Free Shipping on All Orders $75 Or More!

Your Trusted Brand for Over 35 Years

Health Protocols



Abrao MS, C. Goncalves MO et al. Comparison between clinical examination, transvaginal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of deep endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2007; 22(12): 3092-3097.

Adams MR, Kaplan JR, Manuck SB, et al. Inhibition of coronary artery atherosclerosis by 17-beta estradiol in ovariectomized monkeys. Lack of an effect of added progesterone. Arteriosclerosis. 1990 Nov-Dec;10(6):1051-7.

Adams MR, Register TC, Golden DL, Wagner JD, Williams JK. Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes inhibitory effects of conjugated equine estrogens on coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Jan;17(1):217-21.

Anaf V, Chafron C et al. Pain, mast cells, and nerves in peritoneal, ovarian, and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility 2006;86:1336–43.

ASRM. Endometriosis: A guide for patients. Patient Information Series, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. 2012.

Augoulea A, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Vrachnis N, Lambrinoudaki I. Pathogenesis of endometriosis: the role of genetics, inflammation and oxidative stress. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. Jul 2012;286(1):99-103.

Augoulea A, Mastorakos G, Lambrinoudaki I, Christodoulakos G, Creatsas G. The role of the oxidative-stress in the endometriosis-related infertility. Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology. Feb 2009;25(2):75-81.

Baker VL. Alternatives to oral estrogen replacement. Transdermal patches, percutaneous gels, vaginal creams and rings, implants, other methods of delivery. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1994

Balasch J, Creus M, Fabregues F, Carmona F, Martinez-Roman S, Manau D, Vanrell JA. Pentoxifylline versus placebo in the treatment of infertility associated with minimal or mild endometriosis: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Human reproduction (Oxford, England). Sep 1997;12(9):2046-2050.

Ballard KD, Seaman HE et al. Can symptomatology help in the diagnosis of endometriosis? Findings from a national case–control study—Part 1. BJOG 2008;115:1382–1391

Barrat J, de Lignières B, Marpeau L, et al. The in vivo effect of the local administration of progesterone on the mitotic activity of human ductal breast tissue. Results of a pilot study. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1990;19(3):269-74.

Benoit L, Arnould L, Cheynel N, et al. Malignant extraovarian endometriosis: a review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006 Feb;32(1):6-11.
breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 Mar;114(2):233-42.

Brosens I, Benagiano G. Endometriosis, a modern syndrome. The Indian journal of medical research. Jun 2011;133:581-593.

Bruner-Tran KL, Herington JL et al. Medical management of endometriosis: emerging evidence linking inflammation to disease pathophysiology. Minerva Ginecologica 2013 April;65(2):199-213.

Bruner-Tran KL, Osteen KG et al. Resveratrol Inhibits Development of Experimental Endometriosis In Vivo and Reduces Endometrial Stromal Cell Invasiveness In Vitro. Biology of Reproduction, 2011; 84: 106-112.

Buck Louis GM, Chen Z, Peterson CM, Hediger ML, Croughan MS, Sundaram R, . . . Kannan K. Persistent lipophilic environmental chemicals and endometriosis: the ENDO Study. Environmental health perspectives. Jun 2012;120(6):811-816.

Bulletti C, Coccia ME et al. Endometriosis and infertility. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 2010; 27: 441-447.

Bulun SE, Cheng Y-H et al. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: Link to failure to metabolize estradiol. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2006; 248: 94-103.

Bulun SE. Endometriosis. The New England journal of medicine. Jan 15 2009;360(3):268-279.

Burkle B, Notscheid NK, Scheich J, et al. Spread of endometriosis to pelvic sentinel lymph nodes: gene expression analysis. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. Jul 2013;169(2):370-375.

Burney RO and Giudice LC. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility, 2012; 98(3): 511-519.

Burney RO, Talbi S et al. Gene Expression Analysis of Endometrium Reveals Progesterone Resistance and Candidate Susceptibility Genes in Women with Endometriosis. Endocrinology, 2007; 148(8): 3814-3826.

Carvalho LF, Samadder AN, Agarwal A, Fernandes LF, Abrao MS. Oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with endometriosis: systematic review. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. Oct 2012;286(4):1033-1040.

Catherino WH, Jeng MH, Jordan VC. Norgestrel and gestodene stimulate breast cancer cell growth through an oestrogen receptor mediated mechanism. Br J Cancer. 1993 May;67(5):945-52.

CDC. “Contraception.” Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease Control. 2013. Web. 26 Aug 2013. <>.

CEMCOR. "Endometriosis and Natural Progesterone." The Center for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research. The Center for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, 2007. Web. 12 June 2013. <>.

Chang KJ, Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Ligniéres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertil Steril. 1995 Apr;63(4):785-91.

Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, Anderson GL, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Apr 17;105(8):526-35.

Cline JM, Soderqvist G, von Schoultz E, Skoog L, von Schoultz B. Effects of conjugated estrogens, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and tamoxifen on the mammary glands of macaques. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998 Apr;48(3):221-9.

Cline JM, Soderqvist G, von Schoultz E, Skoog L, von Schoultz B. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on the mammary gland of surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Jan;174(1 Pt 1):93-100.

Connolly AM, Rung MS (ed). Netter's Internal Medicine - Second Edition. 118; 830-833. Accessed online at 2009.

Cooney MA, Louis GM et al. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis. Reproductive Toxicology, 2010; 30: 365-369.

Cottreau CM, Ness RB, Modugno F, et al. Endometriosis and its treatment with danazol or lupron in relation to ovarian cancer. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Nov 1 2003;9(14):5142-5144.

Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Aug;114(2):209-17.

Cox H, Henderson L et al. Learning to take charge: women’s experiences of living with endometriosis. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 2003; 9: 62-68.

Creus M, Fabregues F, Carmona F, del Pino M, Manau D, Balasch J. Combined laparoscopic surgery and pentoxifylline therapy for treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility: a preliminary trial. Human reproduction (Oxford, England). Aug 2008;23(8):1910-1916.
Dec 15;50(24):7858-62.

El Darouti MA, Fakhry Khattab MA, Hegazy RA, Hafez DA, Gawdat HI. Pentoxifylline (anti-tumor necrosis factor drug): effective adjuvant therapy in the control of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. European journal of ophthalmology. Sep-Oct 2011;21(5):529-537.

Elsevier. First Consult. Endometriosis. Available online at 2011.

Fåhraeus L, Larsson-Cohn U, Wallentin L. L-norgestrel and progesterone have different influences on plasma lipoproteins. Eur J Clin Invest. 1983 Dec;13(6):447-53.

Falconer H. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Endometriosis. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 2013;31:178–182

Ferrero S, Gilott DJ et al. Use of aromatase inhibitors to treat endometriosis-related pain symptoms: a systematic review. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2011, 9:89

Fjerbaek A and Knudsen UB. Endometriosis, dysmenorrhea and diet—What is the evidence? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2007; 132: 140-147.

Foidart JM, Colin C, Denoo X, et al. Estradiol and progesterone regulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Fertil Steril. 1998 May;69(5):963-9.

Fournier A, Berrino F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Jan;107(1):103-11.

Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, Avenel V, Clavel-Chapelon F. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2005 Apr 10;114(3):448-54.

Giudice LC. Endometriosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 2010; 362(25): 2389-2398.

Gonzalez-Espinoza L, Rojas-Campos E, Medina-Perez M, Pena-Quintero P, Gomez-Navarro B, Cueto-Manzano AM. Pentoxifylline decreases serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein in hemodialysis patients: results of a randomized double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. May 2012;27(5):2023-2028.

Guerra-Infante FM, Flores-Medina S, Lopez-Hurtado M, Zamora-Ruiz A, Sosa Gonzalez IE, Villagrana Zesatti R, . . . Castelazo Morales E. [Determination of the tumor necrosis factor in the peritoneal fluid of gynecologic patients with intraperitoneal infections and endometriosis]. Ginecologia y obstetricia de Mexico. May 1999;67:221-226.

Gupta S, Agarwal A et al. Role of oxidative stress in endometriosis. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 2006; 13(1): 126-134.

Hansen SO, Knudsen UB. Endometriosis, dysmenorrhoea and diet. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2013.

Harris HR, Chavarro JE et al. Dairy-Food, Calcium, Magnesium, and Vitamin D Intake and Endometriosis: A Prospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2013; 177(5).

Hediger ML, Hartnett HJ et al. Association of endometriosis with body size and figure. Fertility and Sterility, 2005; 84(5): 1366–1374

Herington JL, Glore DR et al. Dietary fish oil supplementation inhibits formation of endometriosis-associated adhesions in a chimeric mouse model. Fertility and Sterility, 2013; 99: 543-550.

Hernandez Guerrero CA, Bujalil Montenegro L, de la Jara Diaz J, Mier Cabrera J, Bouchan Valencia P. [Endometriosis and deficient intake of antioxidants molecules related to peripheral and peritoneal oxidative stress]. Ginecologia y obstetricia de Mexico. Jan 2006;74(1):20-28.

Higashiura Y, Kajihara H, Shigetomi H, Kobayashi H. Identification of multiple pathways involved in the malignant transformation of endometriosis (Review). Oncology letters. Jul 2012;4(1):3-9.

Higdon J (March 2005). Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon States University. Resveratrol. Available at:  Accessed 9/20/2013.

Highfield ES, Laufer MR et al. Adolescent Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain Treated with Acupuncture: Two Case Reports. The Journal of alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2006; 12(3): 317-322.

Holland TK, Yazbek J et al. Value of transvaginal ultrasound in assessing severity of pelvic endometriosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36: 241–248.

Holtorf K. The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy? Postgraduate medicine. Jan 2009;121(1):73-85.

Hornstein MD, Surrey ES et al. Leuprolide acetate depot and hormonal add-back in endometriosis: a 12-month study. Lupron Add-Back Study Group.Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1998; 91(1):16-24.

Houser SL, Aretz HT, Quist WC, Chang Y, Schreiber AD. Serum lipids and arterial plaque load are altered independently with high-dose progesterone in hypercholesterolemic male rabbits. Cardiovasc

Hsu AL, Khachikyan I, Stratton P. Invasive and non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 2010; 53(2):413-419.

Huntington A, Gilmour JA et al. A life shaped by pain: women and endometriosis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2005; 14: 1124-1132.

Husby GK, Haugen RS et al. Diagnostic delay in women with pain and Endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003: 82: 649—653

Imesch P, Samartzis EP et al. Inhibition of transcription, expression, and secretion of the vascular epithelial growth factor in human epithelial endometriotic cells by romidepsin. Fertility and Sterility, 2011; 95(5): 1579-1583.

Inoh A, Kamiya K, Fujii Y, Yokoro K. Protective effects of progesterone and tamoxifen in estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized W/Fu rats. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1985 Aug;76(8):699-704.

Jackson LW, Schisterman EF et al. Oxidative stress and endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2005; 20(7): 2014-2020.

Jain N, Tonspay SD et al. Natural Progesterone: Current Approach for Women`s Health Problem. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(5):1025-1027

Jana S, Paul S et al. Curcumin as anti-endometriotic agent: Implication of MMP-3 and intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Biochemical Pharmacology, 2012; 83: 797-804.

Jana S, Rudra DS et al. Curcumin delays endometriosis development by inhibiting MMP-2 activity. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2012 Oct;49(5):342-8.

Jeng MH, Parker CJ, Jordan VC. Estrogenic potential of progestins in oral contraceptives to stimulate human breast cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Res. 1992 Dec 1;52(23):6539-46.

Jordan VC, Jeng MH, Catherino WH, Parker CJ. The estrogenic activity of synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives. Cancer. 1993 Feb 15;71(4 Suppl):1501-5.

Kalkhoven E, Kwakkenbos-Isbrücker L, de Laat SW, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B. Synthetic progestins induce proliferation of breast tumor cell lines via the progesterone or estrogen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994 Jun;102(1-2):45-52.

Kamencic H, Thiel JA. Pentoxifylline after conservative surgery for endometriosis: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology. Jan-Feb 2008;15(1):62-66.

Kemper KJ, Sarah R et al. On Pins and Needles? Pediatric Pain Patients' Experience With Acupuncture. Pediatrics 2000;105;941

Kennedy S, Bergqvist A et al. ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2005; 20(10): 2698-2704.

Kim YA, Kim JY, Kim MR, Hwang KJ, Chang DY, Jeon MK. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis by stromal cell culture through nuclear factor-kappaB activation. The Journal of reproductive medicine. Oct 2009;54(10):625-630.

Kitawaki J, Kado N et al. Endometriosis: the pathophysiology as an estrogen-dependent disease. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 2003; 83: 149-155.

Krikun G, Hu Z et al. The Immunoconjugate “Icon” Targets Aberrantly Expressed Endothelial Tissue Factor Causing Regression of Endometriosis. The American Journal of Pathology, 2010; 176(2): 1050-1056.

Krikun G. Endometriosis, Angiogenesis and Tissue Factor. Scientficia, 2012.

Laidlaw IJ, Clarke RB, Howell A, Owen AW, Potten CS, Anderson E. The proliferation of normal human breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice is stimulated by estrogen but not progesterone. Endocrinology. 1995 Jan;136(1):164-71.

Langoi D, Pavone ME et al. Aromatase inhibitor treatment limits progression of peritoneal endometriosis in baboons. Fertility and Sterility, 2013; 99: 656-662.

Laufer MR, Sanfilippo J et al. Adolescent Endometriosis: Diagnosis and Treatment Approaches. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecoogy, 2003; 16: S3-S11

Liang Y, Benakanakere I, Besch-Williford C, et al. Synthetic progestins  induce growth and metastasis of BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. Menopause. 2010 Sep-Oct;17(5):1040-7.

Malet C, Spritzer P, Guillaumin D, Kuttenn F. Progesterone effect on cell growth, ultrastructural aspect and estradiol receptors of normal human breast epithelial (HBE) cells in culture. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 Jun;73(3-4):171-81.

Man GCW, Xu H et al. Green Tea for Endometriosis, Endometriosis – Basic Concepts and Current Research Trends, Prof. Koel Chaudhury (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0524-4, 2012. INTECH, Available from:

Matsuura K, Ohtake H, Katabuchi H, et al. Coelomic metaplasia theory of endometriosis: evidence from in vivo studies and an in vitro experimental model. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation. 1999;47 Suppl 1:1:18-20; discussion 20-12.

Menendez JA, Oza BP, Colomer R, Lupu R. The estrogenic activity of synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives enhances fatty acid synthase-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. Int J Oncol. 2005 Jun;26(6):1507-15.
Menopause. 2013 May;20(5):504-10.
Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):468-73.

Micheli A, Muti P, Secreto G, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and subsequent breast cancer in premenopausal women. Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;112(2):312-8.

Mier-Cabrera J, Aburto-Soto T et al. Women with endometriosis improved their peripheral antioxidant markers after the application of a high antioxidant diet. Biology and Endocrinology 2009, 7:54

Missmer SA, Chavarro JE et al. A prospective study of dietary fat consumption and endometriosis risk. Human Reproduction, 2010; 25(6): 1528-1535.

Missmer SA, Hankinson SE et al. Reproductive History and Endometriosis Among Premenopausal Women. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:965–74.

Mok-Lin EY, Wolfberg A et al. Endometriosis in a Patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Ku¨ ster- Hauser Syndrome and Complete Uterine Agenesis: Evidence to Support the Theory of Coelomic Metaplasia. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 2010; 23: e35-e37.

Morey AK, Pedram A, Razandi M, et al. Estrogen and progesterone inhibit vascular smooth muscle proliferation. Endocrinology. 1997 Aug;138(8):3330-9.

Moskowitz D. A comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones for the management of menopause and related health risks. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic. Sep 2006;11(3):208-223.

Mounsey AL, Wilgus A et al. Diagnosis and Management of Endometriosis. Am Fam Physician 2006;74:594-600, 601-2.

Mueck AO, Seeger H, Wallwiener D. Comparison of the proliferative effects of estradiol and conjugated equine estrogens on human breast cancer cells and impact of continuous combined progestogen addition. Climacteric. 2003 Sep;6(3):221-7.

Muranaka LS, Giorgiano TE, Takita MA, et al. N-Acetylcysteine in Agriculture, a Novel Use for an Old Molecule: Focus on Controlling the Plant-Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. PLoS One. 2013 Aug;8(8):e72937.

Murkes D, Conner P, Leifland K, et al. Effects of percutaneous estradiol-oral progesterone versus oral conjugated equine estrogens-medroxyprogesterone acetate on breast cell proliferation and bcl-2 protein in healthy women. Fertil Steril. 2011 Mar 1;95(3):1188-91.

Murkes D, Lalitkumar PG, Leifland K, Lundström E, Söderqvist G. Percutaneous estradiol/oral micronized progesterone has less-adverse effects and different gene regulations than oral conjugated equine estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate in the breasts of healthy women in vivo. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012 Oct;28 Suppl 2:12-5.

Netsu S, Konna R et al. Oral eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation as possible therapy for endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility, 2008;90:1496–502.

Neubauer H, Ruan X, Schneck H, et al. Overexpression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1: possible mechanism for increased breast cancer risk with norethisterone in hormone therapy.

Ngo C, Chereau C, Nicco C, Weill B, Chapron C, Batteux F. Reactive oxygen species controls endometriosis progression. The American journal of pathology. Jul 2009;175(1):225-234.

NYT. New York Times. Health Guide. Endometriosis. Available at: 9/20/2013. Accessed 9/20/2013.

Olive DL and Henderson DY. Endometriosis and mullerian anomalies. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1987; 69(3): 412-415.

Onalan G, Gulumser C, Mulayim B, Dagdeviren A, Zeyneloglu H. Effects of amifostine on endometriosis, comparison with N-acetyl cysteine, and leuprolide as a new treatment alternative: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. Jul 24 2013.

Papa V, Reese CC, Brunetti A, Vigneri R, Siiteri PK, Goldfine ID. Progestins increase insulin receptor content and insulin stimulation of growth in human breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1990

Parazzini F, Chiaffarino F et al. Selected food intake and risk of endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2004; 19(8): 1755-1759.

Parazzini F, Vigano P et al. Diet and endometriosis risk: A literature review. Reproductive BioMedicine Online (2013) 26, 323– 336
Pathol. 2000 Nov-Dec;9(6):317-22.

Plu-Bureau G, Lê MG, Thalabard JC, Sitruk-Ware R, Mauvais-Jarvis P. Percutaneous progesterone use and risk of breast cancer: results from a French cohort study of premenopausal women with benign breast disease. Cancer Detect Prev. 1999 23(4):290-6.

Porch JV, Lee IM, Cook NR, Rexrode KM, Burin JE. Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: the Women’s Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Nov;13(9):847-54.

Porpora MG, Brunelli R, Costa G, et al.  A Promise in the Treatment of Endometriosis: An Observational Cohort Study on Ovarian Endometrioma Reduction by N-Acetylcysteine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:240702.

Porpora MG, Koninckx PR et al. Correlation between endometriosis and pelvic pain. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 1999 Nov;6(4):429-34

Prieto L, Quesada JF, Cambero O, et al. Analysis of follicular fluid and serum markers of oxidative stress in women with infertility related to endometriosis. Fertility and sterility. Jul 2012;98(1):126-130.

Register TC, Adams MR, Golden DL, Clarkson TB. Conjugated equine estrogens alone, but not in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate, inhibit aortic connective tissue remodeling after plasma lipid lowering in female monkeys. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Jul;18(7):1164-71.

Reis FM, Petraglia F, Taylor RN. Endometriosis: hormone regulation and clinical consequences of chemotaxis and apoptosis. Human reproduction update. Jul-Aug 2013;19(4):406-418.

Ricci AG, Olivares CN et al. Natural therapies assessment for the treatment of endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2013; 28(1): 178-188

Rizner TL. Estrogen metabolism and action in endometriosis. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2009; 307: 8-18.

Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 July 17;288(3):321–33.

Rubi-Klein K, Kucera-Sliutz E et al. Acupuncture for the relief of endometriosis-related pain. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 2011; 16(3): 214-249.

Rubi-Klein K, Kucera-Sliutz E et al. Is acupuncture in addition to conventional medicine effective as pain treatment for endometriosis? A randomised controlled cross-over trial. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 153 (2010) 90–93.

Rudzitis-Auth J, Menger MD et al. Resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of vascularization and cell proliferation in experimental endometriosis. Human Reproduction, 2013; 28(5):1339-1347.

Samuni Y, Goldstein S, Dean OM, Berk M. The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Aug 2013;1830(8):4117-4129.

Santanam N, Kavtaradze N, Murphy A, et al. Antioxidant supplementation reduces endometriosis-related pelvic pain in humans. Transl Res. 2013; 161(3):189-95.

Schenken, Robert S. "Overview of the Treatment of Endometriosis." UpToDate. UpToDate, 2012. Web. 11 June 2013. <>.

Schenken, Robert S. "Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis of Endometriosis." UpToDate. UpToDate, 2013. Web. 11 June 2013. <>.

Schweppe KW. Current place of progestins in the treatment of endometriosis-related complaints. Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology. Dec 2001;15 Suppl 6:22-28.

Seeger H, Rakov V, Mueck AO. Dose dependent changes of the ratio of apoptosis to proliferation by norethisterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate in human breast epithelial cells. Horm

Sekhon LH and Agarwal A. Endometriosis and Oxidative Stress. Studies on Women’s Health, Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice. 2013

Selak V, Farquhar C, Prentice A, et al. Danazol for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. The Cochrane database of systemic reviews. 2007(4):Cd000068.

Sharma RA, Gescher AJ, Steward WP. Curcumin: The story so far. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Sep;41(13):1955-68.

Signorile PG and Baldi A. Endometriosis: New concepts in the pathogenesis. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 2010; 42: 778-780.

Simoens S, Hummelshoj L et al. Endometriosis: cost estimates and methodological perspective. Human Reproduction Update, 2007; 13(4): 395-404.

Simpson JL, Elias S et al. Heritable aspects of endometriosis. I. Genetic studies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1980; 137(3):327-31

Sinaii N, Plumb K et al. Differences in characteristics among 1,000 women with endometriosis based on extent of disease. Fertility and Sterility, 2008; 89(3): 538–545

Smith J. Dietary Fats May Affect Endometriosis Risk. Family Practice News, 2010; 44.

Spark MJ. Progesterone or progestogen or  progestin which is it? BMJ, 2009.

Swarnakar S, Paul S. Curcumin arrests endometriosis by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Feb;46(1):59-65.

Tall AR. Cholesterol efflux pathways and other potential mechanisms involved in the athero-protective effect of high density lipoproteins. J Intern Med. 2008 Mar;263(3):256-73.

Taylor HS, Osteen KG et al. Novel Therapies Targeting Endometriosis. Reproductive Sciences 2011 18: 814

Tempfer CB, Wenzl R, Horvat R, et al. Lymphatic spread of endometriosis to pelvic sentinel lymph nodes: a prospective clinical study. Fertility and sterility. Sep 2011;96(3):692-696.

Treloar SA, Bell TA et al. Early menstrual characteristics associated with subsequent diagnosis of endometriosis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2010; 202: 534:e1-e6.

Triolo O, Lagana AS et al. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Endometriosis: An Overview. Journal of Clinical Medical Research, 2013;5(3):153-163.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Endometriosis. Available at: Last updated 9/3/2013b. Accessed 9/20/2013.

UMMC. University of Maryland Medical Center. Wild yam. Available at: Last updated 5/7/2013a. Accessed 9/26/2013.

van Leeuwen FE. Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1991;125 Suppl 1:13-26.

Vehkavaara S, Silveira A, Hakala-Ala-Pietilä T, et al. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Thromb Haemost. 2001 Apr;85(4):619-25.

Verma A and Konje JC. Successful treatment of refractory endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain with aromatase inhibitors in premenopausal patients. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2009; 142: 112-115.

Vitonis AF, Hankinson SE et al. Adult physical activity and endometriosis risk. Epidemiology. 2010 ; 21(1): 16–23

Vlahos NF, Gregoriou O, Deliveliotou A, Perrea D, Vlachos A, Zhao Y, . . . Creatsas G. Effect of pentoxifylline on vascular endothelial growth factor C and flk-1 expression on endometrial implants in the rat endometriosis model. Fertility and sterility. Mar 1 2010;93(4):1316-1323.

Wayne PM, Kerr CE et al. Japanese-Style Acupuncture for Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain in Adolescents and Young Women: Results of a Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2008 October ; 21(5): 247–257.

Whitney ML. Importance of lay organizations for coping with endometriosis. J Reprod Med. 1998 Mar;43(3 Suppl):331-4.

Winkel CA. Evaluation and Management of Women With Endometriosis. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2003; 102(2): 397-408.

Wood CE, Register TC, Cline JM. Transcriptional profiles of progestogen effects in the postmenopausal

Wood CE, Register TC, Lees CJ, et al. Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jan;101(2):125-34.

Wykes CB, Clark TJ et al. Accuracy of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of endometriosis: a systematic quantitative review. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2004; 111: 1204-1212

Xu H, Lui WT et al. Anti-angiogenic effects of green tea catechin on an experimental endometriosis mouse model. Human reproduction, 2009; 24(3): 608-618.

Zeitoun K, Takayama K et al. Deficient 17b-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression in Endometriosis: Failure to Metabolize 17b-Estradiol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1998; 83(12): 4474–4480

Zhang MJ and Spite M. Resolvins: Anti-Inflammatory and Proresolving Mediators Derived from Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Annuals Reviews in Nutrition, 2012. 32:203–27

Zhou J, Yu Q, Chen, R, et al. Medroxy-progesterone acetate-driven increase in breast cancer risk might be mediated via cross-talk with growth factors in the presence of progesterone receptor membrane component-1. Maturitas. 2013 Jul 12.

Zhu X, Hamilton KD et al. Acupuncture for pain in endometriosis. The Cochrane Library, 2011; 9

Ziegler D, Borghese B et al. Endometriosis and infertility: pathophysiology and management. Lancet, 2010; 376: 730-738.