Life Extension Magazine®

Live Longer By Changing How You Cook!

A list of over 500 dietary constituents reveals surprising differences in levels of glycation products depending on how foods are prepared. Foods cooked at high temperatures increase cancer risk and accelerate aging because of the harmful mutagens and advanced glycation end products they contain. Glycation reactions can be inhibited in one’s body using carnosine, benfotiamine, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Mutation damage is reduced in the presence of chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol.

By William Faloon.

William Faloon
William Faloon

There is a simple way to protect against disease, lose weight, and extend healthy life span. This method is not new to longtime Life Extension® members. Recent studies, however, mandate that we re-emphasize our food preparation guidelines.

Put simply, when you ingest foods cooked at high temperature, your body is exposed to dangerous levels of mutagens and advanced glycation end products.1,2

Mutagens damage DNA and increase cancer risk. Glycation products damage your body’s proteins which causes tissues to lose functionality and prematurely age.3-5

This article reveals startling findings about the magnitude of toxic glycation products formed in response to various cooking methods. An example of the impact “cooking methods” have on glycation risk can be seen on the adjacent column.1

 
Cooking Glycation Products
Method (kilounits [kU]/serving)
Raw beef 636 (low)
Microwaved beef 2,418 (moderate)
Grilled beef 6,674 (too high)
Pan fried beef 9,052 (toxic)
Broiled beef hot dog 10,143 (more toxic)
 

Foods with high levels of glycation products happen to also have the greatest numbers of mutagens.6,7

The public does not appreciate the damage inflicted by eating high-temperature cooked foods. Since few people consume a “raw food” diet, we’re going to show how one can mitigate the deadly impact of glycation on your body’s living proteins.

In 2003, I described a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showing that eating foods cooked at high temperature increases the rate at which we age.4 Scientists uncovered back then that ingestion of high-temperature cooked foods results in chronic inflammation and accelerated glycation of our body’s proteins.8

More recent studies confirm these dangers. For example, breast and prostate cancers are sharply increased in those who eat heavily cooked meat such as hamburgers.9-13

When any food is heated to a high temperature (over 300 degrees), chemical changes occur that inflict damage to our cells when we eat that food.14-16

Live Longer By Changing How You Cook  

Cooked food contains more advanced glycation end products than raw foods. Be it fat, carbohydrate, or protein, when exposed to high temperatures, toxic compounds form that you don’t want in your body.1

To put this in perspective, a recent study found that men who ate just 1.5 servings or more of processed meat or one or more servings of grilled red meat or well-done red meat a week increased their risk of advanced prostate cancer by 50%.17 Considering that some men eat high-temperature cooked meat every day, is it any wonder that aging men suffer epidemic rates of prostate cancer?

Recall the previous page of this article that shows that pan fried beef registers a toxic 9,052 kilounits of advanced glycation end products per serving.1 This may help explain why heavily cooked beef increases cancer risk.

The number of advanced glycation end products in a serving of bacon comes in higher at 11,905 kilounits.1 If cancer concerns you, I hope the data about more than 500 different foods that we provide at the end of this article will assist you in making healthier food choices.

Shed Fat Pounds By Avoiding High-Temperature Cooked Foods

A fascinating study shows that diabetics who consumed a low-temperature cooked diet lost weight compared to a group that consumed the same numbers of calories, carbohydrates, fats, and protein cooked at higher temperature. Not only did the low-temperature prepared diet facilitate weight loss, but there were also reductions in blood glucose.8

This six-week study showed that eating the same food cooked at low-temperature reduced glycated LDL by 33%, whereas diabetics consuming the same higher temperature prepared foods increased glycated LDL by 32%.8

Researchers have now identified a compound in overcooked foods that plays a major role in the development of abdominal obesity and its related diseases. The name of the compound is methyl-glyoxal. Mice with sustained exposure to methylglyoxal developed significant abdominal weight gain, early insulin resistance, significant inflammation/oxidation, and type II diabetes.18 Methylglyoxal is a type of advanced glycation end product that is produced when food is cooked with dry heat.19-22

Glycation destroys functioning proteins in the body and induces chronic inflammation, which in turn promotes weight gain.23-27

National Library Of Medicine Studies Describe “Glycation”

National Library Of Medicine Studies Describe Glycation  

If one enters the term “advanced glycation end products” into the National Library of Medicine database, over 8,000 studies came up by mid-May 2015.

This includes studies that describe many diseases associated with glycation.28-31 They also reveal how the deadly effects of advanced glycation end products are related to their ability to promote oxidative stress and inflammation by cross-linking with body proteins, which alters protein structure and function.1,32-35

To understand the significance of this, each one of our typical cells has thousands of different proteins that together enable a cell to function and maintain its structure.36 Our enzymes, hormones, antibodies, neurotransmitters, collagen, and hemoglobin are all examples of molecules that must be protected against glycation reactions.37

The most accurate blood test of glucose control is to measure the percentage of glycated hemoglobin contained in red blood cells (i.e. hemoglobin A1c).38-40 While a glycated hemoglobin percentage up to 5.5% is considered normal,41 once it exceeds 6%, vascular disease incidence skyrockets.42 That tiny percentage increase (>0.5%) of glycated hemoglobin increases risk for diabetic complications,43 yet few doctors try to protect their patients against protein glycation other than by achieving tighter glucose control.

Why Are These Data Overlooked?

The acronym for advanced glycation end products is “AGEs.”1

Diabetics suffer a disproportional higher number of diseases from AGEs because high glucose blood levels are another cause of protein glycation.44

The role of AGEs in disease causation in diabetics and nondiabetics has been sadly overlooked by the medical mainstream, perhaps because there is relatively little they think they can do about it. It was also assumed that AGEs in foods were poorly absorbed. However, studies clearly show that AGEs contained in food are readily absorbed and contribute to formation of toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body.45-47

The good news is that health-conscious individuals exert a significant amount of control over how quickly their proteins are destroyed by toxic glycation reactions. They can reduce the amount of simple sugars and starches they ingest and minimize their exposure to overcooked foods.

The availability of nutrients like carnosine,48-53 benfotiamine,54-60 and pyridoxal-5-phosphate61-65 represents a significant medical advance because they function as potent anti-glycation agents. This is important because toxic AGEs form within the body as a part of normal metabolism, and even healthy foods contain some level of advanced glycated end products.1

How Food Makers Mislead Consumers

As I was writing this article, I came across a local news story about a restaurant that was opening which was serving only “naturally raised meats” that would be free of genetic modification, antibiotics, hormones, etc. These healthy meats would then be served as “char-cooked” hamburgers and other burnt foods.66

From what you’ve learned so far, this kind of cooking results in the formation of large numbers of AGEs within these foods. In particular, grilling, broiling, roasting, searing, and frying propagate and accelerate AGEs formation in food.1,67,68 Yet some of these terms (such as “grilling”) are used on restaurant menus to imply these are good ways to prepare food.

A wide variety of common foods are exposed to cooking or thermal processing for reasons of protection against microorganisms and convenience, as well as to enhance flavor, color, and appearance. The large amount of AGEs contained in the modern diet is well-documented.8,67,68

Grilled salmon, for instance, is often labeled as a heart healthy choice, yet it contains lots of AGEs compared to microwaved cooked salmon.1

When mice consume diets high in AGEs, their rate of atherosclerosis69 and kidney disease skyrockets.70 Restriction of dietary AGEs prevents vascular and kidney dysfunction70,71 and diabetes,72 improves insulin sensitivity,73,74 and accelerates wound healing in mice.75

Studies in healthy humans show that dietary AGEs directly correlate with markers of oxidative stress.76 Restriction of AGEs in patients with diabetes8 or kidney disease77 as well as in healthy subjects78 reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

These findings from animal and human studies suggest that avoidance of AGEs in food helps delay chronic diseases,79 yet processed foods, fast foods, and foods served at even upscale restaurants are laden with AGEs.

Purporting that these foods are healthy to eat is highly misleading. At a minimum, when one has no choice but to consume AGEs-laden or high-glycemic foods, supplementation with anti-glycation nutrients such as carnosine, benfotiamine, and/or pyridoxal-5-phosphate should be considered.

Don’t “Cook” Yourself To Death… Protect Your Genes Against Overcooked Food

Don’t “Cook” Yourself To Death… Protect Your Genes Against Overcooked Food  

It has long been known that heavily cooked foods inflict massive damage to the genes.

A group at the University of Minnesota reported that women who ate overcooked hamburgers had a 50% greater risk of breast cancer than women who ate rare or medium hamburgers. The famous Iowa Women’s Health Study found that women who consistently eat well-done steak, hamburgers, and bacon have a 4.62-fold increased risk of breast cancer than women who consumed these meats rare or medium done.10

Cooking foods at high temperatures causes the formation of gene-mutating heterocyclic amines, which is why deep-fried foods are so dangerous to eat.80 Heterocyclic amines have been linked to prostate, breast, colorectal, esophageal, lung, liver, and other cancers.10,81-91 While health conscious people try to avoid foods that are known carcinogens, even grilled fish contains a potent dose of gene-mutating heterocyclic amines.92

While one can reduce their exposure to cancer-causing heterocyclic amines, it may be impossible to keep them from forming within the body. Enzymatic activities that naturally occur in the liver can inadvertently manufacture heterocyclic amines from otherwise harmless organic compounds.93

Neutralizing Dietary Carcinogens

One of the most important lines of defense against carcinogens consumed in the diet are agents that prevent gene mutation. Many antimutagenic agents have been identified in fruits and vegetables, the most potent being indole-3-carbinol and chlorophyllin.94,95

Life Extension® introduced members to the antimutagenic effects of chlorophyllin back in 1989. The recommendation to supplement with chlorophyllin was based on a study published in the journal Mutation Research96 showing that this plant extract was a highly effective antimutagenic agent.

What impressed us most about the Mutation Research study was that chlorophyllin suppressed the mutagenic activity of carcinogens such as fried pork, diesel emissions, and coal dust by more than 90%!96 We are aware of no other supplement that comes close to chlorophyllin’s ability to inhibit deadly gene mutations. Most Life Extension® members obtain 100 mg of chlorophyllin in a multi-ingredient supplement designed to be taken with the heaviest meal of the day.

The great majority of studies about chlorophyllin’s health benefits concern its antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Chlorophyllin “traps” heterocyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens by reacting with their “backbone,” making it impossible for them to form adducts with DNA which is a precursor to malignant transformation in cells.97,98

Additional Protection Against Carcinogens

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is found in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli.99 When I3C was administered to rodents given cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), the number of tumors was reduced by up to 96%. I3C has been shown to extend the length of the time between exposure to carcinogens and development of tumors by nearly 200%.100

One of the ways I3C protects cells against cancerous changes is by preventing DNA damage.

A study from the Medical College of Ohio shows that I3C can cut the rate of DNA damage from chemicals in several organs by up to 95%.101 I3C significantly decreases DNA damage in white blood cells by up to 81%, the colon by up to 86%, and the liver by up to 72%. This would seem almost unbelievable if it hadn’t been confirmed by others who have shown that I3C can reduce DNA damage in other tissues by similar amounts.102

Based on this plethora of evidence, if one happens to eat overcooked food, it makes sense to take at the same time, 100 mg of chlorophyllin and/or 80 to 240 mg of indole-3-carbinol and other cruciferous vegetables extracts. Most Life Extension® members already obtain these nutrients in supplement formulas they take with meals.

Painstaking Development Of Antiglycating Nutrients

Painstaking Development Of Antiglycating Nutrients  

Back in 1998, a growing body of literature pointed to the antiglycation effect of a dipeptide nutrient called carnosine.103-106 The two amino acids that comprise carnosine are L-histidine and beta-alanine.

The problem was that the synthesis of histidine and beta-alanine into carnosine was so complicated and expensive that it was unaffordable to the public. We went to great lengths to enhance this method so that meaningful potencies could be obtained by our members.

Back in those early days, dietary supplement companies sold carnosine in 50 mg capsules. To illustrate how trivial this 50 mg dose is, 248 mg of carnosine (from meat) was given to human subjects. Carnosine levels were detected in the blood and steadily increased. However, within 5.5 hours, no carnosine was detected in the blood. The reason carnosine disappears so quickly is that the carnosinase enzyme quickly degrades it.107

With this study in mind, a dose of 50 mg of carnosine would only be expected to remain in the blood at meaningful levels for around one hour. To achieve near 24-hour protection against toxic glycation reactions in the body, it requires about 500 mg of carnosine to be taken twice a day.

When we launched the first high-potency carnosine supplement in the year 2000, it represented a major advance in enabling aging humans to protect their vital proteins from transforming into toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

New Studies Corroborate Carnosine Health Benefits

Diabetics are the group of people most in need of protection from AGEs.

High blood glucose levels create internal glycation reactions that result in massive protein destruction.108

Recent studies reveal broad-spectrum protection in the diabetic model in response to carnosine or its analogs. Carnosine analogs are being patented for potential approval in the lucrative pharmaceutical (drug) marketplace.109

A 2014 study using carnosine in a mouse diabetic model showed huge reductions in measurements of atherosclerosis. The researchers who conducted this study concluded:

“…prolonged carnosine supplementation enhances plasma levels, and has novel and significant effects on atherosclerotic lesion lipid, collagen and macrophage levels. These data are consistent with greater lesion stability, a key goal in treatment of existing cardiovascular disease. Carnosine supplementation may therefore be of benefit in lowering triglyceride levels and suppressing plaque instability in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.” 110

No one questions the fact that diabetes results in a state of accelerated formation of AGEs and atherosclerosis.111

Nondiabetics may delay this process, but nonetheless will suffer the adverse effects of AGEs unless they take steps to protect their proteins from transforming into advanced glycation end products.

Practical Anti-Glycation Cooking Changes

Practical Anti-Glycation Cooking Changes  

Foods cooked at high temperature and low moisture strongly induces formation of deadly AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts).2

Cooking the same foods using lower temperatures, high moisture, and/or pre-exposure to an acidified environment will limit new AGEs formation.2, 68

Regrettably, the toxic effects of high-temperature cooking and food processing are still not accepted health considerations, despite irrefutable evidence we presented more than 12 years ago.

Reducing intake of dietary AGEs can be achieved by increasing the consumption of properly prepared fish, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains and by reducing intake of solid fats, fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and highly processed foods.

Cooking methods that produce relatively low AGEs levels include poaching, steaming, stewing, and boiling.1 As an example, the high AGE content of broiled chicken can be reduced by at least 80% when the same piece of chicken is boiled.68

The use of acidic marinades, such as lemon juice and vinegar, before cooking also limits AGEs formation in the food.1 These culinary practices are part of Mediterranean, Asian, and other cuisines and can be used to create tasty, easily prepared dishes.

Since most “junk” foods are cooked at extremely high temperatures, it makes sense to avoid french fries, hamburgers, potato chips, fried food, and most snacks. These foods not only contain lots of AGEs, but they also create other metabolic disorders that can induce degenerative disease.

Broad-Spectrum Protection Against Age-Accelerating Glycation

Most Life Extension® members follow a healthy lifestyle that helps prevent glycation and chronic inflammation.

Supplementing with 1,000 mg a day of carnosine,50,52,112 along with benfotiamine (50 to 500 mg per day),113-115 and pyridoxal-5-phosphate (100 to 200 mg per day)53,60,116,117 can further inhibit glycation reactions in the body.

Avoiding foods cooked at high temperature not only reduces pathological glycation processes, but also prevents the formation of gene-mutating toxins that are known carcinogens. When food is cooked at high temperatures, DNA readily mutates.14,118 This results in increased cancer risk.

With overwhelming evidence that overheated food is associated with accelerated aging and cancer, health-conscious individuals have a strong incentive to pay attention to how they prepare their food.

Mainstream doctors should be advising patients on safer ways to cook their food. This message is tragically still not getting out, despite numerous studies published in prestigious scientific journals.

The failure of hurried physicians to inform aging people about the need to protect against toxic AGEs is another reason why consumers need to look out for their own health.

The section after the references to this article lists over 500 common foods and their AGEs content per serving. This list provides practical guidance on what foods are safe, moderately safe and outright deadly.

For additional protection against advanced glycation end products (AGEs), consider daily supplementation of carnosine, benfotiamine and/or pyridoxal-5-phosphate.

For longer life,

For Longer Life

William Faloon

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Advanced Glycation End Product Content Of Common Foods and Drinks

Epidemiological studies associate consumption of unhealthy foods with structural changes to the proteins in our bodies.

When one ingests foods/drinks processed or cooked at high temperature, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in these foods/drinks inflict glycation changes to the body’s own proteins.

The result is an accumulation of non-functional (AGEs) structures throughout the body that are associated with normal aging.

The following pages reveal the number of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) per serving of over 500 different foods and drinks.

A correlation can be seen by the heating process involved in processing or cooking the food and the number of AGEs they contain.

Bacon, for instance, has the highest levels of AGEs per serving at 11,905 compared to only 407 in tuna canned in water.

A consistent finding in this listing of 549 dietary items is that food cooked at higher temperatures has far more AGEs than the same food served raw or prepared at lower temperature. Some foods, however, have naturally higher levels of AGEs.

What may surprise you are foods that are considered healthy, but may have modest to relatively high AGE levels per serving.

The take home lesson from the following pages is that it is impossible to completely avoid consuming AGEs in your diet. AGEs also form in your body as a result of normal metabolism.

To achieve maximum reduction of AGEs, you should minimize intake of high glycemic sugars/starches, consume foods in the lower AGEs range (as revealed on the following chart), along with appropriate nutrients.

The advanced glycation end product (AGE) content of the following foods is based on their carboxymethyllysine content:*

Food Item

AGE
kU/serving

Fats

Almonds, blanched slivered (Bazzini’s Nut Club, Bronx, NY)

1,642

Almonds, roasted

1,995

Avocado

473

Butter, whipped

1,324

Butter, sweet cream, unsalted, whipped (Land O’Lakes, St Paul, MN)

1,167

Cashews, raw (Bazzini’s Nut Club)

2,019

Cashews, roasted

2,942

Chestnut, raw

817

Chestnut, roasted, in toaster oven 350°F for 27 min

1,606

Cream cheese, Philadelphia soft, (Kraft, Northfield, IL)

3,265

Cream cheese, Philadelphia original (Kraft)

2,616

Margarine, tub

876

Margarine, tub, I Can’t Believe it’s Not Butter (Unilever, Rotterdam, The Netherlands)

496

Margarine, tub, Smart Balance (CFA Brands, Heart Beat Foods, Paramus, NJ)

311

Margarine, tub, Take Control (Unilever Best Foods)

200

Mayonnaise

470

Mayonnaise, imitation (Diet Source, Novartis Nutriton Group, East Hanover, NJ)

10

Mayonnaise, low-fat (Hellman’s, Unilever Best Foods)

110

Olive, ripe, large (5 g)

501

Peanut butter, smooth, Skippy (Unilever)

2,255

Peanuts, cocktail (Planters, Kraft)

2,500

Peanuts, dry roasted, unsalted (Planters, Kraft)

1,934

Peanuts, roasted in shell, salted (Frito-Lay, Plano, TX)

1,032

Pine nuts (pignolias), raw (Bazzini’s Nut Club)

3,363

Pistachios, salted (Frito Lay)

114

Pumpkin seeds, raw, hulled (House of Bazzini, Bronx, NY)

556

Soybeans, roasted and salted (House of Bazzini)

501

Sunflower seeds, raw, hulled (House of Bazzini)

753

Sunflower seeds, roasted and salted (House of Bazzini)

1,408

Tartar Sauce, creamy (Kraft)

37

Walnuts, roasted

2,366

Fat, Liquid

AGE
kU/serving

Cream, heavy, ultra-pasteurized (Farmland Dairies, Fairlawn, NJ)

325

Oil, canola

451

Oil, corn

120

Oil, cottonseed (The B Manischewitz Company, Cincinnati, OH)

426

Oil, diaglycerol, Enova (ADM Kao LLC, Decatur, IL)

521

Oil, olive

595

Oil, olive, extra virgin, first cold pressed (Colavita, Linden, NJ)

502

Oil, peanut (Planters)

572

Oil, safflower (The Hain Celestial Group, Inc, Melville, NY)

151

Oil, sesame (Asian Gourmet)

1084

Oil, sunflower (The Hain Celestial Group, Inc)

197

Salad dressing, blue cheese (Kraft)

41

Salad dressing, caesar (Kraft)

111

Salad dressing, French (H. J. Heinz Co, Pittsburgh, PA)

17

Salad dressing, French, lite, (Diet Source, Novartis Nutr Corp)

0

Salad dressing, Italian (Heinz)

41

Salad dressing, Italian, lite (Diet Source, Novartis Nutr Corp)

0

Salad dressing, thousand island (Kraft)

28

Meats and Meat Substitutes

AGE
kU/serving

Beef

Beef, bologna

1,468

Beef, corned brisket, deli meat (Boar’s Head, Sarasota, FL)

179

Beef, frankfurter, boiled in water, 212° F, 7 min

6,736

Beef, frankfurter, broiled 450°F, 5 min

10,143

Beef, ground, boiled, marinated 10 min w/lemon juice

1,384

Beef, ground, pan browned, marinated 10 min w/lemon juice

3,450

Beef, ground, 20% fat, pan browned

4,435

Beef, ground, 20% fat, pan/cover

4,974

Beef, hamburger (McDonald’s Corp, Oak Brook, IL)

4,876

Beef, hamburger patty, olive oil 180°F, 6 min

2,375

Beef, meatball, potted (cooked in liquid), 1 h

3,870

Beef, meatball, w/sauce

2,567

Beef, meatloaf, crust off, 45 min

1,676

Beef, raw

636

Beef, roast

5,464

Beef, salami, kosher (Hebrew National, ConAgra Foods, Omaha, NE)

565

Beef, steak, broiled

6,731

Beef, steak, grilled 4 min, George Foreman grill (Salton Inc, Lake Forest, IL)

6,674

Beef, steak, microwaved, 6 min

2,418

Beef, steak, pan fried w/olive oil

9,052

Beef, steak, raw

720

Beef, steak, strips, 450°F, 15 min

6,166

Beef, steak, strips, stir fried with 1 T canola oil, 15 min

8,570

Beef, steak, strips, stir fried without oil, 7 min

6,276

Beef, stewed, shoulder cut

2,007

Beef, stewed

2,391

Beef, stewed, (mean)

2,199

Poultry

AGE
kU/serving

Chicken, back or thigh, roasted then BBQ

7,922

Chicken, boiled in water, 1 h

1,011

Chicken, boiled with lemon

861

Chicken, breast, skinless, roasted with BBQ sauce

4,291

Chicken, breast, skinless, breaded

4,102

Chicken, breast, skinless, breaded, reheated 1 min

5,157

Chicken, breast, boiled in water

1,089

Chicken, breast, breaded, deep fried, 20 min

8,750

Chicken, breast, breaded, oven fried, 25 min, with skin

8,965

Chicken, breast, breaded/pan fried

6,687

Chicken, breast, grilled/George Foreman grill (Salton Inc)

4,364

Chicken, breast, pan fried, 13 min, high

4,444

Chicken, breast, pan fried, 13 min high/microwave 12.5 sec

4,875

Chicken, breast, poached, 7 min, medium heat

991

Chicken, breast, potted (cooked in liquid), 10 min medium heat

2,232

Chicken, breast, roasted, 45 min with skin

5,975

Chicken, breast, skinless, microwave, 5 min

1,372

Chicken, breast, skinless, poached, 15 min

968

Chicken, breast, skinless, raw

692

Chicken, breast, steamed in foil, 15 min, medium heat

952

Chicken, breast, strips, stir fried with canola oil, 7 min

3,726

Chicken, breast, strips, stir fried without oil, 7 min

3,199

Chicken, breast, with skin, 450°F, 45 min

7,420

Chicken, breast, skinless, broiled, 450°F, 15 min

5,245

Chicken, crispy (McDonald’s)

6,950

Chicken, curry, cube skinless breast, panfry10 min, broiled 12 min

5,706

Chicken, curry, cube skinless breast, steam 10 min, broiled 12 min

5,071

Chicken, dark meat, broiled, inside, 450°F, 15 min

7,469

Chicken, fried, in olive oil, 8 min

6,651

Chicken, ground, dark meat with skin, raw

1,101

Chicken, ground, dark w/skin, pan fried, w/canola oil, 2.5 min, high heat

2,701

Chicken, ground, white meat, pan fried, no added fat, 5 min, high heat

1,627

Chicken, ground, white meat, pan fried, with oil

1,482

Chicken, ground, white meat, raw

789

Chicken, kebab, cubed skinless breast, pan fried, 15 min

5,510

Chicken, leg, roasted

4,185

Chicken, loaf, roasted

3,551

Chicken, loaf, roasted, crust off

1,278

Chicken, meat ball, potted (cooked in liquid), 1 h

1,351

Chicken, nuggets, fast food (McDonald’s)

7,764

Chicken, potted (cooked in liquid) with onion and water

2,996

Chicken, roasted

5,418

Chicken, selects (McDonald’s)

8,331

Chicken, skin, back or thigh, roasted then BBQ

16,668

Chicken, skin, leg, roasted

9,897

Chicken, skin, thigh, roasted

10,034

Chicken, thigh, roasted

4,631

Turkey, burger, pan fried with cooking spray, 5 min, high heat

7,171

Turkey, burger, pan fried with cooking spray, 5 min, high heat, microwaved 13.5 sec, high heat

8,044

Turkey, burger, pan fried with 5 mL canola oil, 3.5 min, high heat

7,426

Turkey, ground, grilled, crust

5,716

Turkey, ground, grilled, interior

5,379

Turkey, ground, raw

4,461

Turkey, burger, broiled

4,829

Turkey, breast, roasted

4,202

Turkey, breast, smoked, seared

5,412

Turkey, breast, steak, skinless, marinated w/orange juice, broiled

3,949

Pork

AGE
kU/serving

Bacon, fried 5 min no added oil

11,905

Bacon, microwaved, 2 slices, 3 min

1,173

Ham, deli, smoked

2,114

Liverwurst (Boar’s Head)

570

Pork, chop, marinated w/balsamic vinegar, BBQ

3,001

Pork, chop, raw, marinated w/balsamic vinegar

1,069

Pork, chop, pan fried, 7 min

4,277

Pork, ribs, roasted, Chinese take out

3,987

Pork, roast, Chinese take out

3,190

Sausage, beef and pork links, pan fried

4,883

Sausage, Italian, raw

1,675

Sausage, Italian, BBQ

4,355

Sausage, pork links, microwaved, 1 min

5,349

Lamb

AGE
kU/serving

Lamb, leg, boiled, 30 min

1,096

Lamb, leg, broiled, 450°F, 30 min

2,188

Lamb, leg, microwave, 5 min

926

Lamb, leg, raw

743

Veal

AGE
kU/serving

Veal, stewed

2,572

Fish/Seafood

AGE
kU/serving

Crabmeat, fried, breaded (take out)

3,028

Fish, loaf (gefilte), boiled 90 min

685

Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, microwaved, 1 min, high heat

859

Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, poached, 7 min, medium heat

1,621

Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, steamed, 10 min, medium heat

1,091

Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, prev. frozen, steamed in foil, 8 min, medium heat

900

Salmon, breaded, broiled 10 min

1,348

Salmon, broiled with olive oil

3,901

Salmon, canned pink (Rubenstein, Trident Seafoods, Seattle, WA)

825

Salmon, fillet, boiled, submerged, 18 min

974

Salmon, fillet, broiled

3,012

Salmon, fillet, microwaved

821

Salmon, fillet, poached

2,063

Salmon, pan fried in olive oil

2,775

Salmon, raw, previously frozen

465

Salmon, raw

475

Salmon, smoked

515

Scrod, broiled 450°F, 30 min

424

Shrimp frozen dinner, microwaved 4.5 min

3,959

Shrimp, fried, breaded (take out)

3,895

Shrimp, marinated raw

903

Shrimp, marinated, grilled on BBQ

1,880

Trout, baked, 25 min

1,924

Trout, raw

705

Tuna, patty, chunk light, broiled, 450°F, 30 min

672

Tuna, broiled, with soy, 10 min

4,602

Tuna, broiled, with vinegar dressing

4,635

Tuna, fresh, baked, 25 min

827

Tuna, loaf (chunk light in recipe), baked 40 min

531

Tuna, canned, chunk light, w/water

407

Tuna, canned, white, albacore, w/oil

1,566

Whiting, breaded, oven fried, 25 min

7,897

Cheese

AGE
kU/serving

Cheese, American, low fat (Kraft)

1,212

Cheese, American, white, processed

2,603

Cheese, brie

1,679

Cheese, cheddar

1,657

Cheese, cheddar, extra sharp, made with 2% milk (Cracker Barrel, Kraft)

737

Cheese, cottage, 1% fat (Light & Lively, Kraft)

436

Cheese, feta, Greek, soft

2,527

Cheese, mozzarella, reduced fat

503

Cheese, parmesan, grated (Kraft)

2,535

Cheese, Swiss, processed

1,341

Cheese, Swiss, reduced fat (Alpine Lace, Alpine Lace Brands, Inc, Maplewood, NJ)

1,423

Soy

AGE
kU/serving

Bacon bits, imitation, Bacos (Betty Crocker, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN)

187

Meatless jerky, Primal Strips (Primal Spirit Inc, Moundsville, WV)

1,258

Soy burger, Boca Burger, 400°F, 8 min-4 each side (BOCA Foods Co, Mandison, WI)

39

Soy burger, Boca Burger, microwaved, 1.5 min (BOCA Foods Co)

20

Soy burger, Boca Burger, skillet, cook spray, 5 minc (BOCA Foods Co)

30

Soy burger, Boca Burger, skillet, w/1 tsp olive oil, 5 min (BOCA Foods Co)

131

Soy burger, Boca Burger (BOCA Foods Co) (mean)

55

Tofu, broiled

3,696

Tofu, raw

709

Tofu, soft, raw

439

Tofu, sautéed, inside

3,212

Tofu, sautéed, outside

5,289

Tofu, sautéed (mean)

4,251

Tofu, soft, boiled 5 min, +2 min to return to boil

565

Tofu, soft, boiled 5 min, +2 min, + soy sauce, sesame oil

716

Eggs

AGE
kU/serving

Egg, fried, one large

1,237

Egg white powder (Deb-El Products, Elizabeth, NJ)

104

Egg white, large, 10 min

13

Egg white, large, 12 min

19

Egg yolk, large, 10 min

179

Egg yolk, large, 12 min

252

Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, cooking spray, 11 min

27

Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, corn oil, 12 min

67

Egg, omelet, pan, low heat, margarine, 8 min

49

Egg, omelet, pan, low, butter, 13 min

152

Egg, omelet, pan, low, olive oil, 12 min

101

Egg, poached, below simmer, 5 min

27

Egg, scrambled, pan, high, butter, 45 sec

101

Egg, scrambled, pan, high, cooking spray, 1 min

35

Egg, scrambled, pan, high, corn oil, 1 min

52

Egg, scrambled, pan, high, margarine, 1 min

37

Egg, scrambled, pan, high, olive oil, 1min

73

Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, butter, 2 min

50

Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, cooking spray, 2 min

20

Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, corn oil, 1.5 min

37

Egg, scrambled pan, med-low, margarine, 2 min

19

Egg, scrambled, pan, med-low, olive oil, 2 min

29

Carbohydrates

AGE
kU/serving

Bread

Bagel, small, Lender’s

40

Bagel, large

32

Bagel, toasted

50

Biscuit (Mc Donald’s)

441

Biscuit, refrigerator, baked-oven, 350°F, 17 min (Pillsbury Grands, General Mills)

403

Biscuit, refrigerator, uncooked (Pillsbury Grands, General Mills)

247

Bread, 100% whole wheat, center, toasted (Wonder, Interstate Bakeries, Inc, Irving, TX)

25

Bread, 100% whole wheat, center (Wonder)

16

Bread, 100% whole wheat, top crust (Wonder)

22

Bread, 100% whole wheat, top crust, toasted (Wonder)

36

Bread, Greek, hard

45

Bread, Greek, hard, toasted

182

Bread, Greek, soft

33

Bread, pita

16

Bread, white, Italian, center (Freihoffer’s, Bimbo Bakeries, Horsham, PA)

7

Bread, white, Italian, center, toasted (Freihoffer’s)

25

Bread, white, Italian, crust (Freihoffer’s)

11

Bread, white, Italian, top crust, toasted (Freihoffer’s)

36

Bread, white, slice (Rockland Bakery, Nanuet, NY)

25

Bread, white, slice, toasted (Rockland Bakery)

32

Bread, whole wheat, slice (Rockland Bakery)

31

Bread, whole wheat, slice, toasted, slice, (Rockland Bakery)

41

Croissant, butter (Starbucks, Seattle, WA)

334

Roll, dinner, inside

7

Roll, dinner, outside

23

Breakfast Cereals

AGE
kU/serving

Bran flakes, from Raisin Bran (Post, Kellogg Co, Battle Creek, MI)

10

Cinnamon Toast Crunch (General Mills)

330

Corn Flakes (Kellogg’s)

70

Corn Flakes, Honey Nut (Kellogg Co)

96

Corn Flakes, Sugar Frosted (Kellogg Co)

128

Corn Pops (Kellogg’s)

373

Cream of Wheat, instant, prepared (Nabisco, East Hanover, NJ)

189

Cream of Wheat, instant, prepared with honey (Nabisco)

331

Fiber One (General Mills)

421

Froot Loops (Kellogg Co)

20

Frosted Mini Wheats (Kellogg Co)

63

Granola, Organic Oats & Honey (Cascadian Farms, Small Planet Foods, Minneapolis, MN)

128

Life, mean (Quaker Oats, Chicago, IL)

394

Puffed Corn Cereal (Arrowhead Mills, The Hain Celestial Group, Inc)

30

Puffed Wheat

5

Rice Krispies (Kellogg Co)

600

Total, Wheat and Brown Rice (General Mills)

70

Oatmeal, instant, dry (Quaker Oats)

4

Oatmeal, instant, prepared (Quaker Oats)

25

Oatmeal, instant, prepared with honey (Quaker Oats)

31

Breakfast Foods

AGE
kU/serving

French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen, microwaved 1 min (Pinnacle Foods)

181

French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen,10 min at 400°F (Pinnacle Foods Corp)

255

French toast, Aunt Jemima, frozen, not heated (Pinnacle Foods Corp, Cherry Hill, NJ)

79

French toast, Aunt Jemima frozen, toaster medium-1 cycle (Pinnacle Foods)

184

Hot Cakes (McDonald’s)

73

Pancake, from mix

247

Pancake, frozen, toasted (General Mills)

679

Pancake, homemade

292

Waffle, frozen, toasted (Kellogg Co)

861

Grains/Legumes

AGE
kU/serving

Beans, red kidney, raw

116

Beans, red kidney, canned

191

Beans, red kidney, cooked 1 h

298

Pasta, cooked 8 min

112

Pasta, cooked 12 min

242

Pasta, spiral

245

Rice, white, quick cooking, 10 min

9

Rice, Uncle Ben’s white, cooked, 35 min (Mars, Inc, Houston, TX)

9

Rice, white, pan toasted 10 min, cooked 30 min

32

Starchy Vegetables

AGE
kU/serving

Corn, canned

20

Potato, sweet, roasted 1 h

72

Potato, white, boiled 25 min

17

Potato, white, roasted 45 min, with 5 mL oil/serving

218

Potato, white, french fries (McDonald’s)

1,522

Potato, white, french fries, homemade

694

Potato, white, french fries, in corn oil, held under heat lamp

843

Potato, white, hash browns (McDonald’s)

129

Crackers/Snacks

AGE
kU/serving

Breadsticks, Stella D’oro hard (Brynwood Partners, Greenwich, CT)

38

Cheez Doodles, crunchy (Wise Foods Inc, Berwick, PA)

965

Chex mix, traditonal (General Mills, Inc)

352

Chips, corn, Doritos (Frito Lay)

151

Chips, corn, Harvest Cheddar Sun Chips (Frito-Lay)

381

Chips, Platanitos, plantain (Plantain Products Co, Tampa, FL)

111

Chips, potato (Frito Lay)

865

Chips, potato, baked original potato crisps (Frito Lay)

135

Combos, nacho cheese pretzel (M & M Mars, McLean, VA)

504

Cracker, chocolate Teddy graham (Nabisco)

494

Cracker, Pepperidge Farms Goldfish, cheddar (Campbell Soup Co, Camden, NJ)

653

Cracker, Keebler honey graham (Kellogg Co)

366

Cracker, Old London melba toast (Nonni’s Food Co, Tulsa, OK)

271

Cracker, oyster

513

Cracker, rice cake, corn (Taanug)

41

Cracker, saltine, hospital (Alliant)

281

Cracker, Keebler sandwich, club+cheddar, (Kellogg Co)

549

Cracker, toasted wheat

275

Cracker, wheat, round

257

Cracker, KA-ME rice crunch, plain (Liberty Richter, Bloomfield, NJ)

275

Popcorn, air popped, with butter

40

Popcorn, Pop Secret microwaved, fat free, no added fat (General Mills)

10

Pretzel, minis (Snyder’s of Hanover, Hanover, NJ)

537

Pretzel, Q rolled

565

Pretzel, stick

480

Pretzel (mean)

527

Veggie Booty (Robert’s American Gourmet, Seacliff, NY)

295

Cookies, Cakes, Pies, Pastries

AGE
kU/serving

Bar, granola, chocolate chunk, soft (Quaker)

152

Bar, Nutrigrain, apple cinnamon (Kellogg’s)

643

Bar, Rice Krispies Treat (Kelloggs)

576

Bar,Granola, peanut butter & choc chunk, hard (Quaker)

953

Cake, angel food, Danish Kitchen (Sam’s Club, Bentonville, AR)

8

Cookie, biscotti, vanilla almond (Starbucks)

966

Cookie, chocolate chip, Chips Ahoy (Nabisco)

505

Cookie, Golden Bowl fortune (Wonton Food, Inc, Brooklyn, NY)

27

Cookie, Greek wedding, nut cookie

288

Cookie, meringue, homemade

239

Cookie, Keebler oatmeal raisin (Kellogg Co)

411

Cookie, Oreo (Nabisco)

531

Cookie, Nilla vanilla wafer (Nabisco)

148

Croissant, chocolate (Au Bon Pain, Boston, MA)

148

Danish, cheese (Au Bon Pain)

257

Donut, glazed devil’s food cake (Krispy Kreme, Winston-Salem, NC)

422

Donut, chocolate iced, crème filled (Krispy Kreme)

541

Fruit pop, frozen (Dole, Westlake Village, CA)

11

Fruit roll up, sizzlin’ red (General Mills)

294

Gelatin, Dole strawberry (Nestle, Minneapolis, MN)

2

Gelatin, Dole strawberry, sugar free (Nestle)

1

Ice cream cone, cake (Haagen Dazs, Oakland, CA)

44

Ice cream cone, sugar (Haagen Dazs)

46

Muffin, bran (Au Bon Pain)

102

Pie, apple, individual, baked (McDonald’s)

191

Pie, crust, frozen, baked per pkg, mean Mrs. Smith’s Dutch Apple Crumb and Pumpkin Custard (Kellogg Co)

417

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, apple filling (Kellogg Co)

102

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, crumbs (Kellogg Co)

309

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, crust (Kellogg Co)

423

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s Dutch apple crumb, deep dish, pie (Kellogg Co)

268

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, crust (Kellogg Co)

412

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, custard (Kellogg Co)

185

Pie, Mrs. Smith’s pumpkin custard, bake it fresh, original recipe, pie (Kellogg Co)

264

Pop tart, microwave-3 sec high power (Kellogg Co)

73

Pop tart, microwave-6 sec. medium high power (Kellogg’s)

63

Pop tart, not heated (Kellogg Co)

40

Pop tart, toaster-low, 1 cycle (Kellogg Co)

78

Scone, cinnamon (Starbucks)

237

Sorbet, Edy’s strawberry (Dryer’s, Oakland, CA)

3

Sweet roll, cinnamon swirl roll (Starbucks)

272

Fruits

AGE
kU/serving

Apple, baked

45

Apple, Macintosh

13

Banana

9

Cantaloupe

20

Coconut cream, Coco Goya cream of coconut (Goya, Secaucus, NJ)

140

Coconut milk, leche de coco, (Goya)

46

Coconut, Baker’s Angel Flake, sweetened (Kraft)

177

Dates, Sun-Maid California chopped (Sun-Maid, Kingsburg, CA)

18

Fig, dried

799

Plums, Sun-Maid dried pitted prunes (Sun-Maid)

50

Raisin, from Post Raisin Bran (Kellogg Co)

36

Vegetables (raw unless specified otherwise)

AGE
kU/serving

Carrots, canned

10

Celery

43

Cucumber

31

Eggplant, grilled, marinated with balsamic vinegar

256

Eggplant, raw, marinated with balsamic vinegar

116

Green beans, canned

18

Portabella mushroom, raw, marinated with balsamic vinegar

129

Onion

36

Tomato

23

Tomato sauce (Del Monte Foods, San Francisco, CA)

11

Vegetables, grilled (broccoli, carrots, celery)

226

Vegetables, grilled (pepper, mushrooms)

261

Other Carbohydrates

AGE
kU/serving

Sugar, white

0

Sugar substitute, aspartame as Canderel (Merisant, Chicago, IL)

0

Liquids

AGE
kU/serving

Milk and Milk Products

Cocoa packet, Swiss Miss, prepared (ConAgra Foods)

656

Cocoa packet, Swiss Miss sugar-free, prepared (ConAgra Foods)

511

Ice cream, America’s Choice vanilla (The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co, Montvale, NJ)

84

Milk, fat-free (hospital)

2

Milk, Lactaid fat free (McNeil Nutritionals, Fort Washington, PA)

26

Milk, fat free (Tuscan Dairy Farms, Burlington, NJ)

4

Milk, fat free, with A and D

1

Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved,1 min)

5

Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved, 2 min)

19

Milk, fat free, with A and D (microwaved, 3 min)

86

Milk, soy (Imagine Foods, The Hain Celestial Group)

77

Milk, whole (4% fat)

12

Pudding, instant chocolate, fat-free, sugar-free, prepared

1

Pudding, instant chocolate, skim milk

1

Pudding, Hunt Wesson snack pack, chocolate (ConAgra Foods)

20

Pudding, Hunt Wesson snack pack, vanilla (ConAgra Foods)

16

Yogurt, cherry, (Dannon, White Plains, NY)

10

Yogurt, vanilla, (Dannon)

8

Fruit Juice

AGE
kU/serving

Juice, apple

5

Juice, cranberry

8

Juice, orange

14

Juice, orange, from fresh fruit

1

Juice, orange, with calcium

8

Vegetable Juice

AGE
kU/serving

Vegetable juice, V8 (Campbell Soup Co)

5

Other Carbohydrate Liquids

AGE
kU/serving

Fruit pop, frozen (Dole)

11

Honey

1

Sorbet, strawberry (Edy’s)

3

Syrup, caramel, sugar free

0

Syrup, dark corn

0

Syrup, pancake, lite

0

Combination Foods and Solid Condiments

AGE
kU/serving

Combination Foods

Bacon, Egg and Cheese Biscuit (McDonald’s)

2,289

Bacon, Egg and Cheese McGriddles (McDonald’s)

858

Big Mac (McDonald’s)

7,801

Casserole, tuna

233

Cheeseburger (McDonald’s)

3,402

Chicken McGrill (McDonald’s)

5,171

Corned beef hash, canned, microwaved 2 min, high power (Broadcast)

1,691

Corned beef hash, canned, stove top, medium heat, 12 min (Broadcast)

2,175

Corned beef hash, canned, unheated (Broadcast)

1,063

Double Quarter Pounder With Cheese (McDonald’s)

6,283

Filet-O-Fish (McDonald’s)

6,027

Gnocchi, potato/flour/ Parmesan cheese, 3 min

535

Gnocchi, potato/flour/ Parmesan cheese, 4.5 min

2,074

Hot Pocket, bacon, egg, cheese, oven, 350°F, 20 min (Nestle)

1,695

Hot Pocket-bacon, egg, cheese, microwaved 1 min (Nestle)

846

Hot Pocket-bacon, egg, cheese, frozen-not heated (Nestle)

558

Hummus, commercial

733

Hummus, with garlic and scallions

884

Hummus, with vegetables

487

Hummus (mean)

701

Macaroni and cheese

2,728

Macaroni and cheese, baked

4,070

Pasta primavera

959

Pesto, with basil (Buitoni, Nestle)

150

Pickle, bread and butter

3

Pizza, thin crust

6,825

Salad, Italian pasta

935

Salad, lentil potato

123

Salad, tuna pasta

218

Sandwich, cheese melt, open faced

5,679

Sandwich, toasted cheese

4,333

Soufflé, spinac

598

Timbale, broccoli

122

Taramosalata (Greek style caviar spread)

678

Veggie burger, California burger, 400°F, 8 min-4 each side (Amy’s Kitchen, Petaluma, CA)

198

Veggie burger, California burger, skillet, with spray, 5 min (Amy’s)

149

Veggie burger, California burger, skillet, with 1 tsp olive oil, 5 min (Amy’s)

374

Veggie burger, California burger, microwave, 1 min (Amy’s)

68

Won ton, pork, fried (take out)

2,109

Ziti, baked

2,795

Candy

AGE
kU/serving

Ginger, crystallized

49

Candy, Hershey Special Dark Chocolate (The Hershey Co, Hershey, PA)

533

Candy, M & M’s, milk chocolate (Mars)

450

Candy, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup (The Hershey Co)

1,032

Candy, Raisinets (Nestle)

59

Candy, Snickers (Mars)

79

Soups, Liquid Condiments, and Miscellaneous Liquids

AGE
kU/serving

Soups

Soup, beef bouillon

1

Soup, chicken bouillon

3

Soup, College Inn chicken broth, (Del Monte)

2

Soup, chicken noodle, (Campbell Soup Company)

4

Soup, couscous and lentil (Fantastic World Foods, Edison, NJ)

9

Soup, Knorr vegetable broth, (Unilever)

4

Soup, summer vegetable

3

Condiments

AGE
kU/serving

Ketchup

2

Mustard

0

Pectin

12

Soy sauce

9

Vinegar, balsamic

5

Vinegar, white

6

Miscellaneous

AGE
kU/serving

Beverages

SoBe Adrenaline Rush (South Beach Beverage Co, Norwalk, CT)

1

Budwiser Beer (Anheuser-Busch, St Louis, MO)

3

Breast milk, fresh

2

Breast milk, frozen

3

Coca Cola, classic (The Coca-Cola Co, Atlanta, GA)

7

Coffee, with milk and sugar

6

Coffee, drip method

4

Coffee, heating plate >1 h

34

Coffee, Taster’s Choice instant (Nestle)

12

Coffee, instant, decaf (mean Sanka [Kraft] and Taster’s Choice)

13

Coffee, Spanish

12

Coffee, with milk

17

Coffee, with sugar

19

Coke

16

Coke, Diet (The Coca-Cola Company)

3

Coke, Diet 2008 (The Coca-Cola Company)

10

Coke, Diet plus (The Coca-Cola Company)

4

Enfamil, old (Mead Johnson Nutritonal, Glenview, IL)

146

Ensure plus

32

Gelatin, Dole strawberry (Nestle)

2

Gelatin, Dole strawberry, sugar free (Nestle)

1

Glucerna (Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH)

175

Malta (Goya)

3

NOFEAR Super Energy Supplement (Pepsico, Purchase, NY)

1

Pepsi, diet (Pepsico)

7

Pepsi, diet MAX (Pepsico)

8

Pepsi, diet, caffeine free (Pepsico)

6

Pepsi, regular (Pepsico)

6

Resource (Nestle)

180

Rum, Bacardi Superior, 80 proof (Miami, FL)

0

Sprite (The Coca-Cola Company)

4

Sprite, diet (The Coca-Cola Company)

1

Tea, apple (RC Bigelow, Inc, Fairfield, CT)

1

Tea, Lipton Tea bag (Unilever)

5

Tea, Lipton Tea bag, decaf (Unilever)

3

Vodka, Smirnoff, 80 proof (Diageo, London, UK)

0

Whiskey, Dewar’s White Label (Dewar’s, Perthsire, UK)

1

Wine, pinot grigio (Cavit Collection, Port Washington, NY)

82

Wine, pinot noir (Cavit Collection)

28

*Source: J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun; 110(6): 911–16.e12.

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