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Neuropathy (Diabetic)


Aaberg ML, Burch DM, Hud ZR, Zacharias MP. Gender differences in the onset of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes Complications, 2008;22(2):83-7.

Acar A, Akil E et al. Oxidative Damage is Ameliorated by Curcumin Treatment in Brain and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Neuroscience, 2012; 122(7): 367-372.

Adriaensen H, Plaghki L et al. Critical Review of Oral Drug Treatments for Diabetic Neuropathic Pain – Clinical Outcomes Based on Efficacy and Safety Data from Placebo-Controlled and Direct Comparative Studies. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 2005; 21: 231-240.

Ahmed N and Thornalley PJ. Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2007;9:233-245.

Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts--role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2005;67(1):3-21.

American Diabetes Association.  "Neuropathy (Nerve Damage)." Living With Diabetes. 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

American Diabetes Association. “Additional Types of Neuropathy.” Living With Diabetes. Accessed 6/20/2013.

Attia HN, Rasheed AL et al. Protective effects of combined therapy of gliclazide with curcumin in experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 2012; 23(2): 153-161.

Bach-Rojecky, Salkovic-Petrisic M et al. Botulinum Toxin Type A Reduces Pain Supersensitivity in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy: Bilateral Effect After Unilateral Injection. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2010; 6

Balakumar P, Rohilla A et al. The Multifaceted Therapeutic Potential of Benfotiamine. Pharmacological Research, 2010; 61: 482-488.

Balducci S, Iacobellis G et al. Exercise Training Can Modify the Natural History of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complication, 2006; 20: 216-223.

Bansal V, Kalita J et al. Diabetic Neuropathy. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2006; 82: 95-100.

Beckman JS. -OONO: rebounding from nitric oxide. Circulation Research, 2001;89(4):295-7.

Bell DSH. Reversal of the Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy through Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency in a Type 1 Diabetic Patient. Case Reports in Endocrinology, 2012.

Bertolotto F and Massone A. Combination of Alpha Lipoic Acid and Superoxide Dismutase Leads to Physiological and Symptomatic Improvements in Diabetic Neuropathy. Drugs Research and Development, 2012; 12(1): 29-34.

Bestard JA and Toth CC. An Open-label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy. Pain Practice, 2011; 11(4): 353-368.

Bharat S, Cochran BC, Hsu M, Liu J, Ames BN, Andersen JK. Pre-treatment with R-lipoic acid alleviates the effects of GSH depletion in PC12 cells: implications for Parkinson's disease therapy. Neurotoxicology. Oct 2002;23(4-5):479-486.

Bierhaus A, Chevion S, Chevion M, Hofmann M, Quehenberger P, Illmer T, . . . Nawroth PP. Advanced glycation end product-induced activation of NF-kappaB is suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid in cultured endothelial cells. Diabetes. Sep 1997;46(9):1481-1490.

Booya F, Bandarian F et al. Potential Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy: A Case Control Study. BMC Neurology, 2005; 5: 24-28.

Boulton AJM. Diabetic Neuropathy: Is Pan God’s Greatest Gift to Mankind? Seminars in Vascular Surgery, 2012; 25: 61-65.

Bril V. Treatments for diabetic neuropathy. Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. May 2012;17 Suppl 2:22-27.

Brownlee M. Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology of Diabetic Complications. Nature, 2001; 414: 813-820.

Callaghan BC, Cheng HT et al. Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Manifestations and Current Treatments. Lancet Neurology, 2012a; 11: 521-534

Callaghan BC, Little AA et al. Enhanced Glucose Control for Preventing and Treating Diabetic Neuropathy. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012b.

Cameron NE, Cotter MA et al. The effects of evening primrose oil on nerve function and capillarization in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: modulation by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flurbiprofen. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1993; 109 972-979.

Cao H, Chen G et al. Neuroprotective of Curcumin and Vit.B Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats. American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, 2010.

Carlson DA, Smith AR, Fischer SJ, Young KL, Packer L. The plasma pharmacokinetics of R-(+)-lipoic acid administered as sodium R-(+)-lipoate to healthy human subjects. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Dec 2007;12(4):343-351.

Cefalu WT and Hu FB. Role of Chromium in Human Health and in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27(11): 2741-2751.

Coste TC, Gerbi A et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid–Enriched Phospholipids in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes, 2003; 52: 2578-2585.

Cui XP, Li BY, Gao HQ, Wei N, Wang WL, Lu M. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), 2008;54(4):321-8.

Davis TME, Yeap BB et al. Lipid-Lowering Therapy and Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia, 2007.

De Caterina R and Madonna R. n-3 Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 2007l 30(4): 1012-1026.

De Grandis D and Minardi C. Acetyl-L-Carnitine (Levacecarnine) in the Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy. Drugs Research and Development, 2002; 3(4): 223-231.

De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, et al. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnesium Research. 2004;17(2):109-114.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of Intensive Lifestyle and Metformin Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28(4): 888-894.

Dominguez JC, Ng AR, Damian LF. A prospective, open label, 24-week trial of methylcobalamin  in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2012; 2(4): 408-412.

Dyck PJ, Davies JL et al. Risk Factors for Severity of Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care, 1999; 22: 1479-1486.

Edwards JL, Vincent AM et al. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2008: 1-34.

England JF, Gronseth GS et al. Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy: A Definition for Clinical Research. Neurology, 2005; 64: 199-210

Evans JD, Jacobs TF et al. Role of Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2008; 42: 1686-1691.

Evcimen ND and King GL. The Role of Protein Kinase C Activation and the Vascular Complications of Diabetes. Pharmacological Research, 2007; 55: 498-510.

Fahmy E, Amer H et al. Estimation of Serum Homocysteine Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Neuropathy. Egyptian Journal of Neurology Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, 2010; 47(1): 59-66.

Farvid MS, Homayouni F et al. Improving neuropathy scores in type 2 diabetic patients using micronutrients supplementation. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2011; 93: 86-94.

Feldman EL, Stevens MJ et al. A Practical Two-Step Quantitative Clinical and Electrophysiological Assessment for the Diagnosis and Staging of Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care, 1994; 17(11): 1281-1289.

Feldman, Eva L. "Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy."UpToDate. UpToDate, Nov. 2012c. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Epidemiology and Classification of Diabetic Neuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Feb. 2012a. Web. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diabetic Polyneuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Nov. 2012b. Web. <>.

Feldman, Eva L. "Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy." UpToDate. UpToDate, Jan. 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Fiçicioğlu C, Aydin A, Haktan M, Kiziltan M. Peripheral neuropathy in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 1994;36(2):97-104.

Fonseca VA, Lavery LA et al. Metanx in Type 2 Diabetes with Peripheral Neuropathy:  A Randomized Trial. The American Journal of Medicine (2013) 126, 141-149.

Forrest KY-Z, Maser RE et al. Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes, 1997; 46: 665-660.

Francisco GE, Tan H et al. Do Botulinum Toxins Have a Role in the Management of Neuropathy? American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2012; 91(10): 899-909.

Fujita H, Fujishima H, Chida S, Takahashi K, Qi Z, Kanetsuna Y, Breyer MD, Harris RC, Yamada Y, Takahashi T. Reduction of renal superoxide dismutase in progressive diabetic nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2009;20(6):1303-13.

Gannon MC and Nuttal FQ. Effect of a High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Blood Glucose Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, 2004; 53: 2375-2383.

Genuth S. Insights from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study on the Use of Intensive Glycemic Treatment to Reduce the Risk of Complications of Diabetes. Endocrinology Practice, 2006; 12 (S1): 34-41.

Gerbi A, Maixent J-M et al. Fish Oil Supplementation Prevents Diabetes-Induced Nerve Conduction Velocity and Neuroanatomical Changes in Rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 1999; 129: 207-213.

Giudice PL, Careddu A et al. Autonomic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats: Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2002; 56: 173-180.

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Golbidi S, Badran M et al. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2011; 2.

Gonzalez-Clemente JM, Mauriciio D et al. Diabetic Neuropathy is Associated with Activation of the TNF-a System in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Endocrinology, 2005; 63: 525-529.

Gruden G, Bruno G et al. Serum Heat Shock Protein 24 and Diabetes Complications in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Diabetes, 2006; 57: 1966-1970.

Gul Kazi T, Afridi H et al. Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Biol Trace Elem Res (2008) 122:1–18

Gupta R, Garg VK et al. Oral zinc Therapy in Diabetic Neuropathy. Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 1998; 46(11): 939-942.

Halushka MK, Selvin E, Lu J, Macgregor AM, Cornish TC. Use of human vascular tissue microarrays for measurement of advanced glycation endproducts. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 2009;57(6):559-66.

Han T, Bai K et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. European Journal of Endocrinology, 2012; 167: 465-471.

Haupt E, Ledermann H, and Köpcke W. Benfotamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy—a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;43(2):71-77.

Hayee MA, Mohammad QD et al. Diabetic Neuropathy and Zinc Therapy. Bangladesh Medical Reseanch Council Bull, 2005; 31(2): 62-67.

Head KA. Peripheral Neuropathy: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Alternative Therapies. Alternative Medicine Review, 2006; 11(4): 294-329.

Hosseini A, Abdollahi M. Diabetic neuropathy and oxidative stress: therapeutic perspectives. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2013;2013:168039.

Hosseini A, Sharifzadeh M et al. Benefit of magnesium-25 carrying porphyrinfullerenenanoparticles in experimental diabetic neuropathy. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010:5 517–523.

Hsieh ST. Pathology and functional diagnosis of small-fiber painful neuropathy. Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, 2010;19(2):82-9.

Jabbari B and Machado D. Treatment of Refractory Pain with Botulinum Toxins---An Evidence-Based Review. Pain Medicine, 2011; 12: 1594-1606

Jacobs AM, Cheng D et al. Management of Diabetic Small-Fiber neuropathy with Combination L-Methylfolate, Methylcobalamin, and Pyridocal 5’-Phosphate. Reviews of Neurological Diseases, 2011; 8(1/2): 1-9.

Jamal GA and Carmichael H. The Effect of γ-Linolenic Acid on Human Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. Diabetic Medicine, 1990; 7(4): 319-323.

Jayawardena R, Ranasinghe P et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012, 4:13

Jian-bo L, Cheng-ya W et al. The Preventive Efficacy of Methylcobalamin on Rat Peripheral Neuropathy Influenced by Diabetes Via Neural IGF-1 Levels. Nutritional Neuroscience, 2010; 13(2): 79-86.

Joshi RP, Negi G et al. SNEDDS curcumin formulation leads to enhanced protection from pain and functional deficits associated with diabetic neuropathy: An insight into its mechanism for neuroprotection. Nanomedicine, 2013; pii: S1549-9634(13)00006-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Kamboj SS, Vasishta RK et al. N-Acetylcysteine Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Markers in Diabetic Neuropathy. Journal of Neurochemistry, 2010; 112: 77-91.

Kassem HS, Azar ST et al. Hypertriglyceridemia and Peripheral Neuropathy in Neurologically Asymptomatic Patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2005; 26(6): 775-779.

Kasznicki J, Kosmalski M, Sliwinska A, Mrowicka M, Stanczyk M, Majsterek I, Drzewoski J. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Molecular biology reports. Sep 2012;39(9):8669-8678.

Keen H, Payan J et al. Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy With 7-Linolenic Acid. Diabetes Care, 1993; 16(1): 8-15.

Kim, Julie, and Young-Sup Yoon. Peripheral Neuropathy - Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches. N.p.: Intech, 2012. Print.

Korotchkina LG, Sidhu S, Patel MS. R-lipoic acid inhibits mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Free radical research. Oct 2004;38(10):1083-1092.

Kulkarni SK and Dhir A. An Overview of Curcumin in Neurological Disorders. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Mar-Apr; 72(2): 149–154.

Kumar A, Kaundal RK, Iyer S, Sharma SS. Effects of resveratrol on nerve functions, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Life Sciences, 2007;80(13):1236-44.

Kumar A, Sharma SS. NF-kappaB inhibitory action of resveratrol: a probable mechanism of neuroprotection in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2010;394(2):360-5.

Kunt T, Forst T, Wilhelm A, Tritschler H, Pfuetzner A, Harzer O, . . . Beyer J. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial adhesion of human monocytes after stimulation with advanced glycation end products. Clinical science. Jan 1999;96(1):75-82.

Lakshmanan AP, Watanabe K et al. Curcumin attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated AMPK activation and oxidative stress in cerebrum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Free Radical Research, July 2011; 45(7): 788–795.

Lee P and Chen R. Vitamin D as an Analgesic for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathic Pain. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2008;  168(7): 771-772.

Leeuw ID, Engelen W. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg‐depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnesium Research, 2004; 17(2): 109-14.

Leiter LA. The prevention of diabetic microvascular complications of diabetes: is there a role for lipid lowering? Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2005;68 Suppl 2:S3-14.

Li Y, Zhang Y et al. Curcumin Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathic Pain by Downregulating TNF-α in a Rat Model. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2013; 10(4): 377-381.

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Margolis DJ, Malay DS, Hoffstad OJ, Leonard CE, MaCurdy T, de Nava KL, Tan Y, Molina T, Siegel KL. Incidence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Lower Extremity Amputation Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 2006 to 2008: Data Points #2. 2011 Feb 17. Data Points Publication Series [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011-. Available From PMID: 22049565.

Martinello F, Fardin P et al. Supplemental therapy in isolated vitamin E deficiency improves the peripheral neuropathy and prevents the progression of ataxia. Journal of Neurological Sciences 156 (1998) 177–179

Martini C, Yassen A et al. Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Analgesic Effect of Capsaicin 8% Patch on Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Patients: Detection of Distinct Response Groups. Journal of Pain Research, 2012; 5: 51-59.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 21 June 2011. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <>.

Mayo Clinic. Diabetic Neuropathy. 2012. Available at Accessed May 10, 2013.

McIlduff CE and Rutkove SB. Critical Appraisal of the Use of Alpha Lipoic Acid (Thiooctic Acid) in the Treatment of Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 2011; 7: 377-385.

Medline Plus. Diabetic Neuropathy. 2012. Available at: Accessed on May 22, 2013.

Meijer J-WG, Smit AJ et al. Back to Basics in Diagnosing Diabetic Polyneuropathy with the Tuning Fork!. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28(9): 2201-2205.

Merck Manual. Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The Merck Manual online. diabetes_mellitus_and_disorders_of_carbohydrate_metabolism/diabetes_mellitus_dm.html#v988257. Last updated January 2013. Accessed 6/20/2013.

Mijnhout GS, Alkhalad A et al. Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A New Treatment for Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Diabetes. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 2010; 68(4): 158-162.

Mizukami H, Ogasawara S et al. Methylcobalamin Effects of Diabetic Neuropathy and Nerve Protein Kinase C in Rats. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2011; 41(4): 442-450.

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Pacher P, Obrosova IG, Mabley JG, Szabó C. Role of nitrosative stress and peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Emerging new therapeutical strategies. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005;12(3):267-75.

Papanas N and Maltezos E. Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Diabetic Neuropathy and Nathan’s Prophecy. Angiology, 2012; 63: 81-83.

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Romeo L, Intrieri M, D'Agata V, Mangano NG, Oriani G, Ontario ML, Scapagnini G. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces heme oxygenase in rat neurons and acts as an effective neuroprotective agent against oxidative stress. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2009;28 Suppl:492S-499S.

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