Our history decades of scientific innovation

Life Extension Track Record

Life Extension Track Record

Impeccable track record of 40+ years of scientific achievement

Life Extension has led the world in uncovering new ways to prevent and treat aging-related diseases since 1980. We’ve unveiled innovative treatment protocols in our Life Extension Magazine® years before they were recognized by conventional medicine. Today, many of the advances we’ve championed have become standard medical practice. Below is a chronology of those advances and achievements, spanning an incredible five decades.



  • Life Extension revealed recent findings concerning the remarkable rejuvenation effects of taurine, an amino acid that is made in the body and contained in some foods.
  • Life Extension reported progress in the use of artificial intelligence to understand human aging.
  • Life Extension made available an encapsulated form of capsaicin derived from red chili peppers that helps increase resting energy expenditure and burn calories while not irritating the stomach.
  • Life Extension introduced fish oil gummies, a good-tasting, sugar-free way to obtain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids without swallowing large capsules or consuming bad-tasting liquid fish oil.
  • Life Extension introduced a possible solution for urinary issues experienced by older women. A population study of women aged 40 to 99 years revealed frequent urination among a quarter of the participants and incontinence in over half.
  • Life Extension made available a soluble form of fiber that has the same benefits of psyllium seed husk, but at a significantly smaller dose.


  • Life Extension introduced a highly bioavailable form of magnesium known as magnesium acetyl taurate, which has been shown to help support individuals suffering from symptoms related to stress. Research has shown that magnesium acetyl taurate was more effective at raising magnesium levels in the brain than other forms of magnesium tested.
  • Life Extension provided information about an upcoming clinical trial that will utilize cryo-immune focal therapy, a systemic immune drug called granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the cancer drug cyclophosphamide in people with metastatic cancer.
  • Medical oncologist Stephen Strum, MD provided Life Extension with information gained from a review of 570 peer-reviewed articles on the subject of treating prostate cancer. He also made available an extensive library of 300 articles that anyone can access to further explore the topic.
  • Life Extension reported that an extract of moro orange can help support a healthy weight and less accumulation of fat, including unhealthy visceral fat.
  • Life Extension reported the dangers and side effects associated with benzodiazepine drugs as well as how they interfere with the production of melatonin, a hormone that is essential for sleep.
  • Life Extension reported the importance of the use of different species of the herb echinacea and the need for the use of the whole plant for supporting immune health.
  • Life Extension revealed a way for the stress-reducing green tea compound known as theanine to remain in the body for up to six hours.
  • In a pilot study published in the BMC journal Translational Medicine Communications, Life Extension researchers found improvements in physical function and comfort among men and women experiencing inflammation-associated discomfort who consumed a combination of highly bioavailable curcumin and fish oil enriched with specialized pro-resolving mediators, which help support a healthy inflammatory response.
  • Life Extension reported a breakthrough in improving the bioavailability of the plant extract resveratrol, one of the most talked-about compounds in the field of gerontology. While resveratrol has been known to be rapidly metabolized in the body, a resveratrol-galactomannan hydrogel was shown to enhance resveratrol bioavailability by a factor of 10.
  • Life Extension warned of the dangers of a behavior that many Americans are guilty of — sitting for too long. Prolonged sitting increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition characterized by a clot that develops in the legs and can travel to the lungs. Plant compounds have been identified to help prevent these clots and break them down after they form.
  • Life Extension shared the findings of a remarkable hearing loss trial. Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss showed improved hearing capacity after a year of increased intake of a derivative of the periwinkle plant called “vinpocetine.”
  • Life Extension continues to explore and report the health benefits of the trace mineral lithium. We reported on a combination of lithium with a proline-rich polypeptide complex that targets age-related changes in the brain and has shown, in human studies, to stabilize or reverse cognitive decline.
  • Life Extension reported an innovative solution for people with unhealthy cholesterol levels who fail to benefit from statin drugs. A beneficial probiotic strain known as Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 has been shown to lower total cholesterol by over 9% and lower LDL cholesterol by nearly 12% in a nine-week clinical trial.
  • Life Extension cautioned against the dangers of opioid and non-opioid pain-relieving drugs. Instead, we suggested a nutrient combination that worked just as well as acetaminophen in a clinical trial.
  • Life Extension first introduced melatonin in 1992, and we continued to warn of the risks associated with non-restorative sleep, including the link with numerous diseases and conditions, including obesity. Our most recent innovation for a good night’s sleep combines two forms of the sleep hormone and the herb ashwagandha for faster, longer, better sleep.
  • Life Extension reported on two natural extracts that reduce hunger signals and promote fullness to aid in calorie intake control. In addition, in clinical trials, these extracts have been shown to double the amount of weight lost compared to a placebo.
  • Three plant-based nutrients were reported by Life Extension to safely boost testosterone levels, providing men with a readily available way to restore declining levels of this critical hormone safely. Reduced testosterone levels have been associated with low libido, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, obesity and other concerns.
  • Life Extension introduced L-ergothioneine, an amino acid often found in mushrooms. Known as a longevity nutrient, it has remarkable benefits for the protective caps at the end of your chromosomes called “telomeres.” L-ergothioneine helps reduce the rate of telomere shortening and decreases the number of short telomeres in cells exposed to oxidative stress.
  • Life Extension shared that the amino acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, had a less commonly known benefit — supporting brain health.


  • A study undertaken by Life Extension’s senior scientific staff discovered that specialized pro-resolving mediators from marine oil significantly improved infection clearance in preclinical models. These compounds also show promise for inflammatory lung conditions.
  • Physicians in Japan have prescribed high-dose vitamin K2 to treat osteoporosis for decades. When Life Extension learned of research that showed 45,000 mcg of a particular form of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) can actually increase bone density and reduce risk of fractures by encouraging the activity of bone-building osteoblast cells, they immediately made it known that this hard-to-find dosage is available without a prescription.
  • In collaboration with the Insilico Medicine research group, scientists at Life Extension identified two plant extracts that stimulate autophagy, a process in the body whereby damaged proteins and other intracellular debris that impairs youthful function is removed. It was found that luteolin and piperlongumine activate autophagy in similar, as well as different, ways.
  • Life Extension warned of the dangers of tattoos, which include skin infection and heavy metal exposure that may increase cancer risk. The growing popularity of this body art form emphasizes the need to be aware of these little-known risks.
  • Life Extension revealed new findings for the bark of the phellodendron tree, which is known to have neuroprotective effects. The new research showed that phellodendron tree bark inhibits monoamine oxidase B, an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain that is associated with pleasure and aspects of cognitive function.
  • Life Extension reported new research findings for the fatty acid PEA in eye health. One clinical trial resulted in improvements in intraocular pressure and endothelial function in glaucoma patients who received the fatty acid. Another trial involving participants with glaucoma found improvement in the pattern electroretinogram eye test (which assesses eye health in glaucoma) in association with PEA intake.
  • While the benefits of methylcobalamin, a bioactive form of vitamin B12, were made known by Life Extension during the 1990s, in 2021, Life Extension announced the availability of another bioactive form of vitamin B12 known as adenosylcobalamin, which has benefits that are different from methylcobalamin but just as important. New research has shown that adenosylcobalamin protects neurons and helps prevent a decline in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
  • In light of the growing awareness of the importance of immune function, Life Extension identified four mushrooms and beta glucans (found in mushrooms, seaweeds and grains) as having an ability to provide immune system support.
  • Life Extension reported the essentiality of obtaining sufficient magnesium to convert vitamin D into its active form and enable its transport in the blood. Similarly, vitamin D is needed for magnesium to achieve its important benefits.
  • Life Extension reported research that shows that lithium intake is not only associated with neuroprotection, but with a longer life.
  • Life Extension revealed the finding of research that identified a specific probiotic strain that improved colonic transit time and supported regular bowel movements. This could be a boon to the 40% of Americans aged 65 and older who suffer from chronic constipation.
  • Life Extension presented information concerning nutritional and other factors that may help protect against cancer of the pancreas, one of the most aggressive forms of the disease.
  • In view of the failure of 90% of Americans to consume the recommended daily intake of phytonutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, Life Extension identified 12 plant foods that provide a significant amount of phytonutrients, vitamins and minerals. Concentrated extracts of these foods can be consumed to obtain the nutritional equivalent of several servings of fruit and vegetables.
  • After learning that significant misconceptions about vitamin C were preventing people from achieving optimal levels of this essential nutrient, Life Extension scientists developed a liposomal vitamin C combined with a galactomannan hydrogel that allows for healthy blood levels to be maintained for 24 hours without the waste produced by other high-dose vitamin C solutions.
  • Life Extension reported that a combination of plants used in traditional Indian medicine helped relieve joint pain and improved function among men and women with knee joint discomfort following exercise. Joint pain is a common complaint among adults and can reduce the ability to perform activities of daily living.


  • Life Extension presented further evidence concerning the benefits of probiotics. A blend of seven probiotics plus a prebiotic lowered elevated liver enzymes and reduced fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition that affects 25% of the US population.
  • Until more is known concerning the safety and efficacy of stem cell infusion therapies, Life Extension instead suggested the intake of nicotinamide riboside, which boosts cellular NAD+. NAD+ has been shown to increase stem cell colonies in preclinical research.
  • After years of searching, Life Extension announced a new, highly available form of curcumin, a compound that occurs in turmeric, whose benefits continue to be revealed in scientific research. Poor bioavailability of orally administered curcumin has prevented people from attaining optimal levels of this versatile compound. A clinical trial conducted by Life Extension researchers provided evidence that this curcumin formulation penetrates the blood-brain barrier, which enables it to benefit the brain.
  • Life Extension has warned of the cancer and heart disease risks associated with ionizing radiation emitted by CT scanners. New research reported by Life Extension has revealed that this form of radiation creates senescent cells that can hasten the onset of cardiovascular disease.
  • In partnership with a deep-learning AI biotech group, scientists at Life Extension identified three plant compounds that can help reverse age-related damage to the body’s existing pool of stem cells, which replace damaged or dead cells. Maintaining the health of stem cells enhances their ability to grow into mature cells that maintain the body’s tissues.
  • Life Extension announced the Vitality in Aging Longitudinal Study, designed to follow human volunteers who utilize a combination of age-reversal therapies. Eligible participants had an opportunity to be enrolled in the Vitality in Aging interventions Trial, which aims to induce meaningful age reversal in 12 months.
  • Life Extension has long advocated the use of DHEA and metformin as antiaging therapies. In the TRIIM trial, reported by Life Extension, participants who received these therapies plus human growth hormone experienced a reversal of biologic age equal to 2.5 years.
  • Life Extension identified a more bioavailable form of the amino acid arginine, which supports the production of nitric oxide to help maintain blood vessel relaxation. This improvement in arginine bioavailability may avoid the need for high and frequent doses of arginine to obtain benefits. Combining this form of arginine with aronia berries further boosts nitric oxide production to help lower the risk of cardiovascular events, the major cause of mortality in the Western world.
  • Life Extension announced the availability of the trace mineral lithium in a dose of 1,000 micrograms that had not been offered as a dietary option. Lithium is associated with health benefits that include a longer life span.
  • Life Extension combined several plant-derived compounds to maximize cognitive performance in people of all ages. These nootropics may improve brain processing speed and alertness.
  • Life Extension reported that an experimental combination of quercetin and the drug dasatinib, which clears aged, dysfunctional senescent cells, shows promise for heart failure, a major threat to older Americans. Quercetin has also been combined with theaflavins from black tea as a senolytic therapy.
  • Life Extension combined plant compounds that support the endocannabinoid system of the body, which plays a role in mood, memory and learning, pain control, sleep, appetite and more. The use of these herbs avoids the need for cannabidiol (CBD), a product that has recently been touted for endocannabinoid support that may require more research to establish safety and efficacy.
  • Prebiotics support the growth of beneficial probiotic bacteria; however, many prebiotics require large doses that can cause digestive discomfort. Life Extension introduced a prebiotic that works at low doses to target and boost Bifidobacteria, the most important gut bacteria in the body, which decline during aging.
  • A combination of the most effective immune-supportive nutrients was formulated by Life Extension to help maintain wellness during cold and flu season.
  • Fisetin is a flavonoid occurring in fruits and vegetables that helps clear away aged and damaged (senescent) cells. Life Extension revealed the availability of a novel formulation of fisetin that increases the bioavailability of this powerful compound by up to 25 times.
  • Life Extension identified four herbs that target the underlying causes of gastrointestinal discomfort to help relieve bloating, gas and other symptoms that can occur after a meal.



  • Short-term memory loss is a troubling aspect of aging for many people. Life Extension explored and presented the clinically evaluated findings that point to a standardized extract of the herb sage for relief. Within hours of ingesting this extract, participant's memory performance increased along with significant improvements in attention span.
  • Life Extension warned against the dangers of formaldehyde, a toxin compound that poses a serious threat to our health. Due to is antiglycation effects, the nutritional compound carnosine was suggested as a dietary agent that could protect against formaldehyde and the damage it inflicts to the brain and body.
  • Life Extension reported that a novel spinach extract reduces hunger and junk food cravings and promotes fullness. Consuming this extract in a nutritional bar helps people stick to their diet, control cravings and lower calorie intake.
  • Life Extension identified two plant-based extracts that target senescent cells, which create an inflammatory environment and damage healthy cells. These senolytic extracts need only be consumed once per week to help remove senescent cells.
  • Life Extension reported the finding of the SPRINT MIND study of a brain benefit associated with lower blood pressure. The study further validates Life Extension’s decades-long advocacy of lower blood pressure targets.
  • The need for a safe and effective pain reliever was brought into focus during the US opioid addiction epidemic. Life Extension revealed the benefits of a natural fatty acid compound that turns off pain signals at the site of discomfort without adverse effects.
  • Life Extension introduced a novel way to promote skin health from within: a nutritious oral option that delivers both collagen and hyaluronic acid—two essential components to youthful skin moisture retention and smoothness. In fact, studies show that oral ingestion of collagen peptides + hyaluronic acid improved skin elasticity, hydration and reduced the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
  • Studies continue to validate the benefits of drinking many cups of green tea as is done in Japan. Life Extension reported the availability of a green tea extract that delivered eight different catechins that are efficiently absorbed by the body. One capsule of the extract allowed people to obtain the catechins found in 12 cups of green tea.
  • Life Extension announced the formulation of a more biologically active vitamin K extract. This enables people to benefit from research findings that have revealed cardiovascular and bone support in association with high dose vitamin K1 and the MK-4, MK-6, MK-7 and MK-9 forms of vitamin K2. The formula provides higher doses of these forms of vitamin K than would be practical to obtain by consuming a typical diet.
  • Life Extension combined extracts of turmeric and ginger, which contain different but complementary compounds that help maintain inflammation at a healthy level. Because inflammation increases during aging, consuming the roots of these related plants can help combat a variety of age-related conditions.
  • Life Extension scientists combined four nutrients plus the natural sleep hormone, melatonin, to reduce nighttime urinary frequency (nocturia) in men. A pilot trial that involved men with lower urinary tract symptoms resulted in a 64% decrease in the number of men affected by nocturia and a reduction in the number of bathroom trips needed by the remainder of the participants.
  • Life Extension reported that three plant extracts enhance the sleep-inducing effects of the calming neurotransmitter, GABA. Together, these extracts boost GABA levels and activity in several ways to help people fall asleep more easily and experience better sleep quality.
  • Life Extension reported a strategy to reduce the risk of cancer that involves the protective effects of compounds provided by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. One of these compounds, sulforaphane, is formed in the body from a precursor known as glucoraphanin that is converted into sulforaphane by the enzyme myrosinase, which is also found in these vegetables. Combining the two results in significantly higher levels of sulforaphane compared to glucoraphanin alone.
  • Postprandial blood sugar spikes are an under-appreciated health risk factor. Life Extension researchers conducted a clinical trial that indicates water-soluble, polyphenol rich clove extract can help lower blood glucose levels after eating—welcome news to all those for whom blood sugar is a concern.
  • Life Extension reported a method to increase the body’s levels of ketones, which provide energy to the body as an alternative to glucose. Combining a ketone with nutrients that assist the body’s ketone production avoids the need to consume a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat diet associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.
  • Life Extension revealed findings concerning two strains of probiotics that have been shown to decrease anxiety and depression. For the first time, these probiotics have been combined with a unique herbal extract that research has found to be as helpful as an antidepressant.
  • Life Extension presented evidence of the benefits of high potency vitamin D and EPA/DHA intake. This research contradicts findings from the VITAL trial that caused the media to declare that there was no value in taking these nutrients. The numerous research findings gathered by Life Extension add evidence to the value of higher potency vitamin D and EPA/DHA combination compared to the modest potencies used in the trial.
  • Life Extension announced the availability of fatty acids known as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from certain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which help maintain inflammation at a healthy level. Three important SPMs that help support healthy inflammation have been identified and isolated.


  • Life Extension reported on controlled clinical trials that backed up previous studies showing that supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a nutrient involved in providing energy to heart muscle cells, can mitigate symptoms and improve cardiac function in heart failure victims.
  • Life Extension reported on the growing evidence for the longevity-promoting effects of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD+.
  • Life Extension announced a deep-learning analysis driven by artificial intelligence and conducted by Insilico Medicine that identified withaferin A, gamma-linolenic acid, and ginsenoside Rg3 as compounds with the potential to mimic calorie restriction and fight back against the biological effects of aging.
  • A large, long-term study vindicated Life Extension’s position that finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk without promoting high-grade disease. The medical community had been concerned for some time that the drug might increase the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but Life Extension rebutted these claims in 2013. The 2018 study provides robust evidence supporting Life Extension’s long-held position that drugs like dutasteride and finasteride reduce prostate cancer risk and benign prostate hypertrophy.
  • The American Cancer Society issued new colorectal cancer screening guidelines echoing Life Extension’s long-standing recommendation that screening should begin earlier in life. Since the early 2000s, Life Extension has advocated starting screening as young as age 40. (The new ACS guidelines call for screening beginning at age 45 instead of 50.)
  • Life Extension disseminated a specific protocol for treating sepsis patients in the hospital that has resulted in an 87% reduction in mortality rates.
  • The American Heart Association and American Stroke Association announced new guidelines recommending thrombectomy be considered in certain ischemic stroke patients up to 24 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. One out of three stroke victims can now avoid permanent paralysis or death. Life Extension advocated for more-aggressive use of thrombectomy in 2015 based on published studies and direct interaction with vascular interventionists who reported reversals of acute ischemic stroke beyond the accepted 6-hour window that was thought to exist at that time.
  • Life Extension introduced a novel plant extract shown to relieve menopausal symptoms in women who prefer to not use estrogen drugs.
  • The significance of the growing epidemic of viral-induced cancers was revealed along with potential ways of reducing the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas caused by HPV (human papilloma viruses).
  • Six scientists from Life Extension and Life Extension Clinical Research, Inc., had an article published in the Journal of Integrative Medicine entitled "Kaempferia parviflora ethanol extract improves self-assessed sexual health in men: a pilot study."
  • Life Extension reported on the growing evidence of two nutrients shown to rebuild muscle in older individuals. HMB increases and preserves muscle mass. Vitamin D supports muscle strength and helps to prevent frailty issues that can lead to falls. Life Extension's long-held position on maintaining muscle and tissue health is that it helps protect against age-related muscle loss (called sarcopenia), which increases the risk for falls and fractures.
  • Life Extension introduced a novel nutrient combination of two plant extracts that can reduce arterial plaque progression by 95% while promoting plaque stability to lessen the risk of acute arterial occlusion.
  • Life Extension shared the results of a landmark 2018 Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that showed the drug finasteride slashed prostate cancer risk by around 25%. There was no increase in deaths from aggressive prostate cancer, as had been argued by the medical establishment. Life Extension has long advocated that aging men consider this class of drug to relieve benign prostate hypertrophy and reduce prostate cancer risk—and we were vindicated once again.
  • Life Extension presented an expert rebuttal of a report that threatened to sully the obvious benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation when minor meta-analyses failed to demonstrate a benefit: expert commentary published in Cardiovascular Diabetology suggests that those studies suffered from inadequate dosing. These views support Life Extension's long-held belief that high-quality nutrients require precise, and sometimes, higher-than-average dosing.
  • With recent media attention focused on "intermittent fasting", Life Extension researchers devised and executed a randomized controlled clinical study to evaluate the effects of nutrient-supported intermittent calorie restriction during one of the most notorious times of the year for weight gain: the six-week winter period between the American Thanksgiving holiday and the New Year. The program group lost significant weight loss compared to the control group—leading to great promise for those struggling with their weight during the holidays.


  • Life Extension revealed a way to improve gut health through the use of bacteriophages—microorganisms that target specific unhealthy bacteria. Phage therapy combined with probiotics is a safe way to reduce unhealthy gut bacteria while encouraging the growth of those that benefit the body. A renewed use of this century-old therapy may offer a means of combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which pose a growing threat to the modern world.
  • Prebiotics support the growth of beneficial probiotic bacteria; however, many prebiotics require large doses that can cause digestive discomfort. Life Extension introduced a prebiotic that works at low doses to target and boost Bifidobacteria, the most important gut bacteria in the body, which decline during aging.
  • Life Extension helped improve gut health with the use of bacteriophages—microorganisms that target specific unhealthy bacteria. Phage therapy combined with probiotics safely reduces unhealthy gut bacteria while encouraging the growth of those that benefit the body. A renewed use of this century-old therapy may offer a means of combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which pose a growing threat to the modern world.
  • Life Extension introduced a prebiotic that works at low doses to target and boost Bifidobacteria, the most important gut bacteria in the body, which declines due to aging.
  • According to the Surgeon General, deep vein thrombosis may cause up to 180,000 deaths each year, with those who spend the most time sitting at the highest risk. In 2017, Life Extension reported that researchers had developed a nondrug approach for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis, utilizing two natural compounds that drastically reduce platelet aggregation and fibrin-induced clots.
  • Life Extension reported a new study from Johns Hopkins University that showed that people who use proton pump inhibitor drugs are at increased risk of kidney disease. Further studies revealed that these heartburn drugs could increase risk of bone fractures and heart disease, leading Life Extension to examine natural approaches to relieve heartburn.
  • Life Extension exposed how generic drugs whose active ingredient costs only pennies are sold to desperate consumers for hundreds of dollars. The solution to this price gouging is to remove antiquated regulations that cause drugs to cost far more than they should.
  • Based on new data indicating that blood drawn 2 to 6 hours after a normal meal provides more realistic test results and noting that blood tested in an artificial “fasting” state may not account for vital disease risk markers specific to an individual, Life Extension recommends against fasting prior to most blood tests. In December 2017, the Cleveland Clinic published a detailed report titled “Is it time to abandon fasting for routine lipid testing?" that supports this position.
  • Life Extension reported on innovative studies that showed astaxanthin has potential in cancer treatment. These initial findings offer hope that astaxanthin could play a significant role in combating some of the most common forms of cancer, including solid tumors and hematologic malignancies such as leukemia.
  • A consortium of prominent cardiovascular health organizations, including the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, overhauled conventional thinking on high blood pressure by lowering the threshold for hypertension from 140/90 mmHg to 130/80 mmHg and classifying blood pressure over 120/80 mmHg as “elevated.” This landmark change vindicated the position Life Extension has held since the 1980s — that blood pressure should be kept below 120/80 mmHg for optimal cardiovascular health in most people.


  • Life Extension shed light once again on the price-gouging scandal behind generic drug costs that leave millions of Americans without access to affordable medications. A solution that could reduce generic drug costs by 90% was proposed.
  • At the April 2016 Experimental Biology conference in San Diego, California, Life Extension Clinical Research, Inc., presented results of a study that tested perispinal etanercept (Enbrel®) along with ancillary inflammation-suppressing therapies in the management of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
  • Life Extension funded a super-centenarian project that provided valuable data for Harvard researcher Dr. George Church in his quest to reverse human aging.
  • Life Extension funding to Tulane Medical School researcher Dr. Victoria Belancio led to a patent application for an antibody against "jumping genes," which have activity that can lead to cancer and aging.
  • Life Extension co-sponsored the Revolution Against Aging and Death Festival (RAADfest), billed as the world’s largest gathering of longevity enthusiasts. The three-day conference, devoted to increasing the availability of age-reversal technologies, featured presentations by 40 prominent scientists and activists, including Aubrey de Grey, Ray Kurzweil, Bill Faloon, and Suzanne Somers.
  • Life Extension and Insilico Medicine, Inc., announced an exclusive collaborative effort to identify novel biomarkers of human aging through the use of big data analytics and artificial intelligence, with the ultimate goal of nutrient formulation discovery to support health and longevity. This partnership led to the publication of a research paper describing applications of the human signaling-pathway-centric GeroScope platform for scoring human tissue–specific geroprotective properties of compounds implicated in the aging of model organisms.
  • A team of researchers at the University of Rochester in New York that received funding from Life Extension found a chemical means of controlling DNA repair, a crucial process in healthy aging protocols and cancer treatment.
  • Life Extension Clinical Research, Inc., assisted researchers from the University of Miami on a Life Extension–sponsored clinical trial involving treatment-resistant depression. Findings were published in 2016 in the peer-reviewed journal Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
  • Life Extension Clinical Research, Inc., supported researchers from the City of Hope in securing study products for a clinical trial that was sponsored by Life Extension and involved patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Life Extension introduced a unique formulation containing two scientifically studied ingredients that provide long-term support for the lining of the stomach and promote a healthy stomach environment.
  • Life Extension introduced a supplement formula that naturally supports the aging brain by promoting youthful cognition through a healthy response to sugar in brain cells and by modulating the levels of amyloid beta and tau proteins in the brain.
  • Life Extension exposed flaws in the studies used to rationalize the FDA’s decision to add a black-box warning label to prescription testosterone drugs.
  • Life Extension’s quarter-century advocacy of PSA blood screening to detect prostate cancer was reaffirmed by an analysis in the New England Journal of Medicine that discredited the study behind the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force’s 2012 recommendation against PSA blood screening for healthy men.
  • A study funded by Life Extension revealed that improved muscle regeneration in old mice from the sharing of blood between old and young mice was due to blood factors, not youthful organ function. Life Extension intends to initiate a study showing rejuvenation of elderly humans using blood factors from young humans.


  • Life Extension introduced a formula providing concentrated pollen extracts specifically selected for effective prostate support and healthy urination patterns and prostate function. Two fractions in the flower pollen extracts, a water-soluble and a lipid-soluble fraction, support prostate health by helping maintain smooth muscle tone in the prostate, bladder, and urethra. For the first time, this European extract is available to Americans, providing a more potent dose in a convenient once-daily softgel.
  • Life Extension supported a study titled “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a DYRK1A inhibitor, rescues cognitive deficits in Down syndrome mouse models and in humans,” which was the result of collaboration with researchers from Barcelona, Spain. The study, which showed EGCG as a promising therapeutic tool for cognitive enhancement in those with Down syndrome, was published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research.
  • Life Extension supported a study titled "High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial," which was the result of a collaboration with a Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia researcher. The study, which found that 7,000 IU of vitamin D3 improved immunological parameters in HIV-positive individuals, was published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.
  • Life Extension co-funded research at the University of Liverpool to sequence the genome of the bowhead whale, a mammal whose nearly 200-year life span makes it the longest-living on earth. In findings published in the journal Cell Reports, the researchers discovered as many as 80 candidate genes related to DNA repair and cell proliferation that may help protect the whale from cancer or contribute to its inordinate longevity.
  • Life Extension highlighted the ancillary benefits of the angiotensin II receptor blocker medication telmisartan. Research has revealed that telmisartan, aside from effectively and safely lowering blood pressure, improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, enhances mitochondrial activity, and, in preclinical trials, helps control body weight.
  • Life Extension shed light on the lethal consequences of CoQ10 censorship by the FDA, which has resulted in more American deaths than all the major wars combined. A recent study powerfully supported the use of CoQ10 for sufferers of congestive heart failure who combined the nutrient with standard therapy, achieving a 44% reduction in cardiovascular mortality compared to those receiving standard therapy alone.
  • Life Extension described the dangers of a common genetic mutation (MTHFR C677T) that contributes to elevated homocysteine in a substantial portion of the population and showed how an active form of folate — 5-methyltetrahydrofolate — may normalize homocysteine levels in people with this genetic defect.
  • Life Extension published meticulous comparison data describing the pros and cons of three newer anticoagulant drugs (Pradaxa®, Eliquis®, and Xarelto®) and compared their effects to warfarin (Coumadin®).
  • Life Extension described photodynamic immunotherapy, a new outpatient therapy for breast cancer patients that provides a nontoxic alternative, allowing them to avoid surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Life Extension introduced an oral formula that targets dry eyes from the inside out for systemic continuous comfort.
  • Life Extension introduced a new approach to activate endothelial production of nitric oxide, which signals the smooth muscles to relax, inducing vasodilation to support healthy circulation. Clinical research showed an 18% improvement in flow-mediated dilation, a direct marker of endothelial function.
  • A Life Extension–funded study showed that melatonin reduced DNA instability from “jumping genes,” reducing the risk of cancer and aging-associated diseases — apparently by a mechanism independent of melatonin's antioxidant effects.
  • A Stanford University School of Medicine study partly funded by Life Extension developed a method to assay gene expression in individual cells, as a step toward reducing aging of stem cells.
  • A Life Extension–funded company developed compounds that restored blood flow in rats following two hours without blood flow, as a possible treatment for stroke in humans.
  • Life Extension Clinical Research, Inc., (LECR) completed two clinical trials presented as posters at the March 2015 Experimental Biology conference in Boston, MA.
  • The first poster described a study in which a lipid-based formulation containing 5,000 IU of vitamin D3 raised vitamin D blood levels 29% over 60 days. From baseline to day 30, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased by 7.34 ng/mL; by day 60, the increase had risen to 13.1 ng/mL. These results were statistically significant when compared to the use of a powder-based formulation.
  • The second poster presented a case series on the effect of bisphosphonate medication use on CoQ10 blood levels.
  • Life Extension coordinated the initial steps of the first clinical study to reverse aging in frail elderly humans by utilizing plasma youth factors derived from stem-cell-mobilized young human donors.
  • Life Extension explained why it is critical for ischemic stroke patients to be rapidly treated at a comprehensive stroke center and receive an advanced treatment (thrombectomy) to remove blood clots before permanent paralysis/death ensues. Life Extension provided a list of comprehensive stroke centers across the United States.
  • To help consumers achieve the maximum reduction in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), Life Extension published the number of AGEs per serving of over 500 different foods and drinks.
  • Life Extension reported that up to one-third of the 72 million CT scans performed in the United States annually are not only unnecessary but dangerous and that these CT scans led to the occurrence of 29,000 new cancer cases in 2007.
  • Life Extension reported on a 2015 discussion in the research community about initiating a human study of metformin's anti-aging properties, which Life Extension readers have known about since 1995. The FDA has since approved a large-scale human study to test metformin's longevity-enhancing benefits.
  • Life Extension reported in 2015 on a multistep process to provide the highest-quality Alaskan omega-3 fish oil products that reduce oxidation measurements more than five-fold and have earned a Five-Star Rating from the International Fish Oil Standards (IFOS™) Program for purity.
  • Life Extension introduced a novel standardized wild green oat extract that has been shown to inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), promoting healthy dopamine levels for more-youthful cognitive health and performance.


  • Life Extension identified a cause (leukoaraiosis) of cognitive decline that affects 60% of people late middle aged and older and developed protocols to slow its progress or prevent it entirely.
  • Life Extension published a meticulous rebuttal to a flawed study that claimed that testosterone replacement increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in men.
  • To remind the public about the horrific persecutions endured by visionaries of the past, Life Extension published a historic account of innovations brutally suppressed by whatever “authority” existed at the time.
  • To fill a funding gap caused by federal budget cuts, Life Extension stepped in to support a record number of scientists developing therapies to slow aging and cure cancer.
  • Life Extension published a hypothesis by a world-renowned expert that autism may be caused by a vitamin D deficit.
  • Zeroing in on an underlying cause of Alzheimer’s disease and stroke, Life Extension enlightened customers to the brain damaging effects of “hypoperfusion” and identified validated methods to protect against it.
  • To further document the lethal impact of excess glucose, Life Extension published a compendium of published studies showing increased risks of cancer, atherosclerosis, dementia, obesity, and accelerated aging in response to modestly elevated blood sugar levels.
  • Life Extension revealed how comprehensive annual blood testing could spare hundreds of thousands of American lives each year.
  • Life Extension published an exclusive report on the European Congress on Biogerontology, where an international group of scientists presented cutting-edge research on longevity epigenetics, rejuvenation of the immune system, the dangers of cytomegalovirus infection, and calorie restriction.
  • To expose a fatally flawed study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Life Extension published a meticulous rebuttal showing the dangers of overdosing men on an estrogen-suppressing drug.
  • To spare the lives of newly diagnosed cancer patients, Life Extension provided strong data to persuade oncologists to prescribe immune-boosting drugs before surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are administered.
  • An exclusive investigative report by Life Extension uncovered a generic-drug rip-off where a topical cream (acyclovir) whose active ingredients cost 8 pennies was being sold to pharmacies for $600.
  • To warn women facing hysterectomies, Life Extension urged that a common surgical procedure (morcellation) be avoided.
  • Life Extension presented case histories of terminal cancer patients who have been cured or put into long-term remission utilizing innovative, individualized treatment protocols.
  • Life Extension revealed the importance of administering the proper form and dose of zinc lozenge to protect against the cold virus. The 30-year journey that transpired before this zinc lozenge gained mainstream acceptance as a viable common cold treatment was outlined.
  • Life Extension presented a clinical study on the pharmacokinetics of ursolic acid at the prestigious Experimental Biology Conference, held in San Diego, California.
  • Life Extension introduced a supplement containing FBCx™ alpha-cyclodextrin, a patented super-fiber that absorbs fat molecules from food before they enter the bloodstream. This soluble fiber absorbs nine times its weight in dietary fat, without undesirable gastrointestinal side effects. Research shows that alpha-cyclodextrin selectively binds to unhealthy saturated and trans fats while maintaining healthy fats such as omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Life Extension expanded its probiotic line to introduce a novel strain for cardiovascular support. Lactobacillus reuteri (NCIMB 30242) has been shown in clinical trials to safely support healthy levels of cholesterol, CRP (a marker for inflammation), fibrinogen (involved in clot formation), apoB-100 (a marker for LDL particle size), and vitamin D (important for cardiovascular health).
  • Life Extension sponsored a clinical study in which daily 7,000-IU doses of vitamin D improved several immunological parameters in HIV-positive children and young adults.
  • A study sponsored by Life Extension showed that epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea derivative, improved cognitive function in young adults with Down syndrome.
  • Research funded by Life Extension was published in the journal Nucleic Acids Research. This research, under Dr. Victoria Belancio, established that melatonin suppresses DNA (genome) instability, thereby protecting against cancer. The paper established that melatonin supplementation can be protective, and that shift workers can be more vulnerable to DNA instability.
  • Life Extension provided funding for a review article authored, primarily, by Drs. Vera Gorbunova and Andrei Seluanov in which the genetics of remarkable longevity and cancer resistance observed in some rodents was explored. The article was published as the cover story in the August 2014 issue of Nature Review: Genetics, the leading scientific journal on the subject of heredity and genetics.
  • Life Extension researchers developed an innovative, dual-mechanism formula designed to combat immune senescence. This formula is composed of two botanical compounds, Cistanche tubulosa extract and reishi mushroom extract, that support adaptive (e.g., T cells and B cells) and innate (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) immune response cells, respectively.
  • Life Extension created a specialized formula that supports adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Studies show increased AMPK activity helps reduce fat storage, promotes the production of new mitochondria, and helps keep blood glucose and lipids levels in a healthy range. In preclinical models, AMPK upregulation resulted in a 20-30% increase in life span.
  • Life Extension introduced a groundbreaking product featuring patented nicotinamide riboside (NR), which helps enhance cellular energy metabolism by increasing levels of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Studies show that, through the manipulation of multiple critical biochemical pathways, nicotinamide riboside has the potential to improve insulin sensitivity, confer neuroprotective effects, augment the benefits of exercise, and combat the detrimental effects of a high-fat diet.
  • A special “ionic” formula that contains zinc acetate, the preferred zinc compound to provide enhanced seasonal immune support, was launched by Life Extension. This product releases 100% of its zinc as positively charged zinc ions.


  • Life Extension introduced the first enzyme formulation that facilitates digestion of dietary protein, fiber, and fat — without promoting the breakdown of starches and the rapid absorption of glucose into the bloodstream that triggers postprandial glucose surges.
  • Life Extension researchers analyzed 12 independent studies that evaluated blood glucose levels and breast cancer risk and found that 9 of the studies revealed a correlation between higher fasting glucose, or other indicators of poor glycemic control, and increased risk of cancer.
  • To enhance the body’s absorption of astaxanthin, Life Extension formulated this antioxidant carotenoid with phospholipids, clinically shown to boost astaxanthin absorption several-fold.
  • Life Extension published the updated, fifth edition of its Disease Prevention and Treatment book, containing more than 1,400 pages of innovative approaches to 130 common health concerns.
  • To support both cognitive and circulatory function as well as the brain’s normal defenses and regenerative mechanisms, Life Extension formulated a series of supplements containing the polyphenol gastrodin, an innovative compound that acts as a broad-spectrum “brain shield,” calming brain cells and protecting them from oxidant, inflammatory, and excitatory damage.
  • Life Extension formulated a supplement containing extracts of mung bean seed coat and EGCG (the major beneficial component in green tea), both powerful inhibitors of HMGB-1, the molecule that induces chronic inflammation, a chief accelerator of aging.
  • Life Extension created a broad-spectrum glucose control supplement featuring white mulberry leaf extract, sorghum extract, and phloridzin, three natural ingredients that work on numerous key mechanisms to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce blood glucose levels, safely transport glucose out of the body, and reduce the creation of new glucose in the liver.
  • Life Extension introduced a supplement containing omega-7 (palmitoleic acid), which has been shown to exert beneficial effects on many pathological components of metabolic syndrome. In addition to improving insulin sensitivity, lowering LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, raising beneficial HDL, and helping to manage body weight, omega-7, most importantly, inhibits inflammation.
  • The Supplement Pyramid: How to Build Your Personalized Nutrition Program, written by Dr. Michael A. Smith, Director of Education for Life Extension, was published, offering an easy-to-follow method for tailoring supplement use to one’s particular health goals and needs.
  • In an unprecedented breakthrough, Life Extension published the first protocol validated to extend median survival in glioblastoma (brain tumor) patients to 4.7 years, whereas conventional therapies provided survival time of only 12-15 months.


  • In an effort to combat the increasing incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Life Extension introduced a phytosupplement containing extracts from the adaptogenic vine Schisandra chinensis and from muskmelon. This formulation helps to detoxify the liver and restore its antioxidant function to youthful levels.
  • To help support healthy blood pressure, Life Extension formulated a product featuring oleuropein, a compound found in high concentration in the olive leaf that has been shown to favorably modulate arterial resistance or stiffness.
  • Life Extension published findings on a nontoxic experimental treatment it funded that resulted in 80% survival of women with stage IV breast cancer.


  • Life Extension reported that new research confirms blueberry polyphenols, previously reported to support cognitive health, also target factors that contribute to metabolic syndrome, including high blood sugar, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, and adverse lipid blood profiles.
  • Life Extension introduced a proprietary complex of bioactive milk peptides, widely used in Europe to promote sustained and restful sleep patterns and promote a healthy response to stress.
  • Life Extension introduced fucoidans, the long-chain molecules found primarily in edible seaweeds native to the Japanese diet. In nearly 900 different studies, fucoidans were shown to promote healthy immune function, cell-to-cell communication, and tissue repair. Many experts believe that fucoidans are one of the key nutrients responsible for the long healthy lives of people in Okinawa, which for decades boasted the world’s highest concentration of centenarians.
  • Life Extension exposed how the FDA's failure to allow widespread use of low-dose aspirin resulted in 3 million needless cancer deaths in the United States. In an eye-opening report published by Oxford University in The Lancet in 2010, long-term low-dose aspirin therapy (75 mg per day) reduced the overall risk of cancer death by 20%. These findings demonstrate that low-dose aspirin therapy could have saved millions from cancer and vascular diseases since Life Extension first recommended daily aspirin use in 1983. (Further investigations of aspirin’s role in cancer risk reduction are ongoing.)
  • Life Extension published a book (Pharmocracy) that exposed how inefficient and corrupt government practices stifle medical innovation and cause healthcare prices to spiral out of control. Pharmocracy advocates the repeal of draconian laws that have granted a virtual monopoly to the entrenched medical establishment and warns the nation's solvency is at stake unless free market reforms are implemented.
  • Life Extension identified more therapies being irrationally suppressed by the FDA that could save the lives of cancer victims.
  • Life Extension revealed the lethal dangers of even one omission. In this instance, it appears that legendary health guru Jack LaLanne died too early from a disorder that could have been prevented with proper vitamin K2 supplementation.


  • Life Extension added shilajit to its ubiquinol CoQ10 formulation to better enhance mitochondrial energy output.
  • Life Extension stressed the benefits of pomegranate, resveratrol, and quercetin in enhancing a little-recognized blood enzyme called PON-1 (paraoxonase-1). Optimized levels of PON-1 have demonstrated the ability to block lipid peroxidation and may serve as a potent defense against heart disease, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, and certain cancers.
  • Life Extension reported that curcuminoids and andrographolides, a set of safe, multi-targeted natural agents, have been identified to disrupt the inflammatory cascade involved in rheumatoid arthritis and reduce joint swelling, pain, and stiffness.
  • Life Extension was again vindicated in its 30-year crusade to expose financial and scientific fraud as pharmaceutical giant Pfizer was forced to pay the largest criminal fine ever imposed in the United States ($1.195 billion). This fine was a result of government claims that Pfizer illegally promoted the sale of its arthritis drug Bextra® for uses and doses the FDA specifically declined to approve due to safety concerns. Bextra is a COX-2 inhibitor, a drug class that Life Extension warned its customers against taking in 2000. (Since then, even higher fines have been paid by Big Pharma for fraudulent marketing schemes that injured patients.)
  • Life Extension reported that Hibiscus sabdariffa, similar to the cranberry, prevents bacteria that cause urinary tract infections from adhering to the lining of the urinary tract and bladder. Compared to the cranberry in vitro, hibiscus demonstrated a stronger antimicrobial effect — especially against Candida albicans, the fungus responsible for yeast infections.
  • Life Extension announced a new test, currently available in Europe, that measures the characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and allows for specific conventional and natural treatments to be tailored to cancer patients.
  • Life Extension reminded male Life Extension customers about the critical need to maintain estrogen blood levels between 20 and 30 pg/mL. This longstanding recommendation was confirmed the year before when the Journal of the American Medical Association published a study that showed men with unbalanced estrogen levels were up to 317% more likely to die from heart failure.
  • To combat chronic kidney disease suffered by 26 million Americans, Life Extension recommended clinically supported interventions such as CoQ10, silymarin, resveratrol, and lipoic acid in addition to nutrients like pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamins C and E.
  • A groundbreaking scientific study, partially funded by Life Extension and published in the journal Regenerative Medicine, demonstrated that the aging of human cells can be reversed in vitro.
  • Life Extension published original research using its own customers’ blood test results that revealed a startling 86% of men had less than optimal testosterone levels. Aside from waning sexual performance, depression, and diminished strength, low testosterone has been definitively linked to men’s risk of death from all causes.
  • Life Extension reported on a strawberry extract called fisetin that has been shown to enhance the calorie restriction mimetic action of resveratrol.
  • Life Extension stepped up its funding of a human clinical trial of an immune augmentation therapy that has been shown to cure cancer in mice.
  • The federal government admitted that radiation from CT scans contributes to 29,000 cases of cancer in one year and 15,000 needless deaths. Since its inception, Life Extension has warned its customers to avoid any kind of medical X-ray unless absolutely necessary, because of increased cancer risks.
  • Life Extension reported that omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with increased volume of the brain’s gray matter. Normal aging results in a loss of brain mass.
  • Following the remarkable discovery that blood vessel cells can transform into bone-forming cells — confirming a link between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis — Life Extension maintained its advocacy of regularly supplementing with vitamin K, which optimizes bone mineralization and prevents calcium deposits in vascular tissue.
  • Life Extension, which has urged supplementation with vitamin K since the late 1990s, reported compelling clinical evidence showing that vitamin K can prevent, and in some cases treat, a variety of common and dangerous cancers.
  • Life Extension introduced a compound called PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) that has been shown to rejuvenate aging cells by promoting the growth of new mitochondria.
  • Life Extension reported that the berry extract C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside) has demonstrated the ability to enhance visual acuity in low-light conditions.
  • Life Extension introduced a patented, clinically supported wheat oil ingredient shown to rehydrate dry aged skin from within.
  • Life Extension reported on a safer, better, and clinically proven form of chromium that has been shown to improve glucose control and insulin sensitivity in a study of diabetics taking one of three common oral hypoglycemic medications.



  • Life Extension analyzed 13,892 blood tests measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in a group of dedicated supplement users and discovered that 85.7% had insufficient vitamin D status. This unprecedented analysis of achieved vitamin D serum levels in a large group of high-dose supplement users reveals that most aging people require a dose of 5,000 IU or higher of this critical disease-preventing nutrient.
  • Life Extension uncovered a glaring omission by most in the conventional medical establishment and verified Life Extension’s previous recommendations that those developing any symptom of influenza, swine flu, or even the common cold should implement immediate treatment with specific nutrients, hormones, and antiviral drugs with the objective of eradicating the infectious agent within 24 hours of the first symptom appearing.
  • Life Extension cut through the heated debate on statin drugs and revealed why the Vytorin® trial failed to live up to conventional medicine’s expectations. In this rare instance, Life Extension found itself defending the interest of a pharmaceutical company that appeared to be too overwhelmed by negative media coverage to put this study in the proper scientific context.
  • Life Extension reiterated its long-standing position that inadequate vitamin D intake was directly responsible for millions of needless deaths.
  • Life Extension introduced Americans to a noninvasive diagnostic procedure available in Europe (COMBIDEX) to detect the presence of small, and otherwise undetectable, lymph node lesions in patients with cancer.
  • Life Extension revealed how the FDA is in worse shape than anyone ever imagined and spearheaded a new public relations drive to raise the public’s awareness of the state-sponsored “carnage” of the American citizenry.
  • Life Extension documented how the public suffers widespread deficiencies of nutrients (like selenium and vitamins C, D, and E) while the mainstream media alleged that these same nutrients provide no health benefits. Life Extension then meticulously exposed how horrifically flawed studies were used to support the media’s baseless assertions.
  • Obese Americans were shown for the first time to outnumber those who are merely overweight. Life Extension published overlooked research findings indicating substantial fat-loss effects in response to the proper use of bioidentical hormones, certain prescription drugs, and nutrients, along with lifestyle changes. The reason these proven weight-loss strategies have still not caught on, Life Extension asserted, is that when used in isolation, they often fail to meet the expectations of corpulent individuals. In an eye-opening report, Life Extension revealed how to interpret blood test results to utilize an armada of medications, natural hormones, and lifestyle alterations that can safely induce substantial and sustainable weight loss.
  • A proven anti-glycating nutrient especially beneficial for diabetic-related kidney disease (pyridoxamine) was banned by the FDA. In this instance, the FDA bowed to pharmaceutical financial interests by reclassifying this natural B vitamin as a drug. Life Extension uncovered how the FDA’s politically biased decision may condemn millions to needless suffering and organized a protest to the White House seeking to reverse the FDA’s heinous capitulation to a pharmaceutical company. (This lobbying campaign was unsuccessful, and pyridoxamine is still unavailable to Americans as of July 2018.)
  • In a shocking exposé, Life Extension uncovered how a corrupt regulatory system causes generic drug prices to be far higher than they should be. A free market solution was then proposed that would save consumers up to 94% on generic drugs, slashing prices in some cases to only pennies a day!
  • Life Extension unveiled new blood test ranges to optimally reduce one’s risk of suffering a heart attack and stroke. Contrary to conventional medicine, these new science-based blood test ranges enable aging humans to slash their odds of contracting vascular disease.
  • Absurd lies promulgated by Big Pharma and enforced with FDA police-state powers were causing females to be prescribed dangerous hormone drugs instead of bioidentical hormones long recommended by Life Extension. To educate the media, physicians, and academia, Life Extension published a meticulously documented White Paper that assembled a plethora of research indicating that women may safely benefit from individual doses of natural estrogens and progesterone combined with healthy lifestyles.


  • Life Extension revealed how the consumption of specific plant lignans can slash prostate cancer risk.
  • Life Extension published the "Seven Pillars to Successful Weight Loss" that identified why virtually all fat-loss programs fail and provided a comprehensive scientific rationale to induce weight loss in aging humans.
  • Life Extension published confirmatory data that radiation from medical X-rays and especially from highly radioactive CAT scans increases the risk of cancer.
  • Life Extension published data showing why more Americans are depressed and overweight and suffer sleep disturbances than ever before. Life Extension then revealed a novel method to enable tryptophan supplements to safely increase brain serotonin to improve mood, decrease carbohydrate craving, and facilitate restful sleep.
  • Life Extension found itself in the unusual position of defending the proper use of statin drugs in high-risk patient groups when the media misinterpreted some scientific reports. Most customers, however, find they can achieve optimal cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels using safer natural approaches, rather than drugs.
  • Life Extension issued a meticulous rebuttal to the FDA’s attack against bioidentical hormones and provided a scientific rationale for using natural testosterone and estrogen to reverse certain manifestations of aging.
  • Life Extension published a report titled “The FDA Indicts Itself,” where, for the first time, the FDA itself admitted it was scientifically incompetent and incapable of keeping up with medical discoveries.
  • Life Extension uncovered an orally ingested supplement that protects the skin from solar radiation.
  • Life Extension announced a startling breakthrough whereby the clinical course of Alzheimer’s disease was reversed. Then it announced it was funding an expanded research program to validate the remarkable cognitive improvements observed in Alzheimer’s patients receiving this novel drug therapy.
  • Life Extension uncovered topical agents being used in Europe to reverse the outward appearance of cellulite.
  • Life Extension launched a political campaign to radically overhaul the FDA. Life Extension’s position paper revealed how the FDA is the major impediment to life-saving advances in medicine.


  • Life Extension revealed how ubiquinol CoQ10 reversed congestive heart failure in cases where conventional CoQ10 was shown to be ineffective.
  • Life Extension ascertained what dose of green tea was required to protect against certain cancers and vascular diseases and why drinking only a few cups of green tea a day is not enough.
  • Life Extension showed how cancer cells lurk in the prostate glands of many aging men and how to inhibit an enzyme (5-lipoxygenase) that enables these isolated malignant cells to develop into full-blown prostate cancer.
  • Life Extension showed that those drinking bottled water were at significant risk of a lethal magnesium deficiency.
  • Life Extension revealed one overlooked reason why humans contract the flu much more frequently in winter months and how to guard against this with higher-dose vitamin D supplementation.
  • Life Extension revealed published findings about how people with higher blood levels of vitamin E slashed their risk of dying over a 19-year period and showed that it was not possible to attain adequate vitamin E levels through diet alone.
  • Life Extension unveiled a comprehensive program to sharply reduce the high cost of prescription drugs while also protecting consumers against dangerous side effects.
  • Life Extension showed for the first time how Coumadin® (warfarin) drug users could safely benefit from low-dose vitamin K. Most doctors still tell their Coumadin® patients to avoid even foods that contain vitamin K, whereas Life Extension showed that most Coumadin® users can benefit from consistent low-dose vitamin K, which can help stabilize coagulation markers in the blood while protecting against arterial calcification and bone density loss — two common side effects associated with this drug (warfarin).
  • Life Extension showed that low blood levels of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are independent risk factors for heart attack and angina.
  • Life Extension exposed how pharmaceutical special interests were seeking to ban over-the-counter sales of DHEA so they could sell this safe, anti-aging hormone as a prescription drug. Life Extension customers inundated Congress with protests and prevented DHEA from being removed from the supplement marketplace.
  • Life Extension uncovered five anti-cancer drugs that the FDA was not approving, despite human clinical studies indicating safety and potential efficacy. Life Extension organized patient advocate groups to contact their members of Congress to protest the unjust denial of these medications to terminally ill cancer patients.
  • Life Extension alerted its customers about the potential cancer risk of inhaled insulin drug therapy. The company making this drug soon took it off the market.
  • Life Extension compiled data showing that supplementing with higher-dose vitamin D could significantly reduce the risk of the most common age-related disorders, including cancer, chronic inflammation, and heart disease. A letter was sent to the President of the United States asking that a national emergency be declared to urge every adult to consume at least 1000 IU a day of vitamin D. Life Extension also offered to donate 50,000 one-year-supply bottles of vitamin D to the federal government to give to those who could not afford this low-cost supplement.
  • Life Extension showed how mainstream oncologists are failing to optimally prescribe FDA-approved therapies and offered a practical solution for cancer patients to consider.
  • Life Extension unveiled its multipronged scientific research program to more efficiently develop new cancer drugs.


  • Life Extension introduced a novel method of capturing the health-promoting benefits of caloric restriction without hunger.
  • Life Extension revealed a new method for lowering homocysteine levels that fail to respond to standard nutritional therapies.
  • Life Extension set forth a comprehensive strategy for guarding against metabolic syndrome, a deadly, often-overlooked condition that drastically increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.
  • Life Extension revealed why vegetarians do not live much longer than meat eaters and how easy it is to correct this problem by supplementing with one critical nutrient (carnosine).
  • Life Extension exposed how drug companies are seeking to shut down compounding pharmacies that offer Americans access to safer and less expensive drugs.
  • Life Extension warned readers about an FDA-approved fish oil drug that is priced 797% higher than what consumers pay for the same amount of EPA/DHA in supplement form. (The warning was based on the outrageous price charged for a prescription fish oil.)
  • Life Extension presented a summary of cumulative findings showing how the proper intake of a plant extract (pomegranate) might reverse atherosclerosis and slow the progression of prostate cancer.
  • Life Extension identified how one missing plant nutrient (meso-zeaxanthin) was responsible for the epidemic of macular degeneration afflicting aging humans.
  • Life Extension introduced a form of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) that is vastly superior to commercial CoQ10 supplements in absorbing into the human bloodstream, reducing fatigue and slowing age-related markers.
  • Life Extension published new findings about how cruciferous vegetable extracts may prevent certain human cancers.
  • Life Extension uncovered findings to show that new stem cell formation can be promoted in the body by ingesting commonly available nutrients.
  • Life Extension exposed how the FDA was attempting to censor truthful information about the health benefits of fruits and vegetables.


  • Life Extension conducted a clinical study showing that sesame lignans significantly enhance the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of gamma tocopherol. Furthermore, Life Extension reported that standardized sesame seed lignans increase vitamin E activity and enhance the benefits of borage (GLA) and fish oil supplements.
  • Life Extension announced the startling finding that PSA (prostate-specific antigen) itself could promote prostate cancer and provided novel methods to lower PSA levels in aging men.
  • Life Extension revealed how olive fruit polyphenols could boost beneficial HDL.
  • Life Extension conducted a clinical study showing that an orally ingested agent could naturally increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the body. SOD and catalase are naturally produced antioxidants that are more potent than orally ingested antioxidants.
  • Life Extension reported on a powerful phytochemical that suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells. Derived from milk thistle extract, this novel compound, isosilybin B, may also protect the prostate gland by reducing the secretion of PSA.
  • the National Academy of Sciences released a report confirming Life Extension’s position that X-rays at any dose pose health risks to humans.
  • Life Extension alerted the public to the disease-causing toxins present in fish and provided a strategy for safely capturing the health-promoting benefits of fish oil.
  • Life Extension reported the startling news that conventional sunscreens may not prevent skin cancer and revealed how you can help protect yourself against skin cancer using topical antioxidants.
  • Life Extension uncovered data showing that blueberry extract can help reverse the memory and motor impairments associated with aging.
  • Life Extension revealed an effective strategy for reducing the frequency and intensity of debilitating migraine headaches using an herbal extract from Europe and for restoring a youthful balance of hormones.


  • Life Extension warned of the hidden dangers of osteoporosis in men.
  • Life Extension reported that optimal glucose levels should be lower than current guidelines to reduce heart attack risk by 40%. Soon after, national standards for the upper-scale limit of blood glucose were lowered (to under 100 mg/dL), but still not to the lower levels recommended by Life Extension (under 86 mg/dL).


  • Life Extension advised customers to stock up on an antiviral drug called Tamiflu® in case they were exposed to the common flu virus. Two years later, the world became so frightened about a potential SARS virus pandemic that Tamiflu® disappeared from pharmacy shelves worldwide. Customers who heeded Life Extension’s early warning already had their personal supply of Tamiflu® in their medicine cabinet.
  • Life Extension introduced the first therapeutic program to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Life Extension published research showing that topical and orally ingested antioxidants can prevent and reverse skin aging.
  • Life Extension revealed an effective strategy for reducing the frequency and intensity of debilitating migraine headaches by restoring hormone balance.
  • Life Extension warned that eating foods cooked at high temperatures (over 250 degrees Fahrenheit) promoted weight gain and damaged the body’s proteins in a way that accelerated the aging process.
  • Life Extension discovered that the drug metformin could mimic many of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. The findings from Life Extension’s study were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Life Extension introduced a plant extract to protect against DNA mutations and neutralize carcinogens.


  • Life Extension documented that a large number of Americans are needlessly dying of anemia and provided definitive methods to guard against this disorder.
  • Life Extension showed that doctors are overlooking thyroid hormone deficiency because of the improper interpretation of a common blood test.
  • Life Extension introduced methylselenocysteine, the form of selenium found naturally in garlic and broccoli that protects against mammary tumor development.


  • Life Extension funded research to identify genes linked to aging, versus those that act to extend life. This research helped elucidate the potential of “calorie restriction mimetics” (like metformin and resveratrol) to promote longevity.
  • Life Extension published methods of suppressing proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to the development of multiple degenerative diseases.
  • Life Extension recommended a drug to treat Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease called memantine that had been used in Germany since 1991 but was not FDA approved. The FDA approved memantine 2.5 years later.


  • Life Extension revealed how COX-2–inhibiting drugs could increase proinflammatory factors in the body, potentially leading to permanent joint damage and vascular disease. In 2004, one of these drugs (like Vioxx®) was taken off the market because of increased risks of heart attack in those who took it. For the COX-2–inhibiting drugs (like Celebrex®) that remain on the market, black-box warnings are now placed on their label cautioning about increased heart attack risk when using these drugs.
  • Life Extension unveiled a European therapy (polyenylphosphatidylcholine) that may protect against fatty liver disease and hepatitis C, alleviate pancreatitis, and ease drug-induced gastric toxicity.
  • Life Extension sponsored a bill that was passed and signed into law that enabled Americans to obtain lower-cost prescription drugs from other countries. (This bill was later sabotaged by the FDA.)
  • Life Extension introduced a combination therapy used in Europe that supports cognitive function and may alleviate the symptoms of senility.
  • Life Extension conducted original research using carotid ultrasound tests to show that people taking high doses of antioxidants over an extended period of time may be protected against atherosclerosis.
  • Life Extension introduced customers to revolutionary research to transform cloned stem cells into tissues to replace diseased ones.
  • Life Extension introduced high-dose carnosine to prevent the formation of advanced glycation end-products, a key molecular mechanism linked to premature aging and diabetic complications.



  • Life Extension showed how vitamin C may prevent nitroglycerin drug intolerance in patients with coronary artery disease.


  • Life Extension introduced to the United States a natural herbal supplement (nettle root extract) that had been used for more than 10 years in Europe to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • The FDA approved the antiviral drug ribavirin for use in hepatitis C patients. Life Extension fought the FDA for 12 years to force the agency to allow Americans access to this lifesaving medication.
  • Life Extension warned how excess estrogen levels in aging men may be a causative factor in the development of prostate cancer and provided easy and safe methods to mitigate these effects.
  • Life Extension introduced Americans to a Japanese drug called methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 that was particularly effective in protecting the brain against damaging excitotoxicity and also reversing the course of certain neurological disorders.


  • Life Extension published a new theory on why cells malfunction as they age (decline in DNA methylation) and introduced several therapies that could help rejuvenate aging cells. These therapies, which have been documented by hundreds of studies, are currently being prescribed for the treatment of depression, liver disease, and atherosclerosis.
  • Life Extension published the first of its Disease Prevention and Treatment textbooks that integrated hormone replacement, high-dose nutrient supplementation, prescription drugs, and conventional medical treatments for the purpose of preventing and treating 110 diseases that were not being effectively treated by conventional medicine alone.
  • Life Extension recommended that certain patients temporarily take a combination of statin and COX-2–inhibiting drugs to inhibit cancer cell growth. Since then, several studies have confirmed the anti-cancer effects of these drugs that are not commonly associated with cancer therapy.
  • Life Extension warned about the dangers of taking only the alpha tocopherol form of vitamin E. Since then, a number of published studies confirmed that aging people would benefit by also taking the gamma tocopherol form of vitamin E that Life Extension has long advocated.
  • Life Extension introduced a European discovery called S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) that safely alleviated depression, arthritis, and certain liver disorders. A Harvard study published in 2010 showed that the use of SAMe increased the response rate to conventional anti-depressant drugs by 105%!


  • Life Extension revealed the crucial importance of monitoring blood levels of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Since then, numerous studies have shown that high levels of fibrinogen are a risk factor for heart attack and stroke, just like high LDL cholesterol levels.
  • Life Extension founded the first mail-order blood-screening service that offered state-of-the-art tests for age-related diseases directly to the public.


  • Life Extension warned that the commonly prescribed estrogen and synthetic progestin drugs could increase breast and ovarian cancer risk. Findings published years later confirmed these dangers. The natural hormone-balancing approaches long recommended by Life Extension have a better safety profile.


  • Life Extension introduced melatonin to the American public based on evidence that this natural hormone is an effective anti-aging therapy. After several books were published extolling melatonin’s multiple benefits, every health food store in the United States began selling it in 1995.


  • Life Extension sued the FDA because the agency failed to approve tacrine to treat Alzheimer's disease. While the lawsuit was dismissed on technical grounds, it forced the FDA to finally approve tacrine seven years after it was shown in a New England Journal of Medicine report to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.



  • Life Extension introduced phosphatidylserine to improve memory and slow brain aging. At a scientific conference on anti-aging medicine held in December 1997, phosphatidylserine was the hottest topic of discussion by speakers who were lecturing to 1,500 physicians about how to slow the aging process.


  • Life Extension recommended low doses of a European drug called deprenyl as a potential anti-aging therapy. The FDA eventually approved deprenyl in higher doses to treat Parkinson's disease but has yet to recognize the anti-aging effects that low doses of this drug produce in healthy people.
  • ILife Extension recommended the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin to treat lethal viral infections. Twelve years later, the FDA approved ribavirin as a treatment for hepatitis C.


  • Life Extension published an article suggesting that the progression of AIDS could be slowed by vitamin supplementation. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) raided Life Extension's premises in 1987 because the agency at that time did not believe that nutrition had anything to do with HIV progression. In the April 1995 issue of FDA Consumer, the FDA recommended vitamin supplements to slow the progression of AIDS — and a federal judge eventually forced the FDA to return everything it seized from Life Extension in 1987. Since we published the article in 1985, hundreds of published studies have shown that proper nutrient supplementation can slow the progression of the immune system decline that leads to AIDS.
  • Life Extension introduced lycopene as a dietary supplement for the purpose of preventing some forms of cancer. Lycopene is now accepted as one of the components of plants that has cancer-prevention properties.
  • Life Extension recommended the drug cimetidine (Tagamet®) as an adjuvant cancer therapy. Since then, published studies have revealed that this drug (most commonly associated with heartburn relief) can reduce the recurrence of certain cancers by as much as 79%.


  • Life Extension recommended the use of low-dose aspirin on a daily basis to prevent vascular disease. Cardiologists in the United States now prescribe low-dose aspirin to protect against a heart attack in cardiac patients.
  • Life Extension warned against the intake of supplemental iron because of studies showing that excessive iron causes cancer. In 1988, the New England Journal of Medicine published an article showing that men with high levels of iron had a 40% increase in their overall risk of cancer.
  • Life Extension was the first organization in the United States to recommend the Japanese cardiac drug coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an anti-aging nutrient. The use of high-dose CoQ10 in the United States is enabling people with congestive heart failure to resume normal lives because this nutrient significantly boosts cardiac energy output. High-dose CoQ10 may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease. A breakthrough in the field of anti-aging medicine occurred in 2006 with the publication of a study showing that the ubiquinol form of CoQ10 slowed aging in middle-aged, senescent-accelerated mice by 40%. Ubiquinol CoQ10 is what most Life Extension customers now supplement with.


  • Life Extension recommended the hormone DHEA to slow aging. There are now hundreds of published papers substantiating DHEA's youth-promoting properties. DHEA has become one of the most popular anti-aging supplements, and Life Extension's dosing protocols enable people to derive optimal benefits from it.
  • Life Extension recommended B-complex vitamins to lower homocysteine blood levels. Homocysteine is now recognized as a risk factor for heart disease, dementia, and stroke. Customers have been keeping their homocysteine levels low by taking bioactive folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6.