Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Nov 2011

Skin aging

Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits.

The marine crustacean krill (order Euphausiacea) has not been a traditional food in the human diet. Public acceptance of krill for human consumption will depend partly on its nutritive value. The aim of this article is to assess the nutritive value and potential health benefits of krill, an abundant food source with high nutritional value and a variety of compounds relevant to human health. Krill is a rich source of high-quality protein, with the advantage over other animal proteins of being low in fat and a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids. Antioxidant levels in krill are higher than in fish, suggesting benefits against oxidative damage. Finally, the waste generated by the processing of krill into edible products can be developed into value-added products.

Nutr Rev. 2007 Feb;65(2):63-77

Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-beta were determined by a Luminex assay system. RESULTS: Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1alpha and IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 29;11:136

Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT.

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and functional limitation in older adults, yet longer-term studies of medical treatment of OA are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate (CS), alone or in combination, as well as celecoxib and placebo on painful knee OA over 2 years. METHODS: A 24-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, conducted at nine sites in the US ancillary to the Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial, enrolled 662 patients with knee OA who satisfied radiographic criteria (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 2 or 3 changes and baseline joint space width of at least 2 mm). This subset continued to receive their randomised treatment: glucosamine 500 mg three times daily, CS 400 mg three times daily, the combination of glucosamine and CS, celecoxib 200 mg daily, or placebo over 24 months. The primary outcome was a 20% reduction in Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain over 24 months. Secondary outcomes included an Outcome Measures in Rheumatology/Osteoarthritis Research Society International response and change from baseline in WOMAC pain and function. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, the odds of achieving a 20% reduction in WOMAC pain were celecoxib: 1.21, glucosamine: 1.16, combination glucosamine/CS: 0.83 and CS alone: 0.69, and were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Over 2 years, no treatment achieved a clinically important difference in WOMAC pain or function as compared with placebo. However, glucosamine and celecoxib showed beneficial but not significant trends. Adverse reactions were similar among treatment groups and serious adverse events were rare for all treatments.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Aug;69(8):1459-64

Hyaluronan reduces inflammation in experimental arthritis by modulating TLR-2 and TLR-4 cartilage expression.

Previous studies have reported that low molecular mass HA and highly polymerized HA respectively elicited pro- and anti-inflammatory responses by modulating the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the TLR-2. The activation of TLR-4 and TLR-2 mediated by collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) induces the myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), and ends with the liberation of NF-kB which, in turn, stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high molecular weight HA at different concentrations on TLR-4 and TLR-2 modulation in CIA in mice. Arthritis was induced in mice via intradermal injection of an emulsion containing bovine type II collagen in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Mice were treated with HA intraperitoneally daily for 30 days. CIA increased TLR-4, TLR-2, MyD88 and TRAF6 mRNA expression and the related protein in the cartilage of arthritic joints. High levels of both mRNA and related protein were also detected for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-β), interleukin-17 (IL-17), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP-13) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the joint of arthritic mice. HA treatment significantly limited CIA incidence and decreased all the parameters up-regulated by CIA. The improvement of biochemical parameters was also supported by histological analysis, plasma and synovial fluid HA levels. These results suggest that the TLR-4 and TLR-2 play an important role in the arthritis mechanism and the interaction/block of HA at high molecular mass may reduce inflammation and cartilage injury.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Sep;1812(9):1170-81

The effect of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial.

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee causes significant morbidity and current medical treatment is limited to symptom relief, while therapies able to slow structural damage remain elusive. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS), alone or in combination, as well as celecoxib and placebo on progressive loss of joint space width (JSW) in patients with knee OA. METHODS: A 24-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, conducted at 9 sites in the United States as part of the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), enrolled 572 patients with knee OA who satisfied radiographic criteria (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grade 2 or grade 3 changes and JSW of at least 2 mm at baseline). Patients with primarily lateral compartment narrowing at any time point were excluded. Patients who had been randomized to 1 of the 5 groups in the GAIT continued to receive glucosamine 500 mg 3 times daily, CS 400 mg 3 times daily, the combination of glucosamine and CS, celecoxib 200 mg daily, or placebo over 24 months. The minimum medial tibiofemoral JSW was measured at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in JSW from baseline. RESULTS: The mean JSW loss at 2 years in knees with OA in the placebo group, adjusted for design and clinical factors, was 0.166 mm. No statistically significant difference in mean JSW loss was observed in any treatment group compared with the placebo group. Treatment effects on K/L grade 2 knees, but not on K/L grade 3 knees, showed a trend toward improvement relative to the placebo group. The power of the study was diminished by the limited sample size, variance of JSW measurement, and a smaller than expected loss in JSW. CONCLUSION: At 2 years, no treatment achieved a predefined threshold of clinically important difference in JSW loss as compared with placebo. However, knees with K/L grade 2 radiographic OA appeared to have the greatest potential for modification by these treatments.

Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Oct;58(10):3183-91

Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.

BACKGROUND: Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are used to treat osteoarthritis. The multicenter, double-blind, placebo- and celecoxib-controlled Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) evaluated their efficacy and safety as a treatment for knee pain from osteoarthritis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1583 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to receive 1,500 mg of glucosamine daily, 1,200 mg of chondroitin sulfate daily, both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, 200 mg of celecoxib daily, or placebo for 24 weeks. Up to 4,000 mg of acetaminophen daily was allowed as rescue analgesia. Assignment was stratified according to the severity of knee pain (mild [N=1229] vs. moderate to severe [N=354]). The primary outcome measure was a 20 percent decrease in knee pain from baseline to week 24. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59 years, and 64 percent were women. Overall, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate were not significantly better than placebo in reducing knee pain by 20%. As compared with the rate of response to placebo (60.1%), the rate of response to glucosamine was 3.9 percentage points higher (P=0.30), the rate of response to chondroitin sulfate was 5.3% points higher (P=0.17), and the rate of response to combined treatment was 6.5% higher (P=0.09). The rate of response in the celecoxib control group was 10.0 percentage points higher than that in the placebo control group (P=0.008). For patients with moderate-to-severe pain at baseline, the rate of response was significantly higher with combined therapy than with placebo (79.2 percent vs. 54.3 percent, P=0.002). Adverse events were mild, infrequent, and evenly distributed among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate alone or in combination did not reduce pain effectively in the overall group of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exploratory analyses suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain.

N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):795-808

Effects of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate on Cartilage Metabolism in OA: Outlook on Other Nutrient Partners Especially Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is characterized by increasing loss of cartilage, remodeling of the periarticular bone, and inflammation of the synovial membrane. Besides the common OA therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the treatment with chondroprotectives, such as glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, or nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids is a promising therapeutic approach. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that the targeted administration of selected micronutrients leads to a more effective reduction of OA symptoms, with less adverse events. Their chondroprotective action can be explained by a dual mechanism: (1) as basic components of cartilage and synovial fluid, they stimulate the anabolic process of the cartilage metabolism; (2) their anti-inflammatory action can delay many inflammation-induced catabolic processes in the cartilage. These two mechanisms are able to slow the progression of cartilage destruction and may help to regenerate the joint structure, leading to reduced pain and increased mobility of the affected joint.

Int J Rheumatol. 2011;2011:969012

A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage.

The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate) may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

Eur Cell Mater. 2011 Mar 15;21:259-71; discussion 270-1

Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis.

INTRODUCTION: A total of 177 patients with moderate-to-severe hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) were tested over a period of 26 weeks in a two-center, two-armed, randomized, double-blind, comparison study. The aim was to see if a combination of glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/day) and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (group A), showed equivalence (noninferiority) or superiority as opposed to glucosamine sulfate alone (group B). METHODS: The primary therapy evaluation was performed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthrosis index (WOMAC) score. At the end of the study, a reduction in the pain score of > or =20% was required (primary target criterion) and the quantitative difference in the WOMAC subscores pain, stiffness, and function were analyzed (secondary target criteria). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When a minimal pain reduction of > or =20% was chosen, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of responders between the two groups (92.2% group A, 94.3% group B). A higher responder criterion (> or =80% reduction in the WOMAC pain score) was chosen. Therefore, the frequency of responders showed a therapeutic and statistical superiority for the combination product of glucosamine sulfate and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients who complied with the study protocol (group A 44%, group B 32%; P=0.044). OA symptoms (morning stiffness, pain in hips and knees) were reduced at the end of the study: by 48.5%-55.6% in group A and by 41.7%-55.3% in group B. The reduction was greater in group A than in group B. There was a tendency toward superiority shown in the secondary target criteria and concurrent variables. In the global safety evaluation, both products have been demonstrated to be very safe in long-term treatment over 26 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial in which glucosamine was given in combination with omega-3 fatty acids to patients with OA.

Adv Ther. 2009 Sep;26(9):858-71

Role of omega-3 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more atherogenic form to the larger, less damaging particle size, have also been noted. ω3 LC-PUFA are effective modulators of the inflammation that accompanies several cardio-metabolic abnormalities. Taking into consideration the pleiotropic nature of their actions, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with ω3 LC-PUFA will lead to improvements in cardio-metabolic health parameters. These fatty acids pose only minor side effects and more importantly, do not interact adversely with the common drug therapies used in the management and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type-2 diabetes, and obesity/metabolic syndrome, but in some instances work synergistically, thereby providing additional cardiovascular benefits.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Sep 1;11(3):232-46

Unsaturated fatty acids are inversely associated and n-6/n-3 ratios are positively related to inflammation and coagulation markers in plasma of apparently healthy adults.

BACKGROUND: Blood lipids and inflammatory markers levels have been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. As the association of inflammatory markers with plasma fatty acids has not been extensively evaluated and understood, we sought to investigate the associations between dietary and plasma fatty acids with various inflammation and coagulation markers. METHODS: High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), fibrinogen, and homocysteine were measured in serum of 374 free-living, healthy men and women, randomly selected from the ATTICA’s study database. Total plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Dietary fatty acids were assessed through a semi-quantitative FFQ. RESULTS: Multi-adjusted regression analyses revealed that plasma n-3 fatty acids were inversely associated with CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha; plasma n-6 fatty acids were inversely associated with CRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen; monounsaturated fatty acids were inversely associated with CRP and IL-6 (all p-values<0.05). Interestingly, the n-6/n-3 ratios exhibited the strongest positive correlations with all the markers studied. No associations were observed between dietary fatty acids and the investigated markers. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of total plasma fatty acids could provide insights into the relationships between diet and atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, the n-6/n-3 ratio may constitute a predictor of low-grade inflammation and coagulation.

Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Apr 2;411(7-8):584-91

Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers.

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil.

Lipids. 2011 Jan;46(1):37-46

Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-beta were determined by a Luminex assay system. RESULTS: Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1alpha and IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 29;11:136

Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction.

AIMS: Clinical studies suggest that intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may lower the incidence of heart failure. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA exerts metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects that could prevent left ventricle (LV) pathology; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur at clinically relevant doses and whether there are differences between omega-3 PUFA from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and vegetable sources [alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)]. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the development of LV remodelling and pathology in rats subjected to aortic banding treated with omega-3 PUFA over a dose range that spanned the intake of humans taking omega-3 PUFA supplements. Rats were fed a standard food or diets supplemented with EPA+DHA or ALA at 0.7, 2.3, or 7% of energy intake. Without supplementation, aortic banding increased LV mass and end-systolic and -diastolic volumes. ALA supplementation had little effect on LV remodelling and dysfunction. In contrast, EPA+DHA dose-dependently increased EPA and DHA, decreased arachidonic acid in cardiac membrane phospholipids, and prevented the increase in LV end-diastolic and -systolic volumes. EPA+DHA resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin, and there was a strong correlation between the prevention of LV chamber enlargement and plasma levels of adiponectin (r = -0.78). Supplementation with EPA+DHA had anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory effects as evidenced by decreases in urinary thromboxane B(2) and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA derived from fish, but not from vegetable sources, increased plasma adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented cardiac remodelling and dysfunction under pressure overload conditions.

Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Feb 1;81(2):319-27

Mitochondrial and cell death mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal cell death are unresolved. Morphological, biochemical, genetic, as well as cell and animal model studies reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and overlying genetic variations, triggering neurodegeneration according to a cell death matrix theory. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in putative mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This review summarizes how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to neuronal death in AD, PD, and ALS and could serve as a target for drug therapy.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3(4):839-915

Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression.

Bioactive compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Previously studies have shown that mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. Therefore, we hypothesized that PQQ can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse hepatocytes. Exposure of mouse Hepa1-6 cells to 10-30 microm PQQ for 24-48 h resulted in increased citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity, Mitotracker staining, mitochondrial DNA content, and cellular oxygen respiration. The induction of this process occurred through the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a pathway known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. PQQ exposure stimulated phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133, activated the promoter of PGC-1alpha, and increased PGC-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. PQQ did not stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis after small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in either PGC-1alpha or CREB expression. Consistent with activation of the PGC-1alpha pathway, PQQ increased nuclear respiratory factor activation (NRF-1 and NRF-2) and Tfam, TFB1M, and TFB2M mRNA expression. Moreover, PQQ protected cells from mitochondrial inhibition by rotenone, 3-nitropropionic acid, antimycin A, and sodium azide. The ability of PQQ to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis accounts in part for action of this compound and suggests that PQQ may be beneficial in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52

Mitochondria-targeted peptide antioxidants: novel neuroprotective agents.

Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the majority of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are a major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to mitochondria has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and lead to cell death via apoptosis and necrosis. Because dysfunctional mitochondria will produce more ROS, a feed-forward loop is set up whereby ROS-mediated oxidative damage to mitochondria favors more ROS generation, resulting in a vicious cycle. It is now appreciated that reduction of mitochondrial oxidative stress may prevent or slow down the progression of these neurodegenerative disorders. However, if mitochondria are the major source of intracellular ROS and mitochondria are most vulnerable to oxidative damage, then it would be ideal to deliver the antioxidant therapy to mitochondria. This review will summarize the development of a novel class of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants that can protect mitochondria against oxidative stress and prevent neuronal cell death in animal models of stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

AAPS J. 2006 Aug 18;8(3):E521-31

Effects of age, dietary, and behavioral enrichment on brain mitochondria in a canine model of human aging.

Dogs develop cognitive decline and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage. In a previous longitudinal study, we demonstrated that aged dogs treated with either an antioxidant diet or with behavioral enrichment show cognitive improvement. The antioxidant diet included cellular antioxidants (vitamins E and C, fruits and vegetables) and mitochondrial cofactors (lipoic acid and carnitine). Behavioral enrichment consisted of physical exercise, social enrichment, and cognitive training. We hypothesized that the antioxidant treatment improved neuronal function through increased mitochondrial function. Thus, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and bioenergetics in mitochondria isolated from young, aged, and treated aged animals. Aged canine brain mitochondria show significant increases in ROS production and a reduction in NADH-linked respiration. Mitochondrial function (ROS and NADH-linked respiration) was improved selectively in aged dogs treated with an antioxidant diet. In contrast, behavioral enrichment had no effect on any mitochondrial parameters. These results suggest that an antioxidant diet improves cognition by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, which may be an independent molecular pathway not engaged by behavioral enrichment.

Exp Neurol. 2009 Nov;220(1):171-6

Brain mitochondrial dysfunction in aging.

Aging of mammalian brain is associated with a continuous decrease of the capacity to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. The impairment of mitochondrial function is mainly due to diminished electron transfer by complexes I and IV, whereas inner membrane H+ impermeability and F1-ATP synthase activity are only slightly affected. Dysfunctional mitochondria in aged rodents show decreased rates of respiration and of electron transfer, decreased membrane potential, increased content of the oxidation products of phospholipids and proteins, and increased size and fragility. In aging mice, the activities of brain mitochondrial enzymes (complexes I and IV and mtNOS) are linearly correlated with neurological performance (tightrope and T-maze tests) and with median life span and negatively correlated with the mitochondrial content of lipid and protein oxidation products. Conditions that increased mice median life span, such as moderate exercise, vitamin E supplementation, caloric restriction, and high spontaneous neurological activity; also improved neurological performance and mitochondrial function in aged brain. The diffusion of mitochondrial NO and H2O2 to the cytosol is decreased in the aged brain and may be a factor for reduced mitochondrial biogenesis.

IUBMB Life. 2008 May;60(5):308-14

The mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging: accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis.

Cellular manifestations of aging are most pronounced in postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. Alterations of these cells, which are responsible for essential functions of brain and heart, are particularly important contributors to the overall aging process. Mitochondria and lysosomes of postmitotic cells suffer the most remarkable age-related alterations of all cellular organelles. Many mitochondria undergo enlargement and structural disorganization, while lysosomes, which are normally responsible for mitochondrial turnover, gradually accumulate an undegradable, polymeric, autofluorescent material called lipofuscin, or age pigment. We believe that these changes occur not only due to continuous oxidative stress (causing oxidation of mitochondrial constituents and autophagocytosed material), but also because of the inherent inability of cells to completely remove oxidatively damaged structures (biological ‘garbage’). A possible factor limiting the effectiveness of mitochondial turnover is the enlargement of mitochondria which may reflect their impaired fission. Non-autophagocytosed mitochondria undergo further oxidative damage, resulting in decreasing energy production and increasing generation of reactive oxygen species. Damaged, enlarged and functionally disabled mitochondria gradually displace normal ones, which cannot replicate indefinitely because of limited cell volume. Although lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes continue to receive newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes, the pigment is undegradable. Therefore, advanced lipofuscin accumulation may greatly diminish lysosomal degradative capacity by preventing lysosomal enzymes from targeting to functional autophagosomes, further limiting mitochondrial recycling. This interrelated mitochondrial and lysosomal damage irreversibly leads to functional decay and death of postmitotic cells.

Eur J Biochem. 2002 Apr;269(8):1996-2002

Mitochondrial dysfunction - the beginning of the end in Alzheimer’s disease? Separate and synergistic modes of tau and amyloid-β toxicity.

ABSTRACT: The pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques (aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ)) and neurofibrillary tangles (aggregates of tau) and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the critical role of mitochondria and the close inter-relationship of this organelle with the two main pathological features in the pathogenic process underlying AD. Moreover, we summarize evidence from AD post-mortem brain as well as cellular and animal AD models showing that Aβ and tau protein trigger mitochondrial dysfunction through a number of pathways, such as impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, elevation of reactive oxygen species production, alteration of mitochondrial dynamics, and interaction with mitochondrial proteins. A vicious cycle as well as several vicious circles within the cycle, each accelerating the other, can be drawn, emphasizing the synergistic deterioration of mitochondria by tau and Aβ.

Alzheimers Res Ther. 2011 May 5;3(2):15

Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine.

Oxidative mitochondrial decay is a major contributor to aging. Some of this decay can be reversed in old rats by feeding them normal mitochondrial metabolites, acetylcarnitine (ALC) and lipoic acid (LA), at high levels. Feeding the substrate ALC with LA, a mitochondrial antioxidant, restores the velocity of the reaction (K(m)) for ALC transferase and mitochondrial function. The principle appears to be that, with age, increased oxidative damage to protein causes a deformation of structure of key enzymes with a consequent lessening of affinity (K(m)) for the enzyme substrate. The effect of age on the enzyme-binding affinity can be mimicked by reacting it with malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product that increases with age). In old rats (vs. young rats), mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin level, respiratory control ratio, and cellular O(2) uptake are lower; oxidants/O(2), neuron RNA oxidation, and mutagenic aldehydes from lipid peroxidation are higher. Ambulatory activity and cognition decline with age. Feeding old rats ALC with LA for a few weeks restores mitochondrial function; lowers oxidants, neuron RNA oxidation, and mutagenic aldehydes; and increases rat ambulatory activity and cognition (as assayed with the Skinner box and Morris water maze). A recent meta-analysis of 21 double-blind clinical trials of ALC in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease showed significant efficacy vs. placebo. A meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials of LA for treatment of neuropathic deficits in diabetes showed significant efficacy vs. placebo.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:108-16

Brain mitochondria as a primary target in the development of treatment strategies for Alzheimer disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents are two leading causes of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence supports the idea that chronic hypoperfusion is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis that underlies both disease processes. In this regard, hypoperfusion appears to induce oxidative stress (OS), which is largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), and over time initiates mitochondrial failure which is known as an initiating factor of AD. Recent evidence indicates that chronic injury stimulus induces hypoperfusion seen in vulnerable brain regions. This reduced regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) then leads to energy failure within the vascular endothelium and associated brain parenchyma, manifested by damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure (the formation of large number of immature, electron-dense “hypoxic” mitochondria) and by overproduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Additionally, these mitochondrial abnormalities co-exist with increased redox metal activity, lipid peroxidation, and RNA oxidation. Interestingly, vulnerable neurons and glial cells show mtDNA deletions and

oxidative stress markers only in the regions that are closely associated with damaged vessels, and, moreover, brain vascular wall lesions linearly correlate with the degree of neuronal and glial cell damage. We summarize the large body of evidence which indicates that sporadic, late-onset AD results from a vascular etiology by briefly reviewing mitochondrial damage and vascular risk factors associated with the disease and then we discuss the cerebral microvascular changes reason for the energy failure that occurs in normal aging and, to a much greater extent, AD.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Oct;41(10):1989-2004

Mitochondrial dysfunction in long-term neuronal cultures mimics changes with aging.

BACKGROUND: Aging is a highly complex process that affects various tissues and systems in the body. Senescent changes are relatively more prevalent and severe in the postmitotic cells. Mitochondria play an important role in the aging process. Recently, cell cultures have been widely used as an in vitro model to study aging. The present study was designed to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction associated with aging in a long-term cell culture system. MATERIAL/METHODS: Rat hippocampal neurons were maintained in culture in serum-free medium for 30 days in vitro (DIV). The morphology and development of hippocampal neurons was observed by phase contrast microscope. The levels of cellular senescence were evaluated by cytochemical staining of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) at DIV 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. In addition, we investigated the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of hippocampal neurons by flow cytometry at different ages. RESULTS: The proportion of the senescent cells steadily increased with age in neuron cultures. Δψm decreased gradually with age in long-term culture, while ROS generation increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates an age-related decrease in mitochondrial function in long-term hippocampal neuronal culture and suggests that DIV 25 neurons could possibly serve as a platform for the future study of anti-aging from the perspective of mitochondrial function.

Med Sci Monit. 2011 Apr;17(4):BR91-6

Regulation of neuron mitochondrial biogenesis and relevance to brain health.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has severe cellular consequences, and is linked to aging and neurological disorders in humans. Impaired energy supply or Ca(2+) buffering, increased ROS production, or control of apoptosis by mitochondria may contribute to the progressive decline of long-lived postmitotic cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis refers to the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass. Mitochondrial biogenesis may represent an attempt by cells to increase their aerobic set point, or an attempt to maintain a pre-existing aerobic set point in the face of declining mitochondrial function. Neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis itself has been poorly studied, but investigations from other tissues and model systems suggest a series of transcription factors, transcription co-activators, and signal transduction proteins should function to regulate mitochondrial number and mass within neurons. We review data pertinent to the mitochondrial biogenesis field, and discuss implications for brain aging and neurodegenerative disease research efforts.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jan;1802(1):228-34

Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation.

Resveratrol, an antioxidant polyphenol from red wine, has been the subject of intense interest in recent years due to a range of unique anti-aging properties. These include cardiovascular benefits via increased nitric oxide production, down-regulation of vasoactive peptides, lowered levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and cyclooxygenase inhibition; possible benefits on Alzheimer’s disease by breakdown of beta-amyloid and direct effects on neural tissues; phytohormonal actions; anticancer properties via modulation of signal transduction, which translates into anti-initiation, antipromotion, and antiprogression effects; antimicrobial effects; and sirtuin activation, which is believed to be involved in the caloric restriction-longevity effect. Here we report a resveratrol-based skin care formulation, with 17 times greater antioxidant activity than idebenone. The role of resveratrol in prevention of photoaging is reviewed and compared with other antioxidants used in skin care products.

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008 Mar;7(1):2-7

Protective effect of resveratrol against oxidative damage of UVA irradiated HaCaT cells.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the photoprotective effect and possible mechanisms of resveratrol for ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiated HaCaT cells. METHODS: HaCaT cells under UVA irradiation with 5J/cm(2) were interfered with 0.01 mmol/L and 0.1 mmol/L resveratrol. The testing objects were divided into a control and a UVA irradiation group, and then we detected the proliferation capacity with methylthiazdyl tetrazolium (MTT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, content of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) with hydroxylamine, colorimetric, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The ultrastructure was observed under electron microscope. RESULTS: Resveratrol could enhance the proliferation activity, SOD, GSH-Px activity of HaCaT cells under UVA irradiation, decrease the content of MDA in dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The electron microscope revealed that resveratrol could relieve the injury of HaCaT cells’ ultrastructure. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol can relieve the inhibition to HaCaT cell proliferation,injury of their ultrastructure and oxidation by UVA irradiation. The protection is dose-dependent. That resveratrol raises the oxidase activity and clears the oxyradical may account for these results.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Oct;31(5):635-9

Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation, which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. The in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies suggest that green tea polyphenols are photoprotective in nature, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders including photoaging, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers after more clinical trials in humans.

Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Sep;3(3):234-42

Prevention of ultraviolet-B radiation damage by resveratrol in mouse skin is mediated via modulation in survivin.

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the United States, and multiple exposures to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (particularly its UV-B component, 290-320 nm), is its major cause. ‘Chemoprevention’ by naturally occurring agents is being appreciated as a newer dimension in the management of neoplasia including skin cancer. We recently demonstrated that resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene), an antioxidant found in grapes, red wines and a variety of nuts and berries, imparts protection from acute UV-B-mediated cutaneous damages in SKH-1 hairless mice. Understanding the mechanism of resveratrol-mediated protection of UV responses is important. We earlier demonstrated that resveratrol imparts chemopreventive effects against multiple UV-exposure-mediated modulations in (1) cki-cyclin-cdk network, and (2) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-pathway. This study was conducted to assess the involvement of inhibitor of apoptosis protein family Survivin during resveratrol-mediated protection from multiple exposures of UV-B (180 mJ/cm(2); on alternate days; for a total of seven exposures) radiations in the SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Our data demonstrated that topical pre-treatment of resveratrol (10 micromol in 200 microl acetone/mouse) resulted in significant inhibition of UV-B exposure-mediated increases in (1) cellular proliferations (Ki-67 immunostaining), (2) protein levels of epidermal cyclooxygenase-2 and ornithine decarboxylase, established markers of tumor promotion, (3) protein and messenger RNA levels of Survivin, and (4) phosphorylation of survivin in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mouse. Resveratrol pretreatment also resulted in (1) reversal of UV-B-mediated decrease of Smac/DIABLO, and (2) enhancement of UV-B-mediated induction of apoptosis, in mouse skin. Taken together, our study suggested that resveratrol imparts chemopreventive effects against UV-B exposure-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin via inhibiting Survivin and the associated events.

Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Jan-Feb;81(1):25-31

Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging.

Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UV-B component (280-320 nm), from the sun results in erythema, edema, hyperplasia, hyperpigmentation, sunburn cells, immunosuppression, photoaging, and skin cancer. Amongst these various adverse effects of UV-B radiation, skin cancer and photoaging are of great concern. More recent changes in lifestyle have led to a significant increase in the amount of UV-B radiation people receive leading to a surge in the incidence of skin cancer and photoaging. As these trends are likely to continue in the foreseeable future, the adverse effect of UV-B has become a major human health concern. Therefore, development of novel strategies to reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging are highly desirable goals. One approach to reduce their occurrence is through photochemoprevention, which we define as the use of agents capable of ameliorating the adverse effects of UV-B on the skin. Photochemoprevention via use of botanical antioxidants, present in the common diet of human have gained considerable attention as photochemopreventive agents for human use. Many such agents have also found a place in skin care products. This review will focus on the effects of selected botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging.

Exp Dermatol. 2006 Sep;15(9):678-84

The effect of green, black and white tea on the level of alpha and gamma tocopherols in free radical-induced oxidative damage of human red blood cells.

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous tea extracts on lipid peroxidation and alpha and gamma tocopherols concentration in the oxidative damage of human red blood cells (RBC). RBC was taken as the model for study of the oxidative damage was induced by cumene hydroperoxide (cumOOH). The antioxidative property of leaf green tea, leaf and granulate of black tea and white tea at levels 1, 2, 4 g/150 mL of water were evaluated. The correlation was observed between reducing power of tea extract and formation of malondialdehyde--MDA (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) in oxidative damage of RBC. All tea extracts at level of 4 g/150 mL of water significantly decreased concentration of MDA. The extract of green tea in comparison to black and white tea extracts at the same levels seems to be a better protective agent against oxidative stress. The antioxidant synergism between components extracted from leaves of green tea and endogenous alpha tocopherol in the oxidative damage of red blood cells was observed. The consumption of alpha tocopherol in oxidative damage of RBC was the lowest after treatment with the highest dose of green tea extract. All tea extracts did not protect against decrease of gamma tocopherol in human erythrocytes treated with cumOOH.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Mar-Apr;64(2):159-64

Green tea catechins upregulate superoxide dismutase and catalase in fruit flies.

Chinese Longjing green tea is an excellent source of polyphenol antioxidants. HPLC analysis revealed that Longjing green tea catechin extract (GTC) contained 62% epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 19% epigallocatechin (EGC), 9% epicatechin gallate (ECG), and 7% epicatechin (EC). Investigating the effect of GTC on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster, we observed that a 10 mg GTC/mL diet could prolong its 50% survival time by 36% and mean lifespan by 16%. This was consistent with 17% reduction in total body lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) level in GTC-treated flies compared to the control group. Supplementation of 10 mg GTC/mL diet increased the survival time only in wild type Oregon-R-C (OR) but not in two mutant fly lines, SOD(n108)/TM3 (gene for superoxide dismutase (SOD) was knocked out) and Cat(n1)/TM3 (gene for catalase was knocked out), when the flies were challenged with paraquat or hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, SOD and catalase activities in OR wild type increased by 40 and 19%, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the genes for copper-zinc containing SOD (CuZnSOD), manganese containing SOD (MnSOD), and catalase were upregulated. It was concluded that prolonging lifespan by GTC in D. melanogaster was influenced, among others, by upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 May;51(5):546-54

Antimutagenic/antioxidant activity of green tea components and related compounds.

The ability of green tea components and other antioxidant compounds to function as antimutagens/antioxidants has been well established, and their role in cancer prevention is supported by numerous epidemiological studies. We have utilized modified Ames tests, superoxide scavenging assays, and assays for protection against DNA scissions to compare and contrast the protective effects of various teas and commercial and laboratory-isolated tea components to those produced by compounds such as resveratrol, selenium, curcumin, vitamins C and E, quercetin dihydrate, sulforaphane, ellagic acid dihydrate, glutathione reduced, trolox, butylated hydroxanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). In Ames tests, employing hydrogen peroxide as a mutagen, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) produced the highest level of protection of all antioxidants tested. Measurement of protection against DNA scissions produced results that again showed that EGCG produced the strongest protective effects. In scavenging assays using a xanthine-xanthine oxidase (enzymatic system), epicatechin gallate (ECG) showed the highest scavenging potential. In a nonenzymatic (phenazine methosulfate-NADH) oxidizing system, EGCG once again showed the strongest effects. The implications of these and similar results are discussed in relation to cancer prevention and prevention of drug/antibiotic resistance.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18(3):147-58

Chelating and antiradical effect of rutin during peroxidation of lipids from microsomes and liposomes.

The antioxidative effect of rutin (vitamin P) on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in bovine heart microsomes and lecithin liposomes was studied. It was shown that the LPO-induced inhibition of microsomes and liposomes in the presence of rutin occurs via two mechanisms, i.e., association of Fe2+ ions to form an inactive complex and a direct interaction between rutin and free radicals. The contribution of these mechanisms depends on the composition of the reaction mixture. In bovine heart microsomes and liposomes, ascorbic acid has a dual activity towards LPO. At high concentrations of Fe2+ necessary for LPO induction (approximately 1 x 10(-3) M), ascorbic acid blocks LPO, whereas at low Fe2+ concentrations (less than 1 x 10(-4) M) it has a prooxidative effect. A combined use of ascorbic acid and rutin results in an additive antioxidative effect at high Fe2+ concentrations (approximately 1.10(-3) M). However, at low Fe2+ concentrations rutin acts as an antagonist of the prooxidative effect of ascorbic acid.

Biokhimiia. 1988 Oct;53(10):1660-6

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