Starch with a slow digestion property produced by altering its chain length, branch density, and crystalline structure.
The hypothesis of increasing the branch density of starch to reduce its digestion rate through partial shortening of amylopectin exterior chains and the length of amylose was investigated. Starch products prepared using beta-amylase, beta-amylase and transglucosidase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, and maltogenic alpha-amylase and transglucosidase showed significant reduction of rapidly digested starch by 14.5%, 29.0%, 19.8%, and 31.0% with a concomitant increase of slowly digested starch by 9.0%, 19.7%, 5.7%, and 11.0%, respectively. The resistant starch content increased from 5.1% to 13.5% in treated starches. The total contents of the prebiotics isomaltose, isomaltotriose, and panose (Isomaltooligosaccharides) were 2.3% and 5.5%, respectively, for beta-amylase/transglucosidase- and maltogenic alpha-amylase/transglucosidase-treated starches. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches and their debranched chain length distributions, analyzed using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detection (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) and HPSEC-RI, showed distinctly different patterns among starches with different enzyme treatments. A larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in starches treated additionally with transglucosidase. All enzyme-treated starches showed a mixture of B- and V-type X-ray diffraction patterns, and 1H NMR spectra showed a significant increase of alpha-1,6 linkages. Both the increase of the starch branch density and the crystalline structure in the treated starches likely contribute to their slow digestion property.
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 30;55(11):4540-7
Supplementing transglucosidase with a high-fiber diet for prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic dogs.
Indigestible oligosaccharides have been shown to normalize blood glucose and insulin concentration thereby promoting good health and preventing diseases, such as diabetes. Transglucosidase (TG, alpha-glucosidase, enzyme code (EC) 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme capable of converting starch to oligosaccharides, such as iso-malto-oligosaccharides from maltose, via the action of amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oral administration of TG with maltose or dextrin is capable of reducing post-prandial serum glucose concentration in experimentally streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic dogs fed on a high-fiber diet. Five healthy and five STZ-induced diabetic dogs were employed in this study. TG supplementation with dextrin or maltose had no detrimental effect in healthy dogs. In fact, TG and dextrin exhibited a flatlined serum glucose pattern, while reducing mean post-prandial serum insulin and glucose concentration as compared to control diet alone. When TG supplementation was tested in STZ-induced diabetic dogs under the context of a high fiber diet, a 13.8% and 23.9% reduction in mean glucose concentration for TG with maltose and dextrin, respectively was observed. Moreover, TG with dextrin resulted in a 13% lower mean post-prandial glucose concentration than TG with maltose, suggesting that dextrin may be a more efficient substrate than maltose when used at the same concentration (1 g/kg). Our results indicate that TG supplementation with diet can lead to lower postprandial glucose levels versus diet alone. However, the efficacy of TG supplementation may depend on the type of diet it is supplemented with. As such, TG administration may be useful for preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus and in its management in dogs.
Vet Res Commun. 2010 Feb;34(2):161-72
Effects of transglucosidase on diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of transglucosidase (TGD) were compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). At 12 weeks, TGD 300 mg/day and TGD 900 mg/day significantly reduced HbA1c (0.18 and 0.21%) and insulin concentration (19.4 and 25.0 pmol/l), respectively, vs. placebo. TGD 300 mg/day and TGD 900 mg/day also significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.22 and 0.17 mmol/l, respectively). TGD 900 mg/day significantly reduced triglyceride by 0.24 mmol/l and diastolic blood pressure by 8 mmHg. Placebo was associated with a significant increase from baseline in body mass index, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (0.17 kg/m(2) , 3 and 2 U/l, respectively), whereas TGD was not. TGD 300 mg/day significantly increased high-molecular-weight adiponectin by 0.6 µg/ml. Adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. TGD resulted in lowering of HbA1c and blood insulin level and improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Apr;14(4):379-82
Action of transglucosidase from Aspergillus niger on maltoheptaose and [U-(13)C]maltose.
Oligosaccharides synthesized from a mixture of maltoheptaose and [U-(13)C]maltose with transglucosidase [EC 220.127.116.11] from Aspergillus niger were investigated. When the reaction mixture was incubated at 15 degrees C for 1h, several types of oligosaccharides with DP (degree of polymerization) 2 to DP8 containing alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-maltoheptaose were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and methylation analysis. Most of these compounds consisted of alpha-(1-->4) linkages in the main chain and alpha-(1-->6) linkages at the non-reducing ends. However, when the reaction mixture was incubated for 96h, most of these products were converted into oligosaccharides with DP2 to DP5 consisting of only alpha-(1-->6) linkages. These results suggested that A. niger transglucosidase rapidly transferred glucosyl residues to maltooligosaccharides, and gradually hydrolyzed both alpha-(1-->4) linkages and alpha-(1-->6) linkages at the non-reducing end, and transformed these into smaller molecules of mainly alpha-(1-->6) linkages.
Carbohydr Res. 2009 Mar 10;344(4):460-5
A novel strategy in production of oligosaccharides in digestive tract: prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of transglucosidase (TG) on postprandial glucose concentrations in healthy subjects. A randomized placebo-controlled three-way crossover trial was separated by a washout period of more than 3 days. Twenty-one normal healthy volunteers, aged 30-61 years old (17 males and 4 females) were selected for this study. The subjects’ health was assessed as normal by prestudy screening. All subjects received 3 types of test meals (3 rice balls: protein, 14.4 g; fat, 2.1 g; and carbohydrate, 111 g: total energy, 522 kcal) with 200 ml water in which 0 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of TG was dissolved. Blood samples for estimating plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were collected before and every 30 min after the experiment. As compared to no TG treatment, TG administration tended to prevent a postprandial increase in plasma glucose (p = 0.069: 150 mg of TG vs control) but there were no significant difference among three groups. With regard to the 17 subjects who were suggested to have impaired glucose tolerance, TG significantly decreased the postprandial blood glucose (p<0.05: 150 mg and 300 mg of TG vs control) and marginally decreased insulin concentrations (p = 0.099: 300 mg of TG vs control). These results suggest that TG may be useful for preventing the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Nov;41(3):191-6
An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods.
The aim of this study was to systematically compare postprandial insulin responses to isoenergetic 1000-kJ (240-kcal) portions of several common foods. Correlations with nutrient content were determined. Thirty-eight foods separated into six food categories (fruit, bakery products, snacks, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, and breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 healthy subjects. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained every 15 min over 120 min. An insulin score was calculated from the area under the insulin response curve for each food with use of white bread as the reference food (score = 100%). Significant differences in insulin score were found both within and among the food categories and also among foods containing a similar amount of carbohydrate. Overall, glucose and insulin scores were highly correlated (r = 0.70, P < 0.001, n = 38). However, protein-rich foods and bakery products (rich in fat and refined carbohydrate) elicited insulin responses that were disproportionately higher than their glycemic responses. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.39, P < 0.05, n = 36) and sugar (r = 0.36, P < 0.05, n = 36) contents were positively related to the mean insulin scores, whereas fat (r = -0.27, NS, n = 36) and protein (r = -0.24, NS, n = 38) contents were negatively related. Consideration of insulin scores may be relevant to the dietary management and pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia and may help increase the accuracy of estimating preprandial insulin requirements.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Nov;66(5):1264-76
Prebiotics to Fight Diseases: Reality or Fiction?
Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract are crucial for human health and disease occurrence. Increasing the beneficial intestinal microflora by consumption of prebiotics, which are ‘functional foods’, could be an elegant way to limit the number and incidence of disorders and to recover from dysbiosis or antibiotic treatments. This review focuses on the short-chain low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) which are metabolized by gut microbiota serving as energy source, immune system enhancers or facilitators of mineral uptake. Intake of foods containing LDCs can improve the state of health and may prevent diseases as for example certain forms of cancer. Given the large number of different molecules belonging to LDCs, we focused our attention on fructans (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides), galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starches and their therapeutic and protective applications. Evidence is accumulating that LDCs can inhibit bacterial and viral infections by modulating host defense responses and by changing the interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Animal studies and studies on small groups of human subjects suggest that LDCs might help to counteract colorectal cancer, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The action mechanisms of LDCs in the human body might be broader than originally thought, perhaps also including reactive oxygen species scavenging and signaling events.
Phytother Res. 2012 Dec 27
Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions.
Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above “Pharmaco-nutritional” approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;16(1):20-7
Probiotics, prebiotics, energy balance, and obesity: mechanistic insights and therapeutic implications.
Obesity-related disorders derive from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Recent evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance by increasing energy harvest from diet and by inducing chronic, low-grade inflammation. Several studies describe characteristic differences between composition and activity of gut microbiota of lean individuals and those with obesity. Despite this evidence, some pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. This article discusses mechanisms connecting gut microbiota to obesity and fat storage and the potential therapeutic role of probiotics and prebiotics
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2012 Dec;41(4):843-54
High dietary glycemic index and low fiber content are associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and fiber content with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 175 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (aged 61.1 ± 9.7 years; HbA(1c) 7.3% ± 1.4%; diabetes duration of 11 years [range, 5-17]) had food intake assessed by 3-day weighed-diet records. Dietary GI (according to FAO/WHO) and fiber content were categorized as high or low based on median values. MetS was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. RESULTS: Patients with MetS (n = 109) had higher 24-hour GI (60.0% ± 6.3% vs 57.5% ± 6.4%), higher breakfast GI (59.8% ± 8.0% vs 55.0% ± 9.9%), and lower fiber intake at 24 hours (17.0 ± 6.6 g vs 21.2 ± 8.0 g), breakfast (1.9 [1.2-3.2] vs 3.1 [1.8-4.9] g), lunch (6.2 [3.9-8.0] vs 7.5 [4.7-9.4] g), and dinner (3.3 [2.1-5.2] vs 4.9 [3.1-6.4] g; p < 0.05 for all comparisons) than patients without MetS. In multivariate analyses, high GI (~60%) of 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.11; p = 0.025), breakfast (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.15-4.21; p = 0.017), and lunch (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.28-4.74; p = 0.007) was associated with MetS. Breakfast (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.04-4.41; p = 0.039) and dinner (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.15-4.49; p = 0.019) with low fiber content were also associated with MetS. When high GI and low fiber intake were combined into the same variable, associations with MetS were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: Increased dietary GI and reduced fiber content were positively associated with MetS, mainly due to breakfast intake, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Apr;30(2):141-8