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AAD. American Academy of Dermatology. Psoriasis: Who gets and causes. Available at: . Copyright 2015. Accessed 8/21/2015.

Adamzik K, McAleer MA, Kirby B. Alcohol and psoriasis: sobering thoughts. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:819-822.

Addolorato G, Parente A, de Lorenzi, et al. Rapid regression of psoriasis in a coeliac patient after gluten-free diet. Digestion. 2003;68:9-12.

Ando N, Nakamura Y, Aoki R, Ishimaru K, Ogawa H, Okumura K, . . . Nakao A. Circadian Gene Clock Regulates Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Mice. The Journal of investigative dermatology. Aug 20 2015.

Andoh T, Kuraishi Y. Nitric oxide enhances substance P-induced itch-associated responses in mice. British journal of pharmacology. Jan 2003;138(1):202-208.

Antiga E, Bonciolini V, Volpi W, et al. Oral curcumin (Meriva) is effective as an adjuvant treatment and is able to reduce IL-22 serum levels in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. BioMed Research International. 2015;2015.

Archier E, Devaux S, Castela E, Gallini A, Aubin F, Le Maitre M, . . . Richard MA. Carcinogenic risks of psoralen UV-A therapy and narrowband UV-B therapy in chronic plaque psoriasis: a systematic literature review. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV. May 2012;26 Suppl 3:22-31.

Armstrong AW. ePocrates. Psoriasis. http://online.epocrates/com/u/291174/Psoriasis. Last updated 11/14/2014. Accessed 9/18/2015.

Atwan A, Ingram JR, Abbott R, Kelson MJ, Pickles T, Bauer A, Piguet V. Oral fumaric acid esters for psoriasis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2015;8:Cd010497.

Axelsson J, Sundelin T, Ingre M, Van Someren EJ, Olsson A, Lekander M. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2010;341:c6614.

Bachelez H, van de Kerkhof PC, Strohal R, Kubanov A, Valenzuela F, Lee JH, . . . Wolk R. Tofacitinib versus etanercept or placebo in moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis: a phase 3 randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. Aug 8 2015;386(9993):552-561.

Bagel J. Pipeline focus: IL-17. Practical Dermatology. 2012; pg. 46.

Bagel J. Emerging therapies in the evolving biologic platform for psoriasis treatment. Practical Dermatology. 2014;May; p. 38-42.

Bailey LB, Gregory JF. Folate Metabolism and Requirements. The Journal of nutrition. April 1, 1999;129(4):779-782.

Balbas GM, Regana MS, Millet PU. Study on the use of omega-3 fatty acids as a therapeutic supplement in treatment of psoriasis. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 2011;4:73-77.

Balbis E, Patriarca S, Furfaro AL, et al.Whey proteins influence hepatic glutathione after CCI4 intoxication. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;May-Jun;25(4-5):325-8.

Bahcetepe N, Kutlubay Z, Yilmaz E, et al. The role of HLA antigens in the aetiology of psoriasis. Med Glas (Zeneca). 2013;10(2):339-342.

Barrea L, Balato N, Di Somma C, et al. Nutrition and psoriasis: is there any association between the severity of the disease and adherence to the Mediterranean diet? J Transl Med. 2015;13:18.

Belcaro G, Cornelli U, Luzzi R, et al. Pycnogenol supplementation improves health risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Phytother Res. 2013;Oct;27(10):1572-8.

Belcaro G, Luzzi R, Hu S, et al. Improvement in signs and symptoms in psoriasis patients with pycnogenol supplementation. Panminerva Med. 2014;Mar;56(1):41-8.

Benson MM, Frishman WH. The Heartbreak of Psoriasis: A Review of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Psoriasis. Cardiology in review. Nov-Dec 2015;23(6):312-316.

Bernstein JE, Parish LC, Rapaport M, Rosenbaum MM, Roenigk HH, Jr. Effects of topically applied capsaicin on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Sep 1986;15(3):504-507.

Bhatia BK, Millsop JW, Debbaneh M, et al. Diet and psoriasis: part 2. celiac disease and role of a gluten-free diet. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;Aug;71(2):350-358.

Boca AN, Tataru A, Buzoianu AD, Pincelli C, Socaciu C. Pharmacological Benefits of Herbal Formulations in the Management of Psoriasis vulgaris. Not Bot Horti Agrobo. 2014;42(1):1-8.

Bode AM, Dong Z. The two faces of capsaicin. Cancer research. Apr 15 2011;71(8):2809-2814.

Boehncke S, Fichtlscherer S, Salgo R, Garbaraviciene J, Beschmann H, Diehl S, . . . Boehncke WH. Systemic therapy of plaque-type psoriasis ameliorates endothelial cell function: results of a prospective longitudinal pilot trial. Archives for dermatological research. Archiv fur dermatologische Forschung. Aug 2011;303(6):381-388.

Bonnefont-Rousselot D. Obesity and oxidative stress: potential roles of melatonin as antioxidant and metabolic regulator. Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets. 2014;14(3):159-168.

Borriello A, Bencivenga D, Caldarelli I, Tramontano A, Borgia A, Zappia V, Della Ragione F. Resveratrol: from basic studies to bedside. Cancer treatment and research. 2014;159:167-184.

Bosmansky K, Trnavsky K. Psoriasis and gout: report of 4 cases. Clinical rheumatology. Dec 1983;2(4):423-426.

Bowcock AM. The genetics of psoriasis and autoimmunity. Annual review of genomics and human genetics. 2005;6:93-122.

Boyd AS, King LE, Jr. Tamoxifen-induced remission of psoriasis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Nov 1999;41(5 Pt 2):887-889.

Brenner M, Hearing VJ. The protective role of melanin against UV damage in human skin. Photochemistry and photobiology. May-Jun 2008;84(3):539-549.

Brunoni AR, Santos IS, Sabbag C, Lotufo PA, Bensenor IM. Psoriasis severity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function: results from the CALIPSO study. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]. Dec 2014;47(12):1102-1106.

Busse K, Liao W. Which Psoriasis Patients Develop Psoriatic Arthritis? Psoriasis forum / National Psoriasis Foundation. Winter 2010;16(4):17-25.

Cai Y, Fleming C, Yan J. New insights of T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Cellular & molecular immunology. 2012;9(4):302-309.

Carboni I, De Felice C, De Simoni I, Soda R, Chimenti S. Fumaric acid esters in the treatment of psoriasis: an Italian experience. The Journal of dermatological treatment. Jan 2004;15(1):23-26.

Carroll J. FierceBiotech. UPDATED: Suicide stunner prompts Amgen to dump brodalumab, denting AstraZeneca's rep. 5/23/2015. Accessed 12/21/2015.

Chandrashekar L, Kumari GRK, Rajappa M, et al. 25-hydroxy vitamin D and ischaemia-modified albumin levels in psoriasis and their association with disease severity. Br J Biomed Sci. 2015;72(2):56-60.

Chen ZQ, Mo ZN. [Curcumin in the treatment of prostatic diseases]. Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology. Jan 2008;14(1):67-70.

Chern E, Yau D, Ho JC, Wu WM, Wang CY, Chang HW, Cheng YW. Positive effect of modified Goeckerman regimen on quality of life and psychosocial distress in moderate and severe psoriasis. Acta dermato-venereologica. Jun 2011;91(4):447-451.

Chimenti MS, Triggianese P, Nuccetelli M, Terracciano C, Crisanti A, Guarino MD, . . . Perricone R. Auto-reactions, autoimmunity and psoriatic arthritis. Autoimmunity reviews. Dec 2015;14(12):1142-1146.

Chiricozzi A, Chimenti S. Effective Topical Agents and Emerging Perspectives in the Treatment of Psoriasis: Keratolytics. Expert Rev Dermatol. 2012;7(3):283-293.

Choudhry SZ, Bhatia N, Ceilley R, et al. Role of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract in dermatologic diseases: a review of the literature. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;Feb;13(2):148-53.

Chrubasik S, Weiser T, Beime B. Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain. Phytotherapy research: PTR. Dec 2010;24(12):1877-1885.

Das RP, Jain AK, Ramesh V. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Indian J Dermatol. 2009;54(1):7-12.

Dawn A, Yosipovitch G. Treating itch in psoriasis. Dermatology nursing / Dermatology Nurses' Association. Jun 2006;18(3):227-233.

Declercq SD, Pouliot R. Promising new treatments for psoriasis. The Scientific World. 2013;2013.

Delves PJ. Merck Manual Professional Edition. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System. Available at: . Last updated: 11/2014. Accessed 8/10/2015.

de Miguel R, el-Azhary R. Efficacy, safety, and cost of Goeckerman therapy compared with biologics in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. International journal of dermatology. Jun 2009;48(6):653-658.

Dennis M, Bhutani T, Koo J, Liao W. Goeckerman therapy for the treatment of eczema: a practical guide and review of efficacy. The Journal of dermatological treatment. Feb 2013;24(1):2-6.

Dominguez-Rodriguez A. Melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. Nov 2012;21(11):1593-1596.

Doukaki S, Caputo V, Bongiorno MR. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Risk: Assessment by CUORE Project Risk Score in Italian Patients. Dermatol Res Pract. 2013;2013:389031.

Dowlatshahi EA, van der Voort EAM, Arends LR, et al. Markers of systemic inflammation in psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:266-282.

Dunn B. Center for Drug Evaluation And Research. Cross-Discipline Team Leader Review. 2/11/13. Accessed 1/14/2016.

Eder L, Chandran V, Gladman DD. What have we learned about genetic susceptibility in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis? Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015;Jan;27(1):91-8.

Ellis CN, Berberian B, Sulica VI, Dodd WA, Jarratt MT, Katz HI, . . . Wolf JE. A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Sep 1993;29(3):438-442.

Elsevier BV. First Consult. Psoriatic arthritis. Accessed 9/24/2015.

Eppinga H, Konstantinov SR, Peppelenbosch MP, et al. The microbiome and psoriatic arthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2014;16:407.

Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. Antiinflammatory activity of melatonin in central nervous system. Current neuropharmacology. Sep 2010;8(3):228-242.


Fala L. American Health & Drug Benefits. Vol. 8, 6th Annual Payers' Guide. Otezla (Apremilast), an Oral PDE-4 Inhibitor, Receives FDA Approval for the Treatment of Patients with Active Psoriatic Arthritis and Plaque Psoriasis. Last updated 12/4/2015. Accessed 12/4/2015.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. News & Events page. FDA News Release: FDA approves Otezla to treat psoriatic arthritis. Last updated 3/24/2014. Accessed 12/4/2015.

FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA News Release. FDA approves new psoriasis drug Cosentyx. Available at: . Last updated: January, 2015. Accessed 8/15/2015.

Federman DG, Froelich CW, Kirshner RS. Topical Psoriasis Therapy. Am Fam Phycian. 1999;59(4):957-962.

Ferreira CM, Vieira AT, Vinolo MAR, et al. The central role of the gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Immunol Res. 2014;2014.

Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Psoriasis. Copyright 2015. Accessed 9/18/2015.

Fiala Z, Borska L, Pastorkova A, Kremlacek J, Cerna M, Smejkalova J, Hamakova K. Genotoxic effect of Goeckerman regimen of psoriasis. Archives for dermatological research. Archiv fur dermatologische Forschung. Oct 2006;298(5):243-251.

Finamor DC, Sinigaglia-Coimbra R, Neves LCM, et al. A pilot study assessing the effect of prolonged administration of high daily doses of vitamin D on the clinical course of vitiligo and psoriasis. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2013;5(1): 222-234.

Fleming P, Kraft J, Gulliver WP, et al. The relationship of obesity with the severity of psoriasis: a systematic review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2015;19(5):450-456.

Foster M, Samman S. Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease. Nutrients. 2012;4:676-694.

Fry L, Baker BS, Powles AV, Engstrand L. Psoriasis is not an autoimmune disease? Experimental dermatology. Apr 2015;24(4):241-244.

Furuhashi T, Saito C, Torii K, Nishida E, Yamazaki S, Morita A. Photo(chemo)therapy reduces circulating Th17 cells and restores circulating regulatory T cells in psoriasis. PloS one. 2013;8(1):e54895.

Garcia-Pérez ME, Stevanovic T, Poubelle PE. New therapies under development for psoriasis treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013;25:480-487.

Gelfand JM, Neimann AL, Shin DB, et al. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis. JAMA. 2006;296(14):1735-1741.

Geuking MB, Koller Y, Rupp S, et al. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system. Gut Microbes 2014;5(3):411-418.

Girolomoni G, Gisondi P. Psoriasis and systemic inflammation: underdiagnosed enthesopathy. JEADV. 2009;23(Suppl. 1):3-8.

Gisondi P, Rossini M, Di Cesare A, et al. Vitamin D status in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2012;Mar;166(3):505-10.

Gisondi P, Fantin F, Del Giglio M, Valbusa F, Marino F, Zamboni M, Girolomoni G. Chronic plaque psoriasis is associated with increased arterial stiffness. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 2009;218(2):110-113.

Gold Standard. Drug Monograph. Methotrexate. Last updated 10/19/2015. Accessed 12/4/2015.

Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman Cecil Medicine, Twenty-Fourth Edition. Psoriatic arthritis; Spondyloarthropathies. Copyright 2016 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Accessed 9/24/2015.

Gollnick H, Altmeyer P, Kaufmann R, Ring J, Christophers E, Pavel S, Ziegler J. Topical calcipotriol plus oral fumaric acid is more effective and faster acting than oral fumaric acid monotherapy in the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis vulgaris. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 2002;205(1):46-53.

Gonzalez S, Gilaberte Y, Philips N, et al. Fernblock, a nutraceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12:8466-8475.

Gooderham M. Small molecules: an overview of emerging therapeutic options in the treatment of psoriasis. Skin Therapy Lett. 2013;Nov-Dec;18(7):1-4.

Gordon KB, Langley RG, Gottlieb AB, et al. A phase III, randomized, controlled trial of the fully human IL-12/23 mAb briakinumab in moderate-to-severe psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:304-314.

Goyal A, Terry PD, Superak HM, Nell-Dybdahl CL, Chowdhury R, Phillips LS, Kutner MH. Melatonin supplementation to treat the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014;6:124.

Grether-Beck S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Krutmann J. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. 2016;29(1):13-17.

Groeger D, O’Mahony L, Murphy EF, et al. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 modulates host inflammatory processes beyond the gut. Gut Microbes. 2013;4(4):325-339.

Grozdev I, Korman N, Tsankov N. Psoriasis as a systemic disease. Clinics in Dermatology. 2014;32:343-350.

Gudjonsson JE, Thorarinsson AM, Sigurgeirsson B, et al. Streptococcal throat infections and exacerbation of chronic plaque psoriasis: a prospective study. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:530-534.

Gulati OP. Pycnogenol in metabolic syndrome and related disorders. Phyother Res. 2015;29:949-968.

Gupta R, Debbaneh MG, Liao W. Genetic epidemiology of psoriasis. Curr Dermatol Rep. 2014;3(1):61-78.

Gupta R, Debbaneh M, Butler D, Huynh M, Levin E, Leon A, . . . Liao W. The Goeckerman regimen for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. 2013(77):e50509.

Hall HA. Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Psoriatic Arthritis. Copyright 2015. Accessed 9/18/2015.

Hall JM, Cruser D, Podawiltz A, Mummert DI, Jones H, Mummert ME. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. Dermatol Res Pract. 2012;2012:403908.

Harari M, Czarnowicki T, Fluss R, Ruzicka T, Ingber A. Patients with early-onset psoriasis achieve better results following Dead Sea climatotherapy. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. May 2012;26(5):554-559.

He DY, Dai SM. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Front Pharmacol. 2011;2:1-5.

Hebert HL, Ali FR, Bowes J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: implications for therapy. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166(3):474-82.

Heier I, Søyland E, Krogstad AL, et al. Sun exposure rapidly reduces plasmacytoid dendritic cells and inflammatory dermal dendritic cells in psoriatic skin. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:792-801.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linug Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Folate. Last updated 6/2014a. Accessed 12/4/2015.

Higdon J. Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin D. Last updated 7/2014b. Accessed 12/7/2015.

Hirotsu C, Rydlewski M, Araujo MS, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Sleep loss and cytokines levels in an experimental model of psoriasis. PloS one. 2012;7(11):e51183.

Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(7):720-755.

HQO. Health Quality Ontario. Ultraviolet Phototherapy Management of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: An Evidence-Based Analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2009;9(27):1-66.

Hunter HJ, Griffiths CE, Kleyn CE. Does psychosocial stress play a role in the exacerbation of psoriasis? Br J Dermatol. Nov 2013;169(5):965-974.

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Jani M, Barton A, Ho P. Pharmacogenetics of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis. Current rheumatology reports. Jul 2015;17(7):44.

Jariwala SP. The role of dendritic cells in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Archives of Dermatological Research.


Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Ekman LG, Ljunghall K, Olsson M. Blood glutathione-peroxidase levels in skin diseases: effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment. Acta dermato-venereologica. 1982;62(3):211-214.

Juzeniene A, Stokke KT, Thune P, et al. Pilot study of folate status in healthy volunteers and in patients with psoriasis before and after UV exposure. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;101(2):111-6.

Kahan V, Andersen ML, Tomimori J, Tufik S. Can poor sleep affect skin integrity? Medical hypotheses. Dec 2010;75(6):535-537.

Kamangar F, Neuhaus IM, Koo JYM. An evidence-based review of skin cancer rates on biologic therapies. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012;23:305-315.

Kamangar F, Koo J, Heller M, et al. Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013;24:261-267.

Kartha LB, Chandrashekar L, Rajappa M, Menon V, Thappa DM, Ananthanarayanan PH. Serum melatonin levels in psoriasis and associated depressive symptoms. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. Jun 2014;52(6):e123-125.

Kaukinen K, Partanen J, Maki M, Collin P. HLA-DQ typing in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The American journal of gastroenterology. Mar 2002;97(3):695-699.

Kazandjieva J, Grozdev I, Darlenski R, Tsankov N. Climatotherapy of psoriasis. Clinics in dermatology. Sep-Oct 2008;26(5):477-485.

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Kim GK. The rationale behind topical vitamin d analogs in the treatment of psoriasis: where does topical calcitriol fit in? The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology. Aug 2010;3(8):46-53.

Kirke SM, Lowder S, Lloyd JJ, Diffey BL, Matthews JN, Farr PM. A randomized comparison of selective broadband UVB and narrowband UVB in the treatment of psoriasis. The Journal of investigative dermatology. Jul 2007;127(7):1641-1646.

Kjaer TN, Thorsen K, Jessen N, et al. Resveratrol ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126599.

Klein A, Schiffner R, Schiffner-Rohe J, Einsele-Kramer B, Heinlin J, Stolz W, Landthaler M. A randomized clinical trial in psoriasis: synchronous balneophototherapy with bathing in Dead Sea salt solution plus narrowband UVB vs. narrowband UVB alone (TOMESA-study group). Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. May 2011;25(5):570-578.

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Kokcam I, Naziroglu M. Antioxidanst and lipid peroxidation status in the blood of patients with psoriasis. Clin Chim Acta. 1999;289(1-2):23-31.

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Kurd SK, Troxel AB, Crits-Christoph P, Gelfand JM. The risk of depression, anxiety, and suicidality in patients with psoriasis: a population-based cohort study. Archives of dermatology. Aug 2010;146(8):891-895.

Lee E, Koo J. Modern modified 'ultra' Goeckerman therapy: a PASI assessment of a very effective therapy for psoriasis resistant to both prebiologic and biologic therapies. The Journal of dermatological treatment. Apr 2005;16(2):102-107.

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Li W, Qureshi AA, Schernhammer ES, Han J. Rotating night shift work and risk of psoriasis in US women. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 08/30 2013;133(2):565-567.

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Mansouri Y, Goldenberg G. Biologic safety in psoriasis: review of long-term safety data. The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology. Feb 2015;8(2):30-42.

Mathur P, Ding Z, Saldeen T, Mehta JL. Tocopherols in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis and Related Cardiovascular Disease. Clinical cardiology. Sep 2015;38(9):570-576.

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McFadden RT, Larmonier CB, Shehab KW, Midura-Kiela M, Ramalingam R, Harrison CA, . . . Kiela PR. The Role of Curcumin in Modulating Colonic Microbiota During Colitis and Colon Cancer Prevention. Inflamm Bowel Dis. Jul 25 2015.

Menter A, Cram DL. The Goeckerman regimen in two psoriasis day care centers. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Jul 1983;9(1):59-65.

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