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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)


A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Urinary tract infection - adults. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Updated Sept. 13th, 2011. Accessed Nov. 14th, 2012.

Allaert F. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract in the prevention of recurrent cystitis in women. Poster presented at the Federative Pelviperineal Diagnostics and Procedures Meeting: Convergences in Pelviperineal Pain. Nantes, France: December 16-18, 2009.

Bailey DT, Dalton C, Joseph Daugherty F, et al. Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(4):237-41.

Bassi PF, Tarricone R, Ciani O, Lazzeri M, Romancik M. Glycosaminoglycan therapy - a new approach to the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. European Urological Review. 2012;7(1):1-5 [epub ahead of print].

Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. Lactobacilli vs. antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2012;172(9):704-712.

Beetz R. Mild dehydration: a risk factor of urinary tract infection? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;57(Sup 2):S52-S58.

Carlsson S, Wiklund NP, Engstrand L, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JON. Effects of pH, nitrite, and ascorbic acid on nonenzymatic nitric oxide generation and bacterial growth in urine. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. 2001;5(6):580-586.

Cernakova M and Kostalova D. Antimicrobial activity of berberine – a constitutent of mahonia aquifolium. Folia Microbioligia. 2002;47(4):375-378.

Ching C. Interstitial cystitis. MD Consult; First Consult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Available at: Accessed 12/17/2012. Low dose estriol with lactobacilli treatment for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Updated May 2009. Accessed 18 Nov. 2012.

Constantinides C, Manousakas T, Nikolopoulos P, Stanitsas A, Haritopoulos K, Giannopoulos A. Prevention of recurrent bacterial cystitis by intravesical administration of hyaluronic acid: a pilot study. BJU International. 2004;22:1262-1266.

Damiano R and Cicione A. The role of sodium hyaluronate and sodium chondroitin sulphate in the management of bladder disease. Therapeutic Advances in Urology. 2011;3(5):223-232.

Darouiche RO and Hull RA. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012;1-8.

Denman SJ and Burton JR. Fluid intake and urinary tract infection in the elderly. JAMA. 1992;267(16):2245-2246.

Devita DD, Antell H, Giordano S. Effectiveness of intravesical hyaluronic acid with or without chondroitin sulfate for recurrent bacterial cystitis in adult women: a meta-analysis. International Urognyecology Journal. 2012;Epub ahead of print.

Dhakal BK, Kulsesus RR, Mulvey MA. Mechanisms and consequences of bladder cell invasion by uropathogenic Escehrichia coli. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2008;38(S2):2-11.

Domadia PN, Bhunia A, Sivaraman J, Swarup S, Dasgupta D. Berberine targets assembly of escherichia coli cell division protein FtsZ. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3225-3234.

Eriksen BC. A randomized, open, parallel-group study on the preventive effect of an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring (estrong) on recurrent urianry tract infections in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1999;180:1072-1079.

Ermel W, Georgeault S, Inisan C, Besnard M. Inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichica coli bacteria to uroepithelial cells by extracts from cranberry. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2012;15(2):126-134.

Ferri F. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). In: Ferri: Practical Guide to the Care of the Medical Patient, 8th ed. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. MD Consult website. Available at: Accessed December 12, 2012.

Fihn SD. Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;349(3):259-266.

Fisher JF, Kavanagh K, Sobel JD, et al. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52 (suppl 6): S437-S451.

Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Dis Mon. 2003;42(2):53-70.

Guiton PS, Cusumano CK, Kline KA, et al. Combinatorial small-molecule therapy prevents uropathogenic Escherichia coli catheter-associated urinary tract infections in mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2012;56(9):4738-4745.

Gupta K and Trauter B. Urinary tract infection. Annals of Internal Medicine. March 2012:ITC3-1-16.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Miller L. Managing uncomplicated urinary tract infection---making sense out of resistance data. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011a;53(10):1041-1042.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011b;52(5):e103-e120.

Hata K Tanahashi S, Wakida Y, Tatsuzaki M, Koide A. Effect of Pumpkin seed extract on urinary bladder function in anesthetized rats. Jpn J Med Pharm Sci. 2005;54(3):339-45.

Head, KA. Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008;13(3):227-244.

Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008 Sep;46(9):622–6.

Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, et al. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2010;50:625-663.

Hooton TM, Scholes D, Hughes JP, et al. A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1996;335(7):468-474.

Hooton TM. Clinical practice. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. The New England journal of medicine. Mar 15 2012;366(11):1028-1037.

Hu KK, Boyko EJ, Scholes D, et al. Risk factors for urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164:989-993.

Hudson T. Treatment and prevention of bladder infections. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2006;297:302.

Jepson RG and Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in uti prevention. Molecular Nutritional Food Research. 2007;51:738-745.

Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD001321.

Jiang X, Abgottspon D, Kleeb S, et al. Antiadhesion therapy for urinary tract infections---a balanced pk/pd profile proved to be key for success. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2012;55:4700-4713.

Jorgensen I and Seed PC. How to make it in the urinary tract: a tutorial by Escherichia coli. PLOS Pathogens. 2012;8(10):1-4.

Kahlmeter G. An international survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infections: the ECOSENS project. Journal of antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2003;51:69-76.

Khandelwal P. et al. Cell biology and physiology of the uroepithelium. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 December; 297(6): F1477–F1501.

Klein T, Abgottspon D, Wittwer M. et al. FimH antagonists for the oral treatment of urinary tract infections: from design and synthesis to in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2010;53:8627-8641.

Klemm P, Hancock V, Schembri MA. Fimbrial adhesins from extraintestinal Escherichia Coli. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 2010;2(5):628-640.

Krause M, Wheeler TL, Snyder TE, Richter HE. Local effects of vaginally administered estrogen therapy: a review. Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery. 2009;15(3):105-114.

Kwok L, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE, Hillier SL, Wobbe CL, Gupta K. Adherence of Lactobacillus crispatus to vaginal epithelial cells from women with or without a history of recurrent urinary tract infection. The Journal of Urology. 2006;176:2050-2054.

Kysenius K, Brunello CA, Huttunen HJ. Mitochondria and NMDA receptor-dependent toxicity of berberine sensitizes neurons to glutamate and rotenone injury. PloS one. 2014;9(9):e107129.

Maganha EG, Halmenschlager RC, Rosa RM, Henriques JAP, Ramos ALL, Saffi J. Pharmacological evidences for the extracts and secondary metabolites from plants of the genus Hibiscus. Food Chemistry. 2010;118:1-10.

Mayo Clinic. Kidney infection. Definition. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Available at: Last updated Aug. 9, 2011. Accessed December 14, 2012.

Mayo Clinic. Urinary Tract Infection. Definition. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Last Updated 29 Aug. 2012a. Accessed 14 Nov. 2012.

Mayo Clinic. Urinary Tract Infection. Symptoms. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Available at: Last updated Aug. 2012b. Accessed December 13, 2012.

McKinnell JA, Stollenwerk NS, Jung CW, Miller LG. Nitrofurantoin compares favoriably to recommended agents as empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in a decision and cost analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2011;86(6):480-488.

McMurdo MET, Argo I, Phillips G, Daly F, Davey P. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? a randomized controlled trial in older women. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009;63:389-395.

McMurdo MET, Bissett LY, Price RJG, Phillips G, Crombie IK. does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Age and Ageing. 2005;34:256-261.

MedlinePlus. Urinary catheters. Available at: Last updated Sep. 26, 2011b. Accessed December 14, 2012.

MedlinePlus. Urinary tract infection – adults. Available at: Last updated Sep. 13, 2011a. Accessed December 13, 2012.

Mikes V, Dadak V. Berberine derivatives as cationic fluorescent probes for the investigation of the energized state of mitochondria. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1983;723(2):231-239.

Mikes V, Yaguzhinskij LS. Interaction of fluorescent berberine alkyl derivatives with respiratory chain of rat liver mitochondria. Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes. 1985;17(1):23-32.

Miller LA, Gardner A. Interstitial cystitis: A current guide to diagnosis and treatment. JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Jun 2012;25(6):28-32: quiz 55.

Mounnissamy VM, Kavimani S, Gunasegaran R. Antibacterial activity of gossypetin isolated from hibiscus sabdariffa. The Antiseptic. 2002 Mar; 99(3): 81-2.

Moutzouris DA, Falagas ME. Interstitial cystitis: an unsolved enigma. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. Nov 2009;4(11):1844-1857.

Mulvey MA, Scholling JD, Hultgren SJ. Establishment of a persistent Escherichica coli reservoir during the acute phase of a bladder infection. Infection and Immunity. 2001;69(7):4572-4579.

Mulvey MA. Adhesion and entry of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Cellular Microbiology. 2002;4(5):257-271.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Chearinghouse (NKUDIC). Pyelonephritis: Kidney Infection. Available at: Last updated June 11, 2012b. Accessed December 14, 2012.

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. Updated May 24, 2012a. Assessed Nov. 14 2012.

Nicolle LE. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2008;35:1-12.

Ochoa-Brust GJ, Fernandez AR, Villanueva-Ruiz GJ, Velasco R, Trujillo-Hernandez B, Vasquez C. Daily intake of 100 mg ascorbic acid as urinary tract infection prophylactic agent during pregnancy. Acta Obsetetrica et Gynecologica. 2007;86:783-787.

Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafrir D, Lis H, Adar R, Sharon N. Anti-Escherichia Coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1991;324(22):1599.

Ohlsen K, Oelschlaeger TA, Hacker J, Khan S. Carbohydrate receptors of bacterial adhesins: implications and reflections. Topics in Current Chemistry. 2009;288:109-120.Ramakrishnan K and Scheid DC. Diagnosis and management of acute pyelonephritis in adults. American Family Physician. 2005;71(5):933-942.

Parsons CL, Koprowski PF. Interstitial cystitis: successful management by increasing urinary voiding intervals. Urology. Mar 1991;37(3):207-212.

Quillin RB, Erickson DR. Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a urology perspective. The Urologic clinics of North America. Aug 2012;39(3):389-396.

Raz R and Stamm WE. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. New England Journal of Medicine. 1993;329:753-756.

Raz R. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Korean Journal of Urology. 2011;52:801-808.

Reid G, Bruce AW. Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence. World journal of urology. Feb 2006;24(1):28-32.

Reid G, van der Mei HC, Tieszer C, Busscher HJ. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhere to urinary catheters without using fimbriae. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 1996;16:159-162.

Roberts JA. Bacterial adherence and urinary tract infection. Southern Medical Journal. 1987;80(3):347-351.

Ronald A. The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. The American Journal of Medicine. 2002;113(1A):14S-19S.

Rudaitis S, Pundziene B, Jievaltas M, Uktveris R, Kevelaitis E. Recurrent urinary tract infection in girls: do urodynamic, behavioral and functional abnormalities play a role? Journal of Nephrology. 2009;22(6):766-773.

Sanchez GV, Master RN, Karlowsky JA, Bordon JM. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of urinary Escherichia coli isolates among U.S. outpatients from 2000 to 2010. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2012:2181-2183.

Schaeffer AJ and Schaeffer EM. Infections of the Urinary Tract. In: Wein: Campbell-Walsh Urology, 10th ed. Copyright © 2011. MD Consult website. Available at: Accessed December 14, 2012.

Schaeffer AJ, Amundsen SK, Jones JM. Effects of carbohydrates on adherence of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity. 1980;30(2):531-536.

Schaeffer AJ, Rajan N, Cao Q, et al. Host pathogenesis in urinary tract infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;17(4):245-51.

Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE. Risk factors associated with acute pyelonephritis in healthy women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005;142:20-27.

Schollum JB, Walker RJ. Adult urinary tract infection. British journal of hospital medicine. Apr 2012;73(4):218-223.

Schoolnik GK. How Escherichia coli infects the urinary tract. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1989;320(12):804-805.

Sogabe H, Terado T. Open clinical study of effects of pumpkin seed extract/soybean germ extract mixture containing processed foods on nocturia. Jpn J Med Pharm Sci. 2001;46(5):727-37.

Stapleton A and Stamm WE. Prevention of urinary tract infection. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 1997;11(3):719-733.

Stapleton AE, Au-Yeung M, Hooton TM, et al. randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. CID. 2011;52:1212-1217.

Stauffer CM, van der Weg B, Donadini R, Ramelli GP, Marchand S, Bianchetti MG. Family history and behavioral abnormalities in girls with recurrent urinary tract infections: a controlled study. The Journal of Urology. 2004;171:1663-1665.

Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2002;9(3):1558-1562.

Sun D, Abraham SN, Beachey EH. Influence of berberine sulfate on synthesis and expression of pap fimbrial adhesin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1988;32(8):1274-1278.

Teichman JM. The role of pentosan polysulfate in treatment approaches for interstitial cystitis. Reviews in urology. 2002;4 Suppl 1:S21-27.

Terado T et al. Clinical study of mixed processed food containing pumpkin seed extract and soybean germ extract on pollakiuria in night in elderly men. Jpn J Med Pharm Sci. 2004;52(4):551-61.

University Health Service. Urinary Tract Infections in Women. Updated 2012. Assessed Nov. 15 2012.

University of Maryland Medical Center. Urinary Tract Infection. Updated 2011. Assessed Nov. 15 2012.

Vij M, Srikrishna S, Cardozo L. Interstitial cystitis: diagnosis and management. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. Mar 2012;161(1):1-7.

Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Sharon N, Ofek I. Inhibitory effect of a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry on adhesion of oral bacteria. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2002;42:285-292.Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;733:437S-443S.

Wildenfels P, Opal S, and Hessen MT. Urinary tract infection. MD Consult Website. Available at: Last updated February 19, 2010. Accessed December 12, 2012.

Wilson ML and Gaido L. Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections in adult patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004;38:1150-1158.

Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka C, Chung JH. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriruia in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Journal of Urology. 2008;180(4):1367-1372. Urinary Tract Infection Fact Sheet. Updated May 1, 2008. Assessed Nov. 14 2012.