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CDRF. California Dairy Research Foundation. Probiotics Basics. Available at: Accessed 6/1/2015.

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Cianci R, Frosali S, Pagliari D, Cesaro P, Petruzziello L, Casciano F, . . . Pandolfi F. Uncomplicated diverticular disease: innate and adaptive immunity in human gut mucosa before and after rifaximin. J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:696812.

Collins D, Winter DC. Modern concepts in diverticular disease. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. May-Jun 2015;49(5):358-369.

Comstock SS, Lewis MM, Pathak DR, Hortos K, Kovan B, Fenton JI. Cross-sectional analysis of obesity and serum analytes in males identifies sRAGE as a novel biomarker inversely associated with diverticulosis. PloS one. 2014;9(4):e95232.

Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Key TJ. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2011;343:d4131.

Cuomo R, Barbara G, Pace F, Annese V, Bassotti G, Binda GA, . . . Annibale B. Italian consensus conference for colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease. United European Gastroenterol J. Oct 2014;2(5):413-442.

de Korte N, Unlu C, Boermeester MA, Cuesta MA, Vrouenreats BC, Stockmann HB. Use of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis. The British journal of surgery. Jun 2011;98(6):761-767.

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Dugani A, Auzzi A, Naas F, Megwez S. Effects of the oil and mucilage from flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. The Libyan journal of medicine. 2008;3(4):166-169.

Erbayrak M, Turkay C, Eraslan E, Cetinkaya H, Kasapoglu B, Bektas M. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). May 2009;64(5):421-425.

Farrukh A, Mayberry JF. Is there a role for fish oil in inflammatory bowel disease? World journal of clinical cases. Jul 16 2014;2(7):250-252.

Fengming Y, Jianbing W. Biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease. Disease markers. 2014;2014:710915.

Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Diverticular Disease (Diverticulosis, Diverticulitis). Available at: 2015. Accessed 2/20/2015.

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Franklin ME, Jr., Portillo G, Trevino JM, Gonzalez JJ, Glass JL. Long-term experience with the laparoscopic approach to perforated diverticulitis plus generalized peritonitis. World journal of surgery. Jul 2008;32(7):1507-1511.

Gatta L, Vakil N, Vaira D, Pilotto A, Curlo M, Comparato G, . . . Di Mario F. Efficacy of 5-ASA in the treatment of colonic diverticular disease. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Feb 2010;44(2):113-119.

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Henderson P, Anderson NH, Wilson DC. The diagnostic accuracy of fecal calprotectin during the investigation of suspected pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2014;109(5):637-645.

Hjern F, Josephson T, Altman D, Holmstrom B, Mellgren A, Pollack J, Johansson C. Conservative treatment of acute colonic diverticulitis: are antibiotics always mandatory? Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Jan 2007;42(1):41-47.

Hjern F, Mahmood MW, Abraham-Nordling M, Wolk A, Hakansson N. Cohort study of corticosteroid use and risk of hospital admission for diverticular disease. The British journal of surgery. Jan 2015;102(1):119-124.

Hjern F, Wolk A, Hakansson N. Obesity, physical inactivity, and colonic diverticular disease requiring hospitalization in women: a prospective cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. Feb 2012;107(2):296-302.

Hjern F, Wolk A, Hakansson N. Smoking and the risk of diverticular disease in women. The British journal of surgery. Jul 2011;98(7):997-1002.

Hobson KG, Roberts PL. Etiology and pathophysiology of diverticular disease. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. Aug 2004;17(3):147-153.

Humes DJ, Spiller RC. Review article: The pathogenesis and management of acute colonic diverticulitis. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Feb 2014;39(4):359-370.

Iqbal M, Sharma SD, Okazaki Y, Fujisawa M, Okada S. Dietary supplementation of curcumin enhances antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes in ddY male mice: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Pharmacology & toxicology. Jan 2003;92(1):33-38.

Jung HK, Choung RS, Locke GR, 3rd, Schleck CD, Zinsmeister AR, Talley NJ. Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome is associated with diverticular disease: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. Mar 2010;105(3):652-661.

Köckerling F. Emergency Surgery for Acute Complicated Diverticulitis. Viszeralmedizin. 2015;31(2):107-110.

Krokowicz L, Kaczmarek BF, Krokowicz P, Stojcev Z, Mackiewicz J, Walkowiak J, . . . Banasiewicz T. Sodium butyrate and short chain fatty acids in prevention of travellers' diarrhoea: a randomized prospective study. Travel Med Infect Dis. Mar-Apr 2014;12(2):183-188.

Krokowicz L, Stojcev Z, Kaczmarek BF, Kociemba W, Kaczmarek E, Walkowiak J, . . . Banasiewicz T. Microencapsulated sodium butyrate administered to patients with diverticulosis decreases incidence of diverticulitis--a prospective randomized study. International journal of colorectal disease. Mar 2014;29(3):387-393.

Kruse E, Leifeld L. [Prevention and conservative therapy of diverticular disease]. Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen. Apr 2014;85(4):299-303.

Kvasnovsky CL, Papagrigoriadis S, Bjarnason I. Increased diverticular complications with nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs and other medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Jun 2014;16(6):O189-196.

Lahner E, Esposito G, Zullo A, Hassan C, Cannaviello C, Paolo MC, . . . Annibale B. High-fibre diet and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. Nov 7 2012;18(41):5918-5924.

Lamiki P, Tsuchiya J, Pathak S, Okura R, Solimene U, Jain S, . . . Marotta F. Probiotics in diverticular disease of the colon: an open label study. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD. Mar 2010;19(1):31-36.

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Leonel AJ, Alvarez-Leite JI. Butyrate: implications for intestinal function. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Sep 2012;15(5):474-479.

LHMC. Lahey Hospital & Medical Center. Fish Oil. Available at: Copyright 2015 EBSCO Publishing. Accessed 5/8/2015.

Lizardi-Cervera J, Vazquez-Elizondo G, Becerra-Laparra I, Chavez-Tapia N, Noriega-Iriondo MF, Uribe M. [Comparative study of the clinical presentation and complications of acute colonic diverticulitis in patients older and younger than 65 years.]. Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico. 2008;73(3):153-158.

LPI. Linus Pauling Institute. Glossary. Copyright 2015 Oregon State University. Available at: Accessed 5/7/2015.

Mann NS, Hoda KK. Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis: systematic evaluation of 486 cases with meta-analysis. Hepato-gastroenterology. Oct 2012;59(119):2119-2121.

Maykel JA, Opelka FG. Colonic diverticulosis and diverticular hemorrhage. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. Aug 2004;17(3):195-204.

Mayo Clinic. Patient Care & Health Info page. Diseases and Conditions. Diverticulitis. Definition. Available at: 8/7/2014a. Accessed 5/26/2015.

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McDermott FD, Collins D, Heeney A, Winter DC. Minimally invasive and surgical management strategies tailored to the severity of acute diverticulitis. The British journal of surgery. Jan 2014;101(1):e90-99.

Medina-Fernandez FJ, Diaz-Jimenez N, Gallardo-Herrera AB, Gomez-Luque I, Garcilazo-Arsimendi DJ, Gomez-Barbadillo J. New trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease. Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva. Mar 2015;107(3):162-170.

Mengheri E. Health, probiotics, and inflammation. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Sep 2008;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S177-178.

Morris AM, Regenbogen SE, Hardiman KM, Hendren S. Sigmoid diverticulitis: a systematic review. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. Jan 15 2014;311(3):287-297.

Mosadeghi S, Bhuket T, Stollman N. Diverticular disease: evolving concepts in classification, presentation, and management. Current opinion in gastroenterology. Jan 2015;31(1):50-55.

Nagata N, Niikura R, Shimbo T, Kishida Y, Sekine K, Tanaka S, . . . Uemura N. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan. PloS one. 2013;8(12):e81137.

Nagata N, Sakamoto K, Arai T, Niikura R, Shimbo T, Shinozaki M, . . . Uemura N. Visceral Abdominal Obesity Measured by Computed Tomography is Associated With Increased Risk of Colonic Diverticulosis. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Nov 19 2014.

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Papagrigoriadis S, Macey L, Bourantas N, Rennie JA. Smoking may be associated with complications in diverticular disease. The British journal of surgery. Jul 1999;86(7):923-926.

Peery AF, Sandler RS. Diverticular disease: reconsidering conventional wisdom. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Dec 2013;11(12):1532-1537.

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Peppercorn MA. The overlap of inflammatory bowel disease and diverticular disease. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. May-Jun 2004;38(5 Suppl 1):S8-10.

Pisanu A, Vacca V, Reccia I, Podda M, Uccheddu A. Acute diverticulitis in the young: the same disease in a different patient. Gastroenterology research and practice. 2013;2013:867961.

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Regenbogen SE, Hardiman KM, Hendren S, Morris AM. Surgery for diverticulitis in the 21st century: a systematic review. JAMA surgery. Mar 2014;149(3):292-303.

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Shahedi K, Fuller G, Bolus R, Cohen E, Vu M, Shah R, . . . Spiegel B. Long-term risk of acute diverticulitis among patients with incidental diverticulosis found during colonoscopy. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Dec 2013;11(12):1609-1613.

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Slavin J. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits. Nutrients. 2013;5(4):1417-1435.

Sopena F, Lanas A. Management of colonic diverticular disease with poorly absorbed antibiotics and other therapies. Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. Nov 2011;4(6):365-374.

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Spiller R. Editorial: new thoughts on the association between diverticulosis and irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. Dec 2014;109(12):1906-1908.

Spiller R. Is it diverticular disease or is it irritable bowel syndrome? Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2012;30(1):64-69.

Spiller RC. Changing views on diverticular disease: impact of aging, obesity, diet, and microbiota. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Mar 2015;27(3):305-312.

Stollman N, Magowan S, Shanahan F, Quigley EM. A randomized controlled study of mesalamine after acute diverticulitis: results of the DIVA trial. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Aug 2013;47(7):621-629.

Strate LL, Liu YL, Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL. Physical activity decreases diverticular complications. Am J Gastroenterol. May 2009;104(5):1221-1230.

Strate LL, Liu YL, Aldoori WH, Syngal S, Giovannucci EL. Obesity increases the risks of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology. Jan 2009;136(1):115-122.e111.

Strate LL, Liu YL, Huang ES, Giovannucci EL, Chan AT. Use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases risk for diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology. May 2011;140(5):1427-1433.

Strate LL, Liu YL, Syngal S, Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL. Nut, corn, and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. Aug 27 2008;300(8):907-914.

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Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Elisei W, Giorgetti GM, Inchingolo CD, Aiello F. Faecal calprotectin in colonic diverticular disease: a case-control study. International journal of colorectal disease. Jan 2009;24(1):49-55.

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Elisei W, Picchio M, Forti G, Pianese G, . . . Danese S. Randomised clinical trial: mesalazine and/or probiotics in maintaining remission of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease--a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. Oct 2013;38(7):741-751.

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Elisei W. Mesalazine and/or Lactobacillus casei in maintaining long-term remission of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Hepato-gastroenterology. May-Jun 2008;55(84):916-920.

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Elisei W. Mesalazine and/or Lactobacillus casei in preventing recurrence of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon: a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Apr 2006;40(4):312-316.

Tursi A, Elisei W, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Inchingolo CD, Nenna R, . . . Ierardi E. Mucosal expression of basic fibroblastic growth factor, Syndecan 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in diverticular disease of the colon: a case-control study. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. Sep 2012;24(9):836-e396.

Tursi A, Elisei W, Giorgetti G, Aiello F, Brandimarte G. Role of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis and treatment of segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis. Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica. Sep 2011;57(3):247-255.

Tursi A, Elisei W, Giorgetti GM, Inchingolo CD, Nenna R, Picchio M, . . . Brandimarte G. Expression of basic fibroblastic growth factor, syndecan 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha in resected acute colonic diverticulitis. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Mar 2014;16(3):O98-103.

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Tursi A, Elisei W, Picchio M, Giorgetti GM, Brandimarte G. Moderate to Severe and Prolonged Left Lower-abdominal Pain is the Best Symptom Characterizing Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon: A Comparison With Fecal Calprotectin in Clinical Setting. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. Mar 2015;49(3):218-221.

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Tursi A. New physiopathological and therapeutic approaches to diverticular disease: an update. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. May 2014;15(7):1005-1017.

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