Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols

Macular Degeneration


Acquaviva R, Russo A, Galvano F, et al. Cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D -glucoside as DNA cleavage protectors and antioxidants. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2003 Aug;19(4):243-52.

Ahmed SS, Lott MN, Marcus DM. The macular xanthophylls. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005 Mar-Apr;50(2):183-93.

Amorini AM, Fazzina G, Lazzarino G, et al. Activity and mechanism of the antioxidant properties of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside. Free Radic Res. 2001 Dec;35(6):953-66.

Anon. Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalomology. Accessed 1/20/11a.

Anon. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare. Abstract Feb. 2011 at Angiogenesis Conference. Accessed 1/20/11b.

Augustin AJ, Kirchholf J. Inflammation and the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 2009 Jun;13(6):641-651.

Babizhayev MA. New concept in nutrition for the maintenance of the aging eye redox regulation and therapeutic treatment of cataract disease; synergism of natural antioxidant imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds, chaperone, and glutathione boosting agents: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Am J Ther. 2010 Jul-Aug;17(4):373-89.

Babizhayez MA, Burke L, Micans P, Richer SP. N-acteylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000 patient population. Clin Interv Aging. 2009 May;4:31-50.

Beatty S, Koh H, Phil M, Henson D, Boulton M. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(2):115-34.

Bird AC. Therapeutic targets in age-related macular disease. J Clin Invest. 2010 Sep;120(9):3033-41.

Blasi MA, Bovina C, et al. Does coenzyme Q10 play a role in opposing oxidative stress in patients with age-related macular degeneration? Ophthalmologica. 2001 Jan-Feb;215(1):51-4.

Boekhoorn SS, Vingerling JR, Witteman JC, Hofman A, de Jong PT. C-reactive protein level and risk of aging macula disorder: The Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct;125(10):1396-401.

Bone RA, Landrum JT, Cao Y, Howard AN, Alvarez-Calderon F. Macular pigment response to a supplement containing meso-zeaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2007 May 11;4:12.

Bone RA, Landrum JT, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Sep;71(3):239-45.

Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Childs AL, et al. Surgery for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization lesions of age-related macular degeneration: ophthalmic findings: SST report no. 13. Ophthalmology. 2004 Nov;111(11):1993-2006.

Brubaker RF, Bourne WM, et al. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000 Jun;41(7):1681-3.

Bucolo C, Drago F, Lin LR, Reddy VN. Neuroactive steroids protect retinal pigment epithelium against oxidative stress. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 1;16(11):1203-07.

Chakravarthy U, Adamis AP, et al. VEGF Inhibition Study in Ocular Neovascularization (V.I.S.I.O.N.) Clinical Trial Group, Year 2 efficacy results of 2 randomized controlled clinical trials of pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2006 Sep;113(9):1508.e1-25.

Chakravarthy U, Wong TY, Fletcher A, Piault E, Evans C, Zlateva G, Buggage R, Pleil A, Mitchell P. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Ophthalmol. 2010 Dec 13;10:31.

Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Chiang CL, Yang SF, Hsieh YS. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside inhibit tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(2):232-43.

Chiu CJ, Klein R, Milton RC, Gensler G, Taylor A. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the age-related eye disease study supplements? Br J Ophthalmology. June 2009. doi:10.1136/bjo.2008.143412.

Chong ET, Kreis AJ, Wong TY, et al. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Fish Intake in the Primary Prevention of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(6):826-833.

Chong ET, Simpson JA, et al. Red meat and chicken consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration. Amer J of Epidemiology. 2009a Feb;169(7):867-876.

Chong EW, Robman LD, et al. Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009b May;127(5):674-680.

Christen WG, Glynn RJ, et al. Folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in combination with age-related macular degeneration in a randomized trial of women. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):335-41.

Curcio CA, Johnson M, Huang JD, Rudolf, M. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in retinal aging and age-related macular degeneration. J Lipid Res. 2010 Mar;51(3):451-67.

de Jong PT. Age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(14):1474–1485.

De la Marnierre E, Guigon B, et al. Phototoxic drugs and age-related maculopathy. J Fr Ophthalmol. 2003;26(6):596-601.

Delcourt C, Carriere I, et al. Dietary fat and the risk of age-related maculopathy: the POLANUT Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007 Nov;61(11):1341-1344.

Dong A, Bing X, et al. Oxidative stress promotes ocular neovascularization. Jour of Cellular Physiol. 2009 Jun;219(3):544-552.

Drobek-Słowik M, Karczewicz D, Safranow K. [The potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2007;61:28-37.

Dzugan SA, Arnold Smith R. Hypercholesterolemia treatment: a new hypothesis or just an accident? Med Hypotheses. 2002 Dec;59(6):751-6.

Edwards DR, Gallins P, Polk M, et al. Inverse association of female hormone replacement therapy with age-related macular degeneration and interactions with ARMS2 polymorphisms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Apr;51(4):1873-9.

Fahed DC, Ghazi NG, Jabbour NM, Fahed CD, Fahed JC, Salti HI. Impact of AREDS in a developing country 5 years after publication of the study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jun 30. pii: F1AEDD77-F8C5-4A89-B58F-DD17A6B251AD.

FDA. Avastin (bevacizumab) Information. Update 11/18/2011. Available at: Accessed 4/20/2012

Feher J, Kovacs B, Kovacs I, Schveoller M, Papale A, Balacco Gabrieli C. Improvement of visual functions and fundus alterations in early age-related macular degeneration treated with a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q10. Ophthalmologica. 2005 May-Jun;219(3):154-66.

Fimognari C, Berti F, Nusse M, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P. Induction of apoptosis in two human leukemia cell lines as well as differentiation in human promyelocytic cells by cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 1;67(11):2047-56.

Fletcher AE, Bentham GC, Agnew M, et al. Sunlight exposure, antioxidants, and age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct;126(10):1396-403.

Fraser-Bell S, Wu J, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;145(2):308.316.

Friedman E. Update of the vascular model of AMD. Br J Ophthalmology. 2004 Feb;88(2):161-163.

Fursova AZ, Gesarevich OG, et al. Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevent macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats. Adv Gerontology. 2005;16:76-79.

Gillies MC. What we don't know about avastin might hurt us. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Oct;124(10):1478-9.

Gragoudas ES, Adamis AP, Cunningham ET, Feinsod M, Guyer DR. VEGF Inhibition Study in Ocular Neovascularization Clinical Trial Group. Pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec 30;351(27):2805-16.

Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Borin G. Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(20):2293-315.

Haddad S, Chen CA, Santangelo S, Seddon JM. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration: A review of progress to date. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2006 Jul;51(4):316-363.

Hammond BR Jr, Wooten BR, Snodderly DM. Cigarette smoking and retinal carotenoids: implications for age-related macular degeneration. Vision Res. 1996 Sep;36(18):3003-9.

Hawkins BS, Bressler NM, Miskala PH, et al. Surgery for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization lesions of age-related macular degeneration: ophthalmic findings: SST report no. 11. Ophthalmology. 2004 Nov;111(11):1967-80.

Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part 2: cataracts and glaucoma. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):141-66.

Hollyfield JG, Bonilha VL, et al. Oxidative damage-induced inflammation initiates age-related macular degeneration. Nature Medicine. 2008;14:194-198.

Hua J Guerin KI, Chen J, et al. Resveratrol inhibits pathologic retinal neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-) mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 25;52(5):2809-16. Print 2011 Apr.

Hudson HL, Stulting RD, et al. IMT002 Study Group. Implantable telescope for end-stage age-related macular degeneration: Long-term visual acuity and safety outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:664-673.

Hussain AA, Marshall J. Taurine transport pathways in the outer retina in relation to aging and disease. Ocular Transporters in Ophthalmic Diseases and Drug Delivery. Ophthalmology Research 2008(V):217-233.

Implantable Miniature Telescope. FDA labeling documentation for approval and use. Available at: Accessed 1/20/11.

Jarrett SG, Lewin AS, Boulton ME. The importance of mitochondria in age-related and inherited eye disorders. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;44(3):179-90.

Johnson EJ, Maras JE, Rasmussen HM, et al. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Sep;110(9):1357-62.

Kaufman PL, Alm A. Adler’s physiology of the eye-clinical application. Mosby: New York; 2003. 319-47.

Kaya S, Weigert G, et al. Effect of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density in patients with AMD. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2010 Sep;88(s246).

Khan JC, Thurlby DA, Shahid H, et al. Smoking and age related macular degeneration: the number of pack years of cigarette smoking is a major determinant of risk for both geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan;90(1):75-80.

Kim YH, Kim YS, Roh GS, et al. Resveratrol blocks diabetes-induced early vascular lesions and vascular endothelial growth factor induction in mouse retinas. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb;90(1):e31-7.

King AJ. Should we be considering selenium in glaucoma? Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(9):1132-1133. doi:10.1136/bjo.2008.141218.

Klein R, Klein BE, et al. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the U.S. population. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(1):75-80.

Klein R, Klein BE, et al. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007 Feb;114(2):253-262.

Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003;23:171-201.

Krohne TU, Hunt S, Holz FG. Effect of 308 nm excimer laser irradiation on retinal pigment epithelium cell viability in vitro. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan;93(1):91-5. Epub 2008 Oct 24.

Kubota S, Kurihara T, Ebinuma M, et al. veratrol prevents light-induced retinal degeneration via suppressing activator protein-1 activation. Am J Pathol. 2010 Oct;177(4):1725-31.

Landrum JT, Bone RA. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001 Jan 1;385(1):28-40.

Li M, Ma YB, Gao HQ, Li BY, Cheng M, Xu L, Li XL, Li XH. A novel approach of proteomics to study the mechanism of action of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on diabetic retinopathy in rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Dec 20;121(24):2544-52.

Liu M, Liu RH, Song BB, Li CF, Lin LQ, Zhang CP, Zhao JL, Liu JR. Antiangiogenetic effects of 4 varieties of grapes in vitro. J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 1;75(6):T99-104.

Lopez B, Ubels JL. Artificial tear composition and promotion of recovery of the damaged corneal epithelium. Cornea. 1993 Mar;12(2):115-20.

Lu L, Oveson BC, et al. Increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 strongly protects retina from oxidative damage. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2009 Apr;11(4): 715-724. doi:10.1089/ars.2008.2171.

Lundmark PO, Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Cardinali DP. Role of melatonin in the eye and ocular dysfunctions. Vis Neurosci. 2006 Nov;23(6):853-62.

Macular Degeneration Partnership. Accessed April 10, 2012.

Mahadevan S, Park Y. Multifaceted therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba L.: Chemistry, efficacy, safety and uses. Journal of Food Science. 2008 Jan/Feb;73(1):R14-R19.

Majumdar S, Srirangam R. Potential of the bioflavonoids in the prevention/treatment of ocular disorders. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010 Aug;62(8):951-965.

Matsumoto H, Inaba H, Kishi M, Tominaga S, Hirayama M, Tsuda T. Orally administered delphinidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside are directly absorbed in rats and humans and appear in the blood as the intact forms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Mar;49(3):1546-51.

Milbury PE, Graf B, et al. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007 May;48(5):2343-2349.

Miller JW. Treatment of age-related macular degeneration: beyond VEGF. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010 Nov;54(6):523-8.

Miyazawa T, Nakagawa K, Kudo M, Muraishi K, Someya K. Direct intestinal absorption of red fruit anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, into rats and humans. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):1083-91.

Nakaishi H, Matsumoto H, Tominaga S, Hirayama M. Effects of black currant anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans. Alt Med Rev. 2000 Dec;5(6):553-62.

Newsome DA. A randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a novel zinc-monocysteine compound in age-related macular degeneration. Curr. Eye Res. 2008;33(7):591-598.

Patel N, Adewoyin T, Chong NV. Age-related macular degeneration: a perspective on genetic studies. Eye (Lond). 2008 Jun;22(6):768-76.

Pergola C, Rossi A, Dugo P, Cuzzocrea S, Sautebin L. Inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis by anthocyanin fraction of blackberry extract. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Aug;15(1):30-9.

Peyman GA, Kivilcim M, Morales AM, DellaCroce JT, Conway MD. Inhibition of corneal angiogenesis by ascorbic acid in the rat model. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct;245(10):1461-7.

Pfleger CM, et al. Grape-seed polyphenolic extract improves the eye phenotype in a Drosophila model of tauopathy. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Aug 24;2010. pii: 576357.

Pintea A, Rugina D, Pop R, et al. Antioxidant effect of trans-resveratrol in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Aug;27(4):315-21.

Rakici O, Kiziltepe U, Coskun B, et al. Effects of resveratrol on vascular tone and endothelial function of human saphenous vein and internal mammary artery. Int J Cardiol. 2005 Nov 2;105(2):209-15.

Rapp LM, Maple SS, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in rod outer segment membranes from perifoveal and peripheral human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Apr;41(5):1200-9.

Rastmanesh R. Potential of melatonin to treat or prevent age-related macular degeneration through stimulation of telomerase activity. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Jan;76(1):79-85. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Richer S, Stiles W, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry. 2004 Apr;75(4):216-30.

Riso P, Visioli F, Gardana C, et al. Effects of blood orange juice intake on antioxidant bioavailability and on different markers related to oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):941-7.

Roberts LJ, Oates JA, et al. The relationship between dose of Vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2007 Nov;43(10):1388-1393.

Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Flood VM, Mitchell P. Elevated serum homocysteine, low serum vitamin B12, folate, and age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Feb;143(2):344-6.

Rosenfeld PJ, Brown DM, Heier JS, et al. Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2006a Oct 5;355(14):1419-31.

Rosenfeld PJ. Intravitreal avastin: the low cost alternative to lucentis? Am J Ophthalmol. 2006b Jul;142(1):141-3.

Seddon JM, Gensler G, Klein ML, Milton RC. C-reactive protein and homocysteine are associated with dietary and behavioral risk factors for age-related macular degeneration. Nutrition. 2006;22(4):441-3.

Seddon JM, Gensler, G, Rosner B. C-reactive protein and CHF, ARMS2/HTRA1 gene variants are independently associated with risk of macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2010 Aug;117(8):1560-1566.

Serafino A, Sinibaldi-Vallebona P, Lazzarino G, et al. Differentiation of human melanoma cells induced by cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside. FASEB J. 2004 Dec;18(15):1940-2.

Serraino I, Dugo L, Dugo P, et al. Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure. Life Sci. 2003 Jul 18;73(9):1097-114.

Specht S, Organisciak DT, et al. Continuing damage to rat retinal DNA during darkness following light exposure. Photochem Photobiol. 2000 May;71(5):559-66.

Stahl W. Macular carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin. Dev Ophthalmol. 2005;38:70-88.

Tamer C, Oksuz H, Sogut S. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate level in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Feb;143(2):212-6.

Tan AG, Mitchell P, Flood VM, Bulutsky G, Rochtchine E, Cumming RG, Wang JJ. Antioxidant nutrient intake and the long-term incidence of age-related cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J of Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1899-1905.

Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, Mitchell P. Dietary fatty acids and the 10-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains Eye study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 May;127(5):656-665.

Tarozzi A, Morroni F, Merlicco A, et al. Neuro-protective effects of cyanidin 3-O-glucopyranoside on amyloid beta (25-35) oligomer-induced toxicity. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Apr 5;473(2):72-6.

Thiagarajan G, Chandani S, et al. Molecular and cellular assessment of Ginkgo biloba extract as a possible ophthalmic drug. Experimental Eye Research. 2002 Oct;75(4):4231-430.

Thornton J, Edwards R, Mitchell P, Harrison RA, Buchan I, Kelly SP. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association. Eye (Lond). 2005 Sep;19(9):935-44.

Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside in rats. FEBS Lett. 1999 Apr 23;449(2-3):179-82.

Tsuda T, Horio F, Uchida K, Aoki H, Osawa T. Dietary cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2125-30.

Tsuda T, Ueno Y, Aoki H, et al. Anthocyanin enhances adipocytokine secretion and adipocyte-specific gene expression in isolated rat adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 26;316(1):149-57.

Vine AK, Stader J, Branham K, Musch DC, Swaroop A. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease as risk factors for age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmol. Dec 2005;112(12):2076-80.

Wang B, Zou Y, Li H, Pan JS, Yuan ZL. Genistein inhibited retinal neovascularization and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Apr;21(2):107-113.

Williams DL, Munday P. The effect of topical antioxidant formulation including N-actetyl carnosine on canine cataract: a preliminary study. Vet Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep-Oct;9(5):311-6.

Wormald R, Evans JR, Smeeth LL, Henshaw KS. Photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;3.

Xu JW, Ikeda K, Yamori Y. Cyanidin-3-glucoside regulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. FEBS Lett. 2004 Sep 10;574(1-3):176-80.

Yanoff M, Duker JS. Ophthalmology 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2004: 925-33.

Yi C, Pan X, Yan H, Guo M, Pierpaoli W. Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1057:384-92.

Yu X, Zhu J, Mi M, Chen W, Pan Q, Wei M. Anti-angiogenic genistein inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell activation by decreasing PTK activity and MAPK activation. Med Oncol. 2010 Dec.

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, et al. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2007 Jun;51(6):675-683.

Zarbin M. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122(4):598-614.