Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Jul 2010

Parkinson’s Disease

Scientifically reviewed by: Dr. Gary Gonzalez, MD, on January 2021.

Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin.

BACKGROUND: UV radiation induces damage to human skin. Protection of skin by an oral photoprotective agent would have substantial benefits. Objective We investigated the photoprotective effect of oral administration of an extract of the natural antioxidant Polypodium leucotomos (PL). METHODS: A total of 9 healthy participants of skin types II to III were exposed to varying doses of artificial UV radiation without and after oral administration of PL (7.5 mg/kg). At 24 hours after exposure the erythema reaction was assessed and paired biopsy specimens were obtained from PL-treated and untreated skin. RESULTS: A significant decrease in erythema was found in PL-treated skin (P < .01). Histologically, PL-treated biopsy specimens showed less sunburn cells (P < .05), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (P < .001), proliferating epidermal cells (P < .001), and dermal mast cell infiltration (P < .05). A trend toward Langerhans cell preservation was seen. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of PL is an effective systemic chemophotoprotective agent leading to significant protection of skin against UV radiation.

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Dec;51(6):910-8

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin.

Sunburn, immune suppression, photoaging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photoprotection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sunscreening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo inmunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photoprotective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photoprotective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photoprotective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P < 0.01), MED (P < 0.001) and MPD (P < 0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.8 +/- 0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photoprotection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photoprotective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photoprotection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such phototherapies.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1997 Feb-Apr;13(1-2):50-60

Mechanistic insights in the use of a Polypodium leucotomos extract as an oral and topical photoprotective agent.

Photoprotection is essential to prevent the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, including skin cancer, photoaging and immunosuppression. Photoprotective agents can be classified according to their main mechanism of action. Some of them absorb or deflect UV photons (sunscreens), whereas others prevent or fix the deleterious effects of UV exposure. Here, we review recent evidence on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effect of a Polypodium leucotomos fern extract (PL). PL is a natural mixture of phytochemicals endowed with powerful antioxidant properties. Its short-term effects include inhibition of reactive oxygen species production induced by UV radiation, DNA damage, isomerization and decomposition of trans-urocanic acid, prevention of UV-mediated apoptosis and necrosis, as well as degradative matrix remodeling, which is the main cause of photoaging. These short-term effects translate into long-term prevention of photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. A striking property is that PL can exert its effect when administered orally. Together, these effects postulate PL as a natural photoprotective agent and a potential adjuvant to phototherapy for various skin diseases.

Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Apr;9(4):559-63

Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States, 2006.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the US population in 2006 and secondarily to indicate trends in numbers of procedures for skin cancer treatment. DESIGN: A descriptive analysis of population-based claims and US Census Bureau data combined with a population-based cross-sectional survey using multiple US government data sets, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Fee-for-Service Physicians Claims databases, to calculate totals of skin cancer procedures performed for Medicare beneficiaries in 1992 and from 1996 to 2006 and related parameters. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Service database was used to estimate NMSC-related office visits. We combined these to estimate totals of new skin cancer diagnoses and affected individuals in the overall US population. RESULTS: The total number of procedures for skin cancer in the Medicare fee-for-service population increased by 76.9% from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. The age-adjusted procedure rate per year per 100 000 beneficiaries increased from 3,514 in 1992 to 6,075 in 2006. From 2002 to 2006 (the years for which the databases allow procedure linkage to patient demographics and diagnoses), the number of procedures for NMSC in the Medicare population increased by 16.0%. In this period, the number of procedures per affected patient increased by 1.5%, and the number of persons with at least 1 procedure increased by 14.3%. We estimate the total number of NMSCs in the US population in 2006 at 3,507,693 and the total number of persons in the United States treated for NMSC at 2,152,500. CONCLUSIONS: The number of skin cancers in Medicare beneficiaries increased dramatically over the years 1992 to 2006, due mainly to an increase in the number of affected individuals. Using nationally representative databases, we provide evidence of much higher overall totals of skin cancer diagnoses and patients in the US population than previous estimates. These data give the most complete evaluation to date of the underrecognized epidemic of skin cancer in the United States.

Arch Dermatol. 2010 Mar;146(3):283-7

Photoprotective activity of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in 25 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses.

BACKGROUND: The incidences of idiopathic photodermatoses (IP) are increasing and the available therapeutic methods are often inadequate. AIM: To evaluate whether, in subjects affected by IP not responding to the usual available therapies, the oral administration of an extract of Polypodium leucotomos (PL) could provide an effective photoprotective activity. METHODS: 26 patients with polymorphic light eruption and two with solar urticaria were recruited to enter the study. The protocol excluded the use of ultraviolet protection filters or other drugs that could in some way interfere with exposure to light. All patients exposed themselves to sunlight while consuming 480 mg/day of PL orally. The response of the skin to sunlight exposure of 25 evaluable patients was compared with that occurring previously without administration of PL. RESULTS: With PL, we observed a relevant and statistically significant reduction of skin reaction and subjective symptoms. The tolerance of the drug has been excellent. CONCLUSION: PL extract administration has shown to be an effective and safe method, leading to a significant protection of skin in IP.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Feb;23(1):46-7

Beneficial regulation of matrixmetalloproteinases and their inhibitors, fibrillar collagens and transforming growth factor-beta by Polypodium leucotomos, directly or in dermal fibroblasts, ultraviolet radiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) that gives tissue its structural integrity is remodeled in skin aging/photoaging and cancer via the increased expression/activities of matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP), inhibition of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), or inhibition of collagen synthesis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a predominant regulator of the ECM, is inhibited in aging/photoaging and stimulated in carcinogenesis. P. leucotomos (fern) extract has potential to counteract these alterations via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. The goal of this research was to determine the efficacy of P. leucotomos to (a) directly inhibit MMP-1, 2, 3, and 9 activities, (b) inhibit MMP-2, and stimulate TIMPs, fibrillar collagens and TGF-beta in non-irradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts, and (c) inhibit MMPs and TGF-beta, and stimulate TIMPs in melanoma cells. To this purpose, we examined the direct effect of P. leucotomos (0-1%) on MMPs’ activities, and its effects on the expression (protein and/or transcription levels) of (1) MMPs and TIMPs in dermal fibroblasts, and melanoma cells, (2) TGF-beta in non-irradiated, UVA (2.5 J/cm2) or UVB (2.5 mJ/cm2) irradiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells, and (3) types I, III, and V collagen in non-irradiated or UV irradiated fibroblasts. P. leucotomos directly inhibited the activities of MMPs as well as the expression of MMPs in fibroblasts, and melanoma cells while stimulating the expression of TIMPs in these cells. P. leucotomos stimulated types I, III, and V collagen in non-irradiated fibroblasts, and types I and V collagen in UV radiated fibroblasts. P. leucotomos had predominant stimulatory effects on TGF-beta expression in non-irradiated or UV radiated fibroblasts, and inhibited TGF-beta expression in melanoma cells. The effects of P. leucotomos were largely similar to that of ascorbic acid. P. leucotomos demonstrated dual protective effects on the ECM via its inhibition of the ECM proteolytic enzymes and the stimulation of the structural ECM collagens. The effects of P. leucotomos on fibroblasts and melanoma cells may be partly via its cell-specific regulation of TGF-beta expression and partly via its antioxidant property. The intake or topical application of P. leucotomos may be beneficial to skin health, in aging and cancer prevention or treatment.

Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Aug;301(7):487-95

Carotenoids and flavonoids contribute to nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight.

The concept of photoprotection by dietary means is gaining momentum. Plant constituents such as carotenoids and flavonoids are involved in protection against excess light in plants and contribute to the prevention of UV damage in humans. As micronutrients, they are ingested with the diet and are distributed into light-exposed tissues, such as skin or the eye where they provide systemic photoprotection. beta-Carotene and lycopene prevent UV-induced erythema formation. Likewise, dietary flavanols exhibit photoprotection. After about 10-12 weeks of dietary intervention, a decrease in the sensitivity toward UV-induced erythema was observed in volunteers. Dietary micronutrients may contribute to life-long protection against harmful UV radiation.

Mol Biotechnol. 2007 Sep;37(1):26-30

Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight.

The concept of systemic photoprotection by dietary means is gaining momentum. Skin is continuously exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the major cause of skin disorders such as sunburn, photodamage, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most of the erythemal annual UV dose is encountered under nonvacation conditions, when no sunscreen is applied. In the absence of topically added compounds, skin protection depends solely on endogenous defense. Micronutrients can act as UV absorbers, as antioxidants, or can modulate signaling pathways elicited upon UV exposure. UV-induced erythema is a suitable parameter to assess photoprotection. Dietary protection is provided by carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbate, flavonoids, or n-3 fatty acids, contributing to maintenance resistance as part of lifelong protection.

Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:173-200

Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins.

Endogenous antioxidants are decreased in skin and blood during UV exposure. Combined supplementation of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in addition to topical sunscreens may help to lower the risk of sunburning. Acute UV erythema with sunburn reaction are the most important factors in conjunction with the cumulative life-long UV dose for inducing skin damage resulting in photoageing and precancerous and cancerous lesions. Therefore, a clinical, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy young female volunteers (skin type II) investigating the preventive, photoprotective effect of supplementation with Seresis, an antioxidative combination containing both lipid and water-soluble compounds: carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene), vitamins C and E, selenium and proanthocyanidins. In this study, the oral administration of Seresis appeared to be well tolerated. The preparation contains antioxidant compounds in quantities occurring at physiological levels and can therefore be used safely over a long period of time. Despite the fact that the assessment of the light sensitivity (minimal erythemal dose, chromametry) of the skin did not show any statistically significant differences between the Seresis and the placebo group, a clear statistical trend, however, could be demonstrated, i.e. Seresis was able to slow down the time of the development and grade of UVB-induced erythema. The primary efficacy parameter matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP-1) between treatment and placebo group following UV irradiation showed a significant difference (p < 0.05), which occurred due to the fact that after a 2-week UV irradiation, MMP-1 slightly increased (p < 0.03) in the placebo group and decreased (p < 0.044) in the treated group. The MMP-9 changes showed a clear tendency of decrease in the Seresis group (p < 1.393) and increase (p < 0.048) in the placebo group. These data emphasise that supplementation with Seresis decreases the UV-induced expression of MMP-1 and 9, which might be important in photoprotective processes. From our data, we thus finally draw the conclusion that by the combination of antioxidants, such as in the formulation of Seresis, a selective protection of the skin against irradiation can be achieved. This might be important for future recommendations for immediate suppression of the early phase of UV-induced erythema, that means pharmacological prevention of sunburn reaction as well as subsequent chronic skin damage.

Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002


Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans.

BACKGROUND: Carotenoids and tocopherols, known to be efficient antioxidants and capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species generated during photooxidative stress, may protect the skin from ultraviolet light-induced erythema. beta-Carotene is widely used as an oral sun protectant but studies on its protective effects are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of oral supplementation with carotenoids and a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E against the development of erythema in humans. DESIGN: A carotenoid supplement (25 mg total carotenoids/d) and a combination of the carotenoid supplement and vitamin E [335 mg (500 IU) RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d] were given for 12 wk to healthy volunteers. Erythema was induced by illumination with a blue-light solar simulator. Serum beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations and skin carotenoid levels were assessed by HPLC and reflection photometry. RESULTS: Serum beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased with supplementation. Erythema on dorsal skin (back) was significantly diminished (P < 0.01) after week 8, and erythema suppression was greater with the combination of carotenoids and vitamin E than with carotenoids alone. CONCLUSION: The antioxidants used in this study provided protection against erythema in humans and may be useful for diminishing sensitivity to ultraviolet light.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):795-8

Basic aspects of psychodermatology.

Psychodermatological or psychocutaneous disorders are conditions resulting from the interaction between the mind and the skin. There are three major groups of psychodermatological disorders; psychophysiologic disorders, psychiatric disorders with dermatologic symptoms, and dermatologic disorders with psychiatric symptoms. Along with the standard dermatological treatment, majority of these disorders can be treated with cognitive-bihevioral psychotherapy, psychoterapeutic stress-and-anxiety-management technicques and psychotropic drugs. Therefore, understanding of biopsychosocial approaches and liaison approach involving general practice, psychiatrist, dermatologist and psychologist treatment in this field is essential.

Psychiatr Danub. 2008 Sep;20(3):415-8

An extract of Polypodium leucotomos appears to minimize certain photoaging changes in a hairless albino mouse animal model. A pilot study.

Chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure of human or murine skin is known to induce cutaneous photoaging and enhanced carcinogenic risk. An extract of Polypodium leucotomos (PL), a tropical fern plant, has been known to exhibit interesting antioxidant and photoprotective properties against acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this preliminary (or pilot) study was to determine the photoprotective role of topically applied Polypodium leucotomos extract in the prevention or amelioration of cutaneous changes of photoaging in hairless mice. PL-treated mice showed significant reduction of skinfold thickness than those observed in PL-untreated controls. Additionally, PL-treated mice showed a significantly lower degree of histologic parameters of photoaging damage, including dermal elastosis, compared with positive control mice. Interestingly, PL treatment also showed reduction in the number of mice showing skin tumors at 8 weeks after the cessation of the UVB exposure protocol. The results of this preliminary study illustrate that PL treatment helped to ameliorate and to partially inhibit some of the histologic damage associated with photoaging of skin and appeared to contribute to a decrease in the prevalence of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1999 Jun-Aug;15(3-4):120-6

Predominant effects of Polypodium leucotomos on membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, and expression of elastin and matrixmetalloproteinase-1 in ultraviolet radiation exposed fibroblasts, and keratinocytes.

BACKGROUND: Polypodium leucotomos has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can lead to deposition of excessive elastotic material, reduction in collagen, and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). OBJECTIVE: The goal of this research was to determine the effects of P. leucotomos in the absence or presence of UVA or UVB radiation on membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, and expression of elastin and MMP-1 in fibroblasts and keratinocytes, respectively. METHODS: Fibroblasts and keratinocytes, respectively, were irradiated by a single exposure to UVA (0.6, 1.8 or 3.6 J) or UVB radiation (0.75, 2.5 or 7.5 mJ), and then incubated with, or without, P. leucotomos (0.01, 0.1 and 1%) and examined for membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, expression of elastin (protein levels) and MMP-1 (protein levels or MMP-1 promoter activity). RESULTS: UV radiation did not significantly alter membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation or MMP-1 expression, but increased elastin expression. P. leucotomos significantly improved membrane integrity, inhibited lipid peroxidation, increased elastin expression, and inhibited MMP-1 expression in both fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. The effects of P. leucotomos predominated in the presence of UVA or UVB in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes, respectively, with the exception of inhibition of MMP-1 protein levels in fibroblasts only in combination with UV radiation. CONCLUSION: Lower concentration of P. leucotomos (lower than 0.1%), may be beneficial in preventing photoaging by improving membrane integrity and inhibiting MMP-1, without increasing elastin expression. Higher concentration (greater than 0.1%) of P. leucotomos may reverse the loss of normal elastic fibers associated with intrinsic aging.

J Dermatol Sci. 2003 Jun;32(1):1-9

Multiple primary melanoma: two-year results from a population-based study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of occurrence and risk factors for multiple primary melanoma. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. SETTING: New Hampshire. PARTICIPANTS: Three-hundred fifty-four New Hampshire residents with a confirmed first diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis of a subsequent primary cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: An additional melanoma occurred in 27 individuals (8%) within 2 years of their initial diagnosis, including 20 (6%) within the first postdiagnosis year. In 9 (33%) of these 27 cases, at least 1 subsequent melanoma was deeper than the first tumor. The 27 individuals with a subsequent melanoma diagnosis were classified as “cases” and were compared on the basis of risk factors to the 327 “controls” with a single melanoma diagnosis. The data indicate an inverse relation of risk of multiple primary melanomas with multiple blistering sunburns (P = .01 for the trend); the odds ratio (OR) was 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.93) for 2 or more sunburns compared with none. The number of atypical moles was significantly related to increased risk (P = .004 for the trend). The presence of 3 or more atypical moles compared with none was associated with more than a 4-fold risk of multiple primary melanomas (OR, 4.29; 95% CI, 1.51-12.16). CONCLUSIONS: Additional melanomas occur more frequently than previously shown. Our study confirms that atypical moles are strongly associated with risk of multiple primary melanomas but provides little evidence that risk is influenced by pigmentary characteristics, hours of sun exposure, or benign moles. The inverse association with blistering sunburn may reflect the influence of an unmeasured covariate.

Arch Dermatol. 2006 Apr;142(4):433-8

Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality.

AIMS: We hypothesized that subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI), but high body fat (BF) content [normal weight obesity (NWO)], have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation and are at higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 6,171 subjects >20 years of age from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES III mortality study, whose BMI was within the normal range (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), and who underwent a complete evaluation that included body composition assessment, blood measurements, and assessment of CV risk factors. Survival information was available for >99% of the subjects after a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We divided our sample using sex-specific tertiles of BF%. The highest tertile of BF (>23.1% in men and >33.3% in women) was labelled as NWO. When compared with the low BF group, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with NWO was four-fold higher (16.6 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.0001). Subjects with NWO also had higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension (men), and CV disease (women). After adjustment, women with NWO showed a significant 2.2-fold increased risk for CV mortality (HR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.03-4.67) in comparison to the low BF group. CONCLUSION: Normal weight obesity, defined as the combination of normal BMI and high BF content, is associated with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation, metabolic syndrome, and CV risk factors. In women, NWO is independently associated with increased risk for CV mortality.

Eur Heart J. 2010 Mar;31(6):737-46

Obesity, high energy intake, lack of physical activity, and the risk of kidney cancer.

The authors conducted a population-based case-control study of 810 cases with histologically confirmed incident kidney cancer and 3,106 controls to assess the effect of obesity, energy intake, and recreational physical activity on renal cell and non-renal cell cancer risk in Canada from 1994 to 1997. Compared with normal body mass index (BMI; 18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2), obesity (BMI, >or=30.0 kg/m2) was associated with multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 2.57 (2.02-3.28) for renal cell cancer and 2.79 (1.70-4.60) for non-renal cell cancer. The OR (95% CI) associated with the highest quartiles of calorie intake was 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for renal cell cancer and 1.53 (0.92-2.53) for non-renal cell cancer. Compared with the lowest quartile of total recreational physical activity, the highest quartile of total activity was associated with an OR (95% CI) of 1.00 (0.78-1.28) and 0.79 (0.46-1.36) for the two subtypes. There were no apparent differences between men and women about these associations. The influence of obesity and physical activity on the risk of renal cell and non-renal cell cancer did not change by age, whereas the effect of excess energy intake was stronger among older people. No significant effect modifications of physical activity on BMI among both genders and of energy intake on BMI among men were observed, with a synergic effect of obesity and high energy intake on renal cell cancer risk found among women. This study suggests that obesity and excess energy intake are important etiologic risk factors for renal cell and non-renal cell cancer. The role of physical activity needs further investigation.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Dec;15(12):2453-60

Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life.

BACKGROUND: Although an increasing body of evidence links being overweight in midlife with an increased risk for dementia in late life, no studies have examined the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life. Our aim was to examine the association between being overweight in midlife as measured by body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability assessed over time. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study Aging were derived from a population-based sample. The participants completed baseline surveys in 1963 or 1973 (mean age 41.6 years, range 25-63 years). The surveys included questions about height, weight, diseases, and lifestyle factors. Beginning in 1986, the same individuals were assessed on neuropsychological tests every 3 years (except in 1995) until 2002. During the study period, 781 individuals who were 50 years and older (60% women) had at least one complete neuropsychological assessment. A composite score of general cognitive ability was derived from the cognitive test battery for each measurement occasion. RESULTS: Latent growth curve models adjusted for twinness showed that persons with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower general cognitive ability and significantly steeper longitudinal decline than their thinner counterparts. The association did not change substantially when persons who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher midlife BMI scores precede lower general cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in both men and women. The association does not seem to be mediated by an increased risk for dementia.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Jan;65(1):57-62

Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys.

Caloric restriction (CR), without malnutrition, delays aging and extends life span in diverse species; however, its effect on resistance to illness and mortality in primates has not been clearly established. We report findings of a 20-year longitudinal adult-onset CR study in rhesus monkeys aimed at filling this critical gap in aging research. In a population of rhesus macaques maintained at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, moderate CR lowered the incidence of aging-related deaths. At the time point reported, 50% of control fed animals survived as compared with 80% of the CR animals. Furthermore, CR delayed the onset of age-associated pathologies. Specifically, CR reduced the incidence of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and brain atrophy. These data demonstrate that CR slows aging in a primate species.

Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):201-4

Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals.

Calorie restriction (CR) delays the development of age-associated disease and increases lifespan in rodents, but the effects in humans remain uncertain. PURPOSE: Determine the effect of 6 months of CR with or without exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and estimated 10-year CVD risk in healthy non-obese men and women. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals were randomized to one of three groups for 6 months: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX, 12.5% CR+12.5% increase in energy expenditure via aerobic exercise. CVD risk factors were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: After 6 months, CR and CR+EX lost approximately 10% of body weight. CR significantly reduced triacylglycerol (-31+/-15mg/dL) and factor VIIc (-10.7+/-2.3%). Similarly CR+EX reduced triacylglycerol (-22+/-8mg/dL) and additionally reduced LDL-C (-16.0+/-5.1mg/dL) and DBP (-4.0+/-2.1mmHg). In contrast, both triacylglycerol (24+/-14mg/dL) and factor VIIc (7.9+/-2.3%) were increased in the Control group. HDL-cholesterol was increased in all groups while hsCRP was lower in the Controls versus CR+EX. Estimated 10-year CVD risk significantly declined from baseline by 29% in CR (P<0.001) and 38% in the CR+EX (P<0.001) while remaining unchanged in the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on combined favorable changes in lipid and blood pressure, caloric restriction with or without exercise that induces weight loss favorably reduces risk for CVD even in already healthy non-obese individuals.

Atherosclerosis. 2009 Mar;203(1):206-13

Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans.

Animal studies suggest that diets low in calories and rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are beneficial for cognitive function in age. Here, we tested in a prospective interventional design whether the same effects can be induced in humans. Fifty healthy, normal- to overweight elderly subjects (29 females, mean age 60.5 years, mean body mass index 28 kg/m(2)) were stratified into 3 groups: (i) caloric restriction (30% reduction), (ii) relative increased intake of UFAs (20% increase, unchanged total fat), and (iii) control. Before and after 3 months of intervention, memory performance was assessed under standardized conditions. We found a significant increase in verbal memory scores after caloric restriction (mean increase 20%; P < 0.001), which was correlated with decreases in fasting plasma levels of insulin and high sensitive C-reactive protein, most pronounced in subjects with best adherence to the diet (all r values < -0.8; all P values <0.05). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor remained unchanged. No significant memory changes were observed in the other 2 groups. This interventional trial demonstrates beneficial effects of caloric restriction on memory performance in healthy elderly subjects. Mechanisms underlying this improvement might include higher synaptic plasticity and stimulation of neurofacilitatory pathways in the brain because of improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammatory activity. Our study may help to generate novel prevention strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 27;106(4):1255-60

Pulmonary complications in diabetes mellitus: the role of glycemic control.

Insulin deficiency induces an increase in blood glucose levels that, in long run, becomes toxic for many organs and systems. Microangiopathy and derangements in the immune function are known consequences of hyperglycemia, but the way in which these systemic alterations may affect pulmonary function has been scarcely investigated. Although confirmation from large clinical trials is still to come, the diabetic disease seems to hit the pulmonary microcirculation as any other organ by increasing vessel wall thickness and impairing gas exchange, which leads to a measurable loss of function and respiratory efficiency. In addition, a diabetic lung is more susceptible to low respiratory tract infections by atypical microorganisms and more likely to host severe episodes of pneumonia than a normal, non-diabetic lung. This is a review of current knowledge on the impact of diabetes mellitus in lung health. We have paid special attention to the role of metabolic control in preventing damage to the lung by sustained hyperglycemia.

Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2004 Dec;3(4):455-8

Neuroendocrine factors in the regulation of inflammation: excessive adiposity and calorie restriction.

Acute inflammation is usually a self-limited life preserving response, triggered by pathogens and/or traumatic injuries. This transient response normally leads to removal of harmful agents and to healing of the damaged tissues. In contrast, unchecked or chronic inflammation can lead to persistent tissue and organ damage by activated leukocytes, cytokines, or collagen deposition. Excessive energy intake and adiposity cause systemic inflammation, whereas calorie restriction without malnutrition exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect. As individuals accumulate fat and their adipocytes enlarge, adipose tissue undergoes molecular and cellular alterations, macrophages accumulate, and inflammation ensues. Overweight/obese subjects have significantly higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and several cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-alpha. Experimental animals on a chronic CR regimen, instead, have low levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines, low blood lymphocyte levels, reduced production of inflammatory cytokines by the white blood cells in response to stimulation, and cortisol levels in the high normal range. Recent data demonstrate that CR exerts a powerful anti-inflammatory effect also in non-human primates and humans. Multiple metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms are responsible for the CR-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, including reduced adiposity and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines, enhanced glucocorticoid production, reduced plasma glucose and advanced glycation end-product concentrations, increased parasympathetic tone, and increased ghrelin production. Measuring tissue specific effects of CR using genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques in humans will foster the understanding of the complex biological processes involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects of CR.

Exp Gerontol. 2009 Jan-Feb;44(1-2):41-5

Life long calorie restriction increases heat shock proteins and proteasome activity in soleus muscles of Fisher 344 rats.

Heat shock proteins (HSP’s) closely interact with 20S proteasome and have been shown to maintain catalytic activity, responsible for the prevention of protein aggregation. A decrease in both proteasome activity and heat shock proteins (HSP’s) has been observed with age. We investigated whether life-long calorie restriction (CR), a natural intervention, which prolongs life span, could prevent the age-associated decline in HSP’s and restore the proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome in skeletal muscle. Hence, we investigated HSP’s and proteasome activity in the soleus muscle from 12-mo-old (Adult) and 26-28 mo old ad libitum fed (Old), and 26-28 mo old CR (Old-CR; fed 40% of ad libitum for their lifespan) male Fisher 344 rats. Trypsin-like proteasome activity in Old rats was significantly less than both Adult and Old-CR rats. Furthermore, no significant changes where found in chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity due to age or diet. Levels of HSP 72 and 25 were significantly less in Old animals when compared to both Adult and Old-CR rats. In contrast, HSP 90 was elevated in Old rats by 220% compared to adult animals and life-long calorie restriction caused a significant induction (150%) compared to age-matched ad libitum fed animals. Protein carbonyls were significantly elevated in Old when compared to Adult rats, but showed no significant decline due to life long CR. This study shows that HSP’s may be largely responsible for the restoration of the trypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome with age. The large increase in HSP 90 is intriguing and further studies are required to elucidate its role in maintaining 20S proteasome function.

Exp Gerontol. 2005 Jan-Feb;40(1-2):37-42

Lifelong calorie restriction alleviates age-related oxidative damage in peripheral nerves.

Aging is associated with protein damage and imbalance in redox status in a variety of cells and tissues, yet little is known about the extent of age-related oxidative stress in the peripheral nervous system. Previously, we showed a drastic decline in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins in myelinated peripheral nerves with age, which is significantly ameliorated by lifelong calorie restriction. The age-related decline in functional molecules is associated with alterations in cellular protein homeostatic mechanisms, which could lead to a buildup of damaged, aggregated proteins. To determine the extent of oxidative damage within myelinated peripheral nerves, we studied sciatic nerves from rats of four different ages (8, 18, 29, and 38 months) maintained on an ad libitum or a 40% calorie-restricted diet. We found a prominent accumulation of polyubiquitinated substrates with age, which are associated with the conglomeration of distended lysosomes and lipofuscin adducts. The occurrence of these structures is notably less frequent within nerves of age-matched rodents kept on a lifelong reduced calorie diet. Markers for lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and immune cell infiltration are all elevated in nerves of ad libitum-fed rats, whereas food restriction is able to attenuate such deleterious processes with age. Together these results show that dietary restriction is an efficient means of defying age-related oxidative damage and maintaining a younger state in peripheral nerves.

Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Feb;13(1):65-74

Soy proteins and cardiovascular disease.

The soybean diet is the most potent dietary tool for hypercholesterolemia. The United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved the health claim for its role in reducing the risk of coronary disease. The hypocholesterolemic effect is directly correlated to the patient’s cholesterolemia, with minimal or no reductions occurring at cholesterol of 6 mmol/L or less, and the most benefit occurring in patients with cholesterol of greater than 7 mmol/L. Hypotheses on the mechanism of action include soy fiber, isoflavones (phytoestrogens), and the protein itself. Although there is no evidence for the effect of fiber, studies with ethanol-extracted soy (devoid of isoflavones) indicated a loss of effect, but the extract itself (isoflavone rich) has no hypocholesterolemic activity. In humans, soy protein activates the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. Recent data suggest that soy protein subunits, particularly 7S, directly activiate LDL receptors in the human liver, thus providing a novel mechanism of plasma cholesterol reduction different from currently available diets and hypolipidemic drugs.

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2001 Jan;3(1):47-53

The key importance of soy isoflavone bioavailability to understanding health benefits.

Research over the past two decades has provided significant epidemiological and other evidence for the health benefits of the consumption of soy-based foods. A large number of dietary intervention studies have examined the effects of soy isoflavones on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and hormone-dependent cancers. However, these report large variability in outcome measures, very limited reproducibility between studies, and in some cases, controversy between the results of clinical trials using dietary soy or soy protein and isoflavone supplementation. This highlights a major gap in our understanding of soy isoflavone uptake, metabolism, distribution, and overall bioavailability. There are many potential factors that may influence bioavailability and a better knowledge is necessary to rationalize the inconsistencies in the intervention and clinical studies. This review focuses attention on our current state of knowledge in this area and highlights the importance of metabolism of the parent soy isoflavones and the critical role of gut microbiota on the bioavailability of these compounds and their metabolites.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Jun;48(6):538-52

Soybean, a promising health source.

Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

Nutr Hosp. 2008 Jul-Aug;23(4):305-12

Health effects of soy protein and isoflavones in humans.

Epidemiological investigations suggest that soy consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of certain chronic diseases. Clinical studies also show that ingestion of soy proteins reduces the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This led to the approval of the food-labeling health claim for soy proteins in the prevention of coronary heart disease by the U.S. FDA in 1999. Similar health petitions for soy proteins have also been approved thereafter in the United Kingdom, Brazil, South Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia, Korea, and Malaysia. However, the purported health benefits are quite variable in different studies. The Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association has assessed 22 randomized trials conducted since 1999 and found that isolated soy protein with isoflavones (ISF) slightly decreased LDL cholesterol but had no effect on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), or blood pressure. The other effects of soy consumption were not evident. Although the contributing factors to these discrepancies are not fully understood, the source of soybeans and processing procedures of the protein or ISF are believed to be important because of their effects on the content and intactness of certain bioactive protein subunits. Some studies have documented potential safety concerns on increased consumption of soy products. Impacts of soy products on thyroid and reproductive functions as well as on certain types of carcinogenesis require further study in this context. Overall, existing data are inconsistent or inadequate in supporting most of the suggested health benefits of consuming soy protein or ISF.

J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1244S-9S

Soy, phytoestrogens and metabolism: A review.

Of any plant, soy contains the largest concentration of isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estradiol and mimic its effects. Soy and phytoestrogens receive increasing attention due to the health benefits associated with their consumption. Here we review the data collected on the effects of soy and phytoestrogens on glucose and lipid metabolism and their possible mechanisms of action. Overall, there is a suggestive body of evidence that soy and dietary phytoestrogens favorably alter glycemic control, improve weight and fat loss, lower triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol.

However, these results must be interpreted with care, and additional evidence is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn. In particular, since not all activities related to soy can be assigned to the estrogenic-like activity, further studies are needed to identify firstly which soy constituent(s) improve metabolic parameters when ingested and secondly, which are the mechanisms whereby dietary soy improves metabolic-related conditions like obesity and diabetes. Finally, the potential detrimental effects of soy and phytoestrogens are briefly discussed.

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):30-42

Soybean isoflavones in bone health.

Soybean isoflavones are structurally similar to estrogen, bind to estrogen receptors, and exhibit weak estrogenic activity. It has been reported that isoflavones play an important role in the prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and postmenopausal syndrome. There are many researches indicating isoflavones prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency in animal models. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a combination of isoflavone treatment and exercise cooperatively prevented bone loss in the estrogen-deficient status. Epidemiological studies demonstrated the relationship between the lower incidence of osteoporosis in Asian women and a diet rich in soy foods. Although a number of observational studies confirm the findings from the animal studies, the results from intervention studies are still controversial. One of the potential reasons for these inconsistencies could be individual differences in the isoflavone metabolism. Recently, it has been suggested that the clinical effectiveness of isoflavones might partly depend on the ability to produce equol, a gut bacterial metabolite of daidzein showing stronger estrogenic activity than the predominant isoflavones. Several candidate bacteria responsible for equol production have been suggested, for example Lactococcus 20-92 strain. From these findings, food factors enhancing equol production have received great deal of attention recently. On the other hand, safety assessment of isoflavones has been conducted by the Japanese Food Safety Commission. Further studies are required to address the numerous questions on the potential benefits, mechanisms of action, and safety of isoflavones.

Forum Nutr. 2009;61:104-16. Epub 2009 Apr 7

Isoflavones, equol and cardiovascular disease: pharmacological and therapeutic insights.

Isoflavones are an important class of phytoestrogens that are found at extrememly high levels in soy. Up until recently, daidzein and genistein were considered to be the most important and hence most studied isoflavones, however more recently attention has shifted to isoflavone metabolies. Equol represents the main active product of daidzein metabolism, produced via specific microflora in the gut. It has a longer half life and greater biological activity, including superior antioxidant activity. Yet, whilst the majority of animals produce equol following soy consumption, as much as 30-50% of the adult human population cannot. This inability to produce equol in as much as half the population is thought to provide some explanation for the failure of soy to reveal any substantial health benefits in clinical studies. This article will comprehensively review literature investigating the potential cardiovascular benefits of daidzein and its metabolites, paying particular attention to equol. It will focus on the relative vasorelaxant activity, effects on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant activity and potential for the treatment and prevention of hypertension and stroke. Findings obtained in both animal and human studies will be reviewed with the hope of gaining an insight into the experimental and clinical importance of equol to the cardiovascular benefits of soy.

Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(26):2824-30

Targeting the redox sensitive Nrf2-Keap1 defense pathway in cardiovascular disease: protection afforded by dietary isoflavones.

Cells have evolved highly regulated defense systems, including the redox sensitive Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway involved in the transcriptional activation of phase II defense and antioxidant genes in oxidative stress. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) leads to impaired endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing plant-derived isoflavones (phytoestrogens) afford protection against CVDs, supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. The molecular mechanisms by which soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and equol) afford protection against oxidative stress in CVD remain to be investigated in large-scale clinical trials. Studies in animal models and cultured vascular cells have established that isoflavones increase eNOS activity and expression and activate the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway, leading to an upregulation of detoxifying and antioxidant defense genes. We review recent advances in the understanding of the signal transduction pathways involved in the activation of endothelial NO production and Nrf2-Keap1-mediated antioxidant gene expression by dietary isoflavones.

Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;9(2):139-45

Dietary isoflavones in the prevention of cardiovascular disease—a molecular perspective.

The Food and Drugs Administration has approved a health claim for soy based on clinical trials and epidemiological data indicating that high soy consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease. Soy products contain a group of compounds called isoflavones, with genistein and daidzein being the most abundant. A number of cardioprotective benefits have been attributed to dietary isoflavones including a reduction in LDL cholesterol, an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion proteins and inducible nitric oxide production, potential reduction in the susceptibility of the LDL particle to oxidation, inhibition of platelet aggregation and an improvement in vascular reactivity. There is increasing interest in the use of nutrigenomic methods to understand the mechanisms by which isoflavones induce these changes, and in the use of nutrigenetics to understand why the effects vary between individuals. Nutrigenomics is a rapidly growing field making use of molecular biology methodologies, such as microarray technology and proteomics, to study how specific nutrients or diets affect gene expression and cellular protein levels. The analysis of differential gene expression and protein levels in endothelial cells, macrophages and smooth muscle cells is critical to elucidating the sequence of events leading to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, and to understanding the potential anti-atherogenic properties of soy isoflavones. An increasing number of studies demonstrate a significant impact of genetic variation on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in response to dietary intervention. Nutrigenetic effects of this type have recently been reported for dietary isoflavones, and may help to explain some of the disparities in the current literature concerning isoflavones and cardiovascular health.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Apr;46(4):1308-19

Investigating the optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes for women: a perspective.

Traditional soyfoods have been consumed for centuries throughout much of East Asia and, recently, these foods have also become popular in the West. Soyfoods and specific soybean components, such as the protein and isoflavones, have attracted attention for their possible health benefits. Isoflavones are classified as phytoestrogens and have been postulated to be natural alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal women. To provide guidance on optimal soy intake, this article evaluates Asian soy consumption and both clinical and Asian epidemiologic studies that examined the relationship between soy intake and a variety of health outcomes. On the basis of these data and the standard principles of dietary practice the author suggests that optimal soy protein and isoflavone intakes are 15-20 g/day and 50-90 mg/day, respectively. In addition, an intake of 25 g/day soy protein can be specifically used as the recommendation for cholesterol reduction.

Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2008 Jul;4(4):337-56

Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women.

The long-term clinical effects of soy protein containing various amounts of isoflavones on lipoproteins, mononuclear cell LDL receptor messenger RNA concentrations, and other selected cardiovascular risk factors are not well known. Sixty-six hypercholesterolemic, free-living, postmenopausal women were investigated during a 6-mo parallel-group, double-blind trial with 3 interventions. After a control period of 14 d, all subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary groups (all with 40 g protein): a National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 1 diet with protein from casein and nonfat dry milk (control), an NCEP Step 1 diet with protein from isolated soy protein containing moderate amounts of isoflavones (ISP56), or an NCEP Step 1 diet with protein from isolated soy protein containing high amounts of isoflavones (ISP90). Non-HDL cholesterol in both the ISP56 and ISP90 groups was reduced compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas total cholesterol was not changed. HDL cholesterol increased in both the ISP56 and ISP90 groups (P < 0.05), whereas the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol decreased significantly in both groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). Mononuclear cell LDL receptor messenger RNA concentrations increased in subjects consuming ISP56 or ISP90 compared with the control (P < 0.05). These results indicate that soy protein, with different amounts of isoflavones, may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease via improved blood lipid profiles, and that the mechanism by which apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins were depressed may be via alterations in LDL receptor quantity or activity.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Sep;68(3):545-51.

Effect of soy protein foods on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and ex vivo sex hormone receptor activity—a controlled crossover trial.

Plant-derived estrogen analogs (phytoestrogens) may confer significant health advantages including cholesterol reduction, antioxidant activity, and possibly a reduced cancer risk. However, the concern has also been raised that phytoestrogens may be endocrine disrupters and major health hazards. We therefore assessed the effects of soy foods as a rich source of isoflavonoid phytoestrogens on LDL oxidation and sex hormone receptor activity. Thirty-one hyperlipidemic subjects underwent two 1-month low-fat metabolic diets in a randomized crossover study. The major differences between the test and control diets were an increase in soy protein foods (33 g/d soy protein) providing 86 mg isoflavones/2,000 kcal/d and a doubling of the soluble fiber intake. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and at weeks 2 and 4, with 24-hour urine collections at the end of each phase. Soy foods increased urinary isoflavone excretion on the test diet versus the control (3.8+/-0.7 v 0.0+/-0.0 mg/d, P < .001). The test diet decreased both oxidized LDL measured as conjugated dienes in the LDL fraction (56+/-3 v 63+/-3 micromol/L, P < .001) and the ratio of conjugated dienes to LDL cholesterol (15.0+/-1.0 v 15.7+/-0.9, P = .032), even in subjects already using vitamin E supplements (400 to 800 mg/d). No significant difference was detected in ex vivo sex hormone activity between urine samples from the test and control periods. In conclusion, consumption of high-isoflavone foods was associated with reduced levels of circulating oxidized LDL even in subjects taking vitamin E, with no evidence of increased urinary estrogenic activity. Soy consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk without increasing the risk for hormone-dependent cancers.

Metabolism. 2000 Apr;49(4):537-43

Ageing, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson’s disease.

Age is the largest risk factor for the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ageing affects many cellular processes that predispose to neurodegeneration, and age-related changes in cellular function predispose to the pathogenesis of PD. The accumulation of age-related somatic damage combined with a failure of compensatory mechanisms may lead to an acceleration of PD with age. The formation of Lewy bodies may represent a marker for protective mechanisms against age-related dysfunction and degeneration of the nervous system. Mild parkinsonian signs may be present in older people, which are associated with reduced function. These may be due to age-related decline in dopaminergic activity, incidental Lewy body disease, degenerative pathologies (early PD and Alzheimer’s disease) or vascular pathology. Ageing may affect the clinical presentation of PD with altered drug side effects, increased risk of developing dementia and an increased likelihood of admission to a nursing home. Progression of PD, including the development of dementia, and hallucinations is related to the age of the patient rather than the age of disease onset. PD may reflect a failure of the normal cellular compensatory mechanisms in vulnerable brain regions, and this vulnerability is increased by ageing. PD is one of the best examples of an age-related disease.

Age Ageing. 2010 Mar;39(2):156-61

Incidence of Parkinson’s disease: variation by age, gender, and race/ethnicity.

The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of Parkinson’s disease by age, gender, and ethnicity. Newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease cases in 1994-1995 were identified among members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, a large health maintenance organization. Each case met modified standardized criteria/Hughes diagnostic criteria as applied by a movement disorder specialist. Incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated using the Kaiser Permanente membership information as the denominator and adjusted for age and/or gender using the direct method of standardization. A total of 588 newly diagnosed (incident) cases of Parkinson’s disease were identified, which gave an overall annualized age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of 13.4 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.4, 15.5). The incidence rapidly increased over the age of 60 years, with only 4% of the cases being under the age of 50 years. The rate for men (19.0 per 100,000, 95% CI: 16.1, 21.8) was 91% higher than that for women (9.9 per 100,000, 95% CI: 7.6, 12.2). The age- and gender-adjusted rate per 100,000 was highest among Hispanics (16.6, 95% CI: 12.0, 21.3), followed by non-Hispanic Whites (13.6, 95% CI: 11.5, 15.7), Asians (11.3, 95% CI: 7.2, 15.3), and Blacks (10.2, 95% CI: 6.4, 14.0). These data suggest that the incidence of Parkinson’s disease varies by race/ethnicity.

Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun 1;157(11):1015-22

Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people.

BACKGROUND: Older people frequently have signs of parkinsonism, but information about the prevalence of parkinsonism and mortality among those with the condition in the community is limited. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 467 residents of East Boston, Massachusetts, 65 years of age or older, were given structured neurologic examinations. Using uniform, specified combinations of parkinsonian signs, we estimated the prevalence of four categories of signs--bradykinesia, gait disturbance, rigidity, and tremor--and of parkinsonism, defined as the presence of two or more categories. We did not study Parkinson’s disease because it could not be distinguished from other conditions that can cause parkinsonism. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among people with and those without parkinsonism. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine persons had parkinsonism, 301 did not, and 7 could not be classified. The overall prevalence estimates were 14.9% for people 65 to 74 years of age, 29.5% for those 75 to 84, and 52.4% for those 85 and older. With a mean follow-up period of 9.2 years, 124 persons with parkinsonism (78 percent) and 146 persons without (49%) died. Adjusted for age and sex, the overall risk of death among people with parkinsonism was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.6) times that among people without. Among people with parkinsonism, the presence of gait disturbance was associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinsonism is very common among people over the age of 65, and its prevalence increases markedly with age. Parkinsonism is associated with a twofold increase in the risk of death, which is strongly related to the presence of a gait disturbance.

N Engl J Med. 1996 Jan 11;334(2):71-6

Parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis.

OBJECTIVE: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by a large number of motor and non-motor features that can impact on function to a variable degree. This review describes the clinical characteristics of PD with emphasis on those features that differentiate the disease from other parkinsonian disorders. METHODS: A MedLine search was performed to identify studies that assess the clinical characteristics of PD. Search terms included “Parkinson’s disease,” “diagnosis” and “signs and symptoms.” RESULTS: Because there is no definitive test for the diagnosis of PD, the disease must be diagnosed based on clinical criteria. Rest tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and loss of postural reflexes are generally considered the cardinal signs of PD. The presence and specific presentation of these features are used to differentiate PD from related parkinsonian disorders. Other clinical features include secondary motor symptoms (eg, hypomimia, dysarthria, dysphagia, sialorrhoea, micrographia, shuffling gait, festination, freezing, dystonia, glabellar reflexes), non-motor symptoms (eg, autonomic dysfunction, cognitive/neurobehavioral abnormalities, sleep disorders and sensory abnormalities such as anosmia, paresthesias and pain). Absence of rest tremor, early occurrence of gait difficulty, postural instability, dementia, hallucinations, and the presence of dysautonomia, ophthalmoparesis, ataxia and other atypical features, coupled with poor or no response to levodopa, suggest diagnoses other than PD. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough understanding of the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of PD is essential to the proper diagnosis of the disease. Genetic mutations or variants, neuroimaging abnormalities and other tests are potential biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and allow the identification of persons at risk.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;79(4):368-76

Parkinson’s disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common movement pathology, severely afflicting dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) along with non-dopaminergic, extra-nigral projection bundles that control circuits for sensory, associative, premotor, and motor pathways. Clinical, experimental, microanatomic, and biochemical evidence suggests PD involves multifactorial, oxidative neurodegeneration, and that levodopa therapy adds to the oxidative burden. The SN is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative damage, having high content of oxidizable dopamine, neuromelanin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron, and relatively low antioxidant complement with high metabolic rate. Oxidative phosphorylation abnormalities impair energetics in the SN mitochondria, also intensifying oxygen free radical generation. These pro-oxidative factors combine within the SN dopaminergic neurons to create extreme vulnerability to oxidative challenge. Epidemiologic studies and long-term tracking of victims of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning, suggest oxidative stress compounded by exogenous toxins may trigger the neurodegenerative progression of PD. Rational, integrative management of PD requires: (1) dietary revision, especially to lower calories; (2) rebalancing of essential fatty acid intake away from pro-inflammatory and toward anti-inflammatory prostaglandins; (3) aggressive repletion of glutathione and other nutrient antioxidants and cofactors; (4) energy nutrients acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, NADH, and the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), (5) chelation as necessary for heavy metals; and (6) liver P450 detoxification support.

Altern Med Rev. 2000 Dec;5(6):502-29

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages in the molecular pathology of Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease is a complex disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Development of this condition is defined by interaction between the genetic constitution of an organism and environmental factors. The analysis of the genes associated with development of monogenic forms of disease, has allowed pointing out proteasome degradation, the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. In this review a variety of data which indicate on a key role of the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis will be more detail considered.

Mol Biol (Mosk). 2008 Sep-Oct;42(5):809-19