Die MD, Burger HG, Teede HJ, Bone KM. Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials. Planta medica. May 2013;79(7):562-575.

Vang O, Ahmad N, Baile CA, Baur JA, Brown K, Csiszar A, ... Wu JM. What is new for an old molecule? Systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol. PloS one. 2011;6(6):e19881.

Vaziri F, Zamani Lari M, Samsami Dehaghani A, Salehi M, Sadeghpour H, Akbarzadeh M, Zare N. Comparing the effects of dietary flaxseed and omega-3 Fatty acids supplement on cyclical mastalgia in Iranian women: a randomized clinical trial. International journal of family medicine. 2014;2014:174532.

Verkooijen HM. Diagnostic accuracy of stereotactic large-core needle biopsy for nonpalpable breast disease: results of a multicenter prospective study with 95% surgical confirmation. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. Jun 20 2002;99(6):853-859.

Visscher DW, Nassar A, Degnim AC, Frost MH, Vierkant RA, Frank RD, ... Hartmann LC. Sclerosing adenosis and risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer research and treatment. Feb 2014;144(1):205-212.

Vorherr H. Fibrocystic breast disease: pathophysiology, pathomorphology, clinical picture, and management. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. Jan 1986;154(1):161-179.

Wells CA, El-Ayat GA. Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions. Journal of clinical pathology. Dec 2007;60(12):1313-1320.

Weng JR, Tsai CH, Kulp SK, Chen CS. Indole-3-carbinol as a chemopreventive and anti-cancer agent. Cancer letters. Apr 18 2008;262(2):153-163.

Wesola M, Jelen M. The diagnostic efficiency of fine needle aspiration biopsy in breast cancers - review. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University. Nov-Dec 2013;22(6):887-892.

Willems SM, van Deurzen CH, van Diest PJ. Diagnosis of breast lesions: fine-needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy? A review. Journal of clinical pathology. Apr 2012;65(4):287-292.

Willför S, Hemming J, Reunanen M, Eckerman C, Holmbom B. Lignans and Lipophilic Extractives in Norway Spruce Knots and Stemwood. Holzforschung. 2003;57(1):27-36.

Wuttke W, Jarry H, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)--pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. May 2003;10(4):348-357.

Yu H, Rohan TE, Cook MG, Howe GR, Miller AB. Risk factors for fibroadenoma: a case-control study in Australia. American journal of epidemiology. Feb 1 1992;135(3):247-258.

Yu JH, Kim MJ, Cho H, Liu HJ, Han SJ, Ahn TG. Breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation. Obstetrics & gynecology science. May 2013;56(3):143-159.

Zervoudis S, Iatrakis G, Tomara E, Bothou A, Papadopoulos G, Tsakiris G. Main controversies in breast cancer. World journal of clinical oncology. Aug 10 2014;5(3):359-373.