Dietary Approaches for the Prevention and Treatment of Prostate CancerDecember 2018
By Michael Downey
The prostate gland of aging men often harbors isolated colonies of cancer cells.
Natural defense systems can prevent these malignant cells from progressing to clinically relevant disease.
Unhealthy foods can fuel existing prostate cancer cells, allowing them to proliferate and spread to other body parts.
In this article, we provide guidelines for what to eat and what to avoid.
These dietary guidelines are applicable to men seeking to reduce their prostate cancer risk.
They also reveal startling data showing the deadly impact of certain foods in those who harbor prostate cancer cells, which is the majority of men over age 65.1
What you need to know
- The body contains protective barriers that help prevent prostate cancer cells from developing into a full-blown tumor.
- Eating the wrong foods provides fuel for existing prostate cancer cells to evade the body's natural anti-cancer barriers, allowing these cells to grow and spread.
- By avoiding cancer-promoting foods—and consuming foods specifically shown to help prevent cancer—aging men can help prevent prostate cancer.
Foods That Help Prevent Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer affects one in six men.2 Men who regularly consume certain foods have sharply lower rates of prostate cancer. By boosting intake of these beneficial foods, men can reduce their prostate cancer risk.
Walnuts are low in carbohydrates and rich in beneficial fatty acids, polyphenols, and gamma tocopherol. This may explain why research has shown that walnuts have the potential to inhibit prostate cancer cells, lower PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels, and reduce the size of prostate tumors.3-5
In a study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, whole walnuts or walnut oil slowed the growth of prostate cancer in mice. The same study found that walnuts lowered levels of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), a hormone that has been associated with prostate cancer.5
In human research, walnuts were shown to improve biomarkers related to prostate and vascular health in older men.6
The lignans in flaxseeds are believed to protect against cancer, including hormone-dependent malignancies.7-9
These lignans are converted in the intestine into beneficial enterolactones, which then enter the bloodstream. Men with higher enterolactone levels are less likely to have prostate cancer than those with the lowest levels.10
Studies have confirmed that flaxseed supplementation lowers PSA levels and reduces the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.7,11 And in a clinical study of men with prostate cancer, supplementation with flaxseed reduced tumor proliferation in as little as 30 days.11
When researchers conducted a review of the effects of cruciferous vegetables on prostate cancer, they concluded that "Cruciferous vegetable intake is related to the decreased risk of prostate cancer."12 (Examples of cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale.)
A later study found that—among the various vegetables—broccoli and other cruciferous species are most closely associated with reduced cancer risk, including prostate cancer. This is thought to be due to their abundance of compounds known as glucosinolates and their breakdown products, such as isothiocyanates.13
Cruciferous vegetables also contain several potent compounds that have individually shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer cells.14-18 These include indole-3-carbinol, 3,3'-diindolylmethane, and phenethyl isothiocyanate, better known as I3C, DIM, and PEITC, respectively.
Higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been demonstrated to correspond to a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.19
These omega-3 fatty acids include DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and are found in cold-water fish such as tuna, sardines, herring, mackerel, halibut, and salmon.20
EPA suppresses the formation of an omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid by inhibiting the enzyme delta-5-desaturase.21 It also inhibits a substance (called uPA) believed to play a role in the spread of prostate cancer.22
Cooked Tomatoes and Tomato Sauces
A 2018 meta-analysis concluded that consuming tomatoes, cooked tomatoes, and tomato sauces was associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. The greater the tomato consumption, the greater the risk reduction.23
Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, the carotenoid pigment that gives them their bright red color, which is known to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells.24
Higher blood lycopene levels have been consistently tied to reduced prostate cancer risk.25 And above-average lycopene consumption has been associated with a 59% reduction in the risk of dying from aggressive prostate cancers.26
Lycopene has several anti-cancer mechanisms, including inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress in prostate tissue.27
Lycopene is better absorbed from tomatoes when cooked and when consumed with fat, such as extra virgin olive oil.28
Consuming pomegranate juice has protective actions against prostate cancer, including inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasiveness, and angiogenesis.29,30
In one study, pomegranate juice (8 oz. daily) treatment in men with rising PSA after surgery or radiotherapy resulted in a delay in PSA doubling time (the time it takes PSA levels to rise).30
A review study found that three components of pomegranate juice, luteolin, ellagic acid, and punicic acid, exhibit inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis.31
A meta-analysis involving 455,123 subjects found that drinking four or more cups of coffee daily was associated with a reduced risk of overall prostate cancer and specifically fatal and high-grade prostate cancer.32
Another study found that men who drink over six cups of coffee daily, including decaffeinated coffee, have an 18% lower risk of prostate cancer and a 60% lower risk of lethal prostate cancer, compared to non-drinkers.33
Beneficial Dietary Factors
The following broad food choices have been shown to inhibit prostate cancer:
- The Mediterranean diet,34-36
- High fiber intake,37 and
- Eating foods with a low glycemic index.38
Foods That Promote Prostate Cancer
According to a 2018 study, following a typical Western diet boosts the risk of prostate cancer by 22%.39 Men with rising or elevated PSA levels should be especially diligent in avoiding these foods.
Studies show that consuming eggs is associated with increased prostate cancer risk.40,41
One study found that men who consumed 2.5 or more eggs per week had a startling 81% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer compared to those who consumed less than half an egg per week.40
Researchers who studied men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer reported that those in the top 10% of egg consumption had almost double the chances of developing high-grade prostate disease, compared to men in the bottom quartile.42
Consuming low-fat milk and cheese increases the risk of prostate cancer by 6% and 9%, respectively. Similar risks accrue from high intakes of total milk and dietary calcium (but not from calcium supplements).43
One study found that consuming skim or low-fat milk was associated with increased risk of low-grade prostate cancer, while whole milk was associated with greater risk of fatal prostate cancer. And in men already diagnosed with prostate cancer, consuming whole milk was associated with a 117% increased risk of progression to fatal disease.44
This last finding illustrates the critical role of limiting milk consumption after prostate cancer has been diagnosed, as the next three studies45-47 further drive home.
In men already diagnosed with prostate cancer, researchers reported that patients who drank the most whole milk had a 74% increased odds of highly aggressive prostate cancer, compared to non-drinkers.45
And in a study of men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, those who consumed over four servings of high-fat milk weekly showed a 73% greater recurrence risk (defined as prostate cancer death, bone metastases, biochemical recurrence, or secondary treatment).46
This increased risk was associated with just four servings of high-fat milk per week. Compare that to a study on prostate cancer patients who drank three or more servings of high-fat milk per day. These patients had a jarring 510% greater risk of dying from their prostate cancer compared to men consuming less than one daily serving.47
Processed and Overcooked Meat
All meat cooked at high temperatures, including fish, generates dangerous carcinogens.48 Men with a high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures, pan fried, or well done had a higher risk of advanced prostate cancer.49
For example, one study showed that consuming ground beef is associated with a 130% higher incidence of aggressive prostate cancer. The more well-done the meat, the greater the risk.50
A separate study showed that higher consumption of hamburgers, processed meats, grilled red meat, and well-done red meat increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (but not localized disease).51
This study corroborated others associating processed meat and red meat—especially when cooked at high temperatures, with increased incidence of advanced prostate cancer.49
High-Risk Dietary Factors
Studies indicate that diets high in omega-6 fats and saturated fats are associated with significantly greater prostate cancer risk.52-54
Eating the wrong foods markedly increases an aging man's risk of developing prostate cancer, seeing it spread, or dying from the disease. Conversely, many specific foods have been shown to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Following the dietary guidelines outlined in this article could save countless men's lives every year.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Wellness Specialist at 1-866-864-3027.
- Available at: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostate-cancer/risk-factors-and-prevention. Accessed September 24, 2018.
- Available at: https://www.webmd.com/men/guide/prostate-problems. Accessed September 10, 2018.
- Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, et al. A walnut-enriched diet reduces the growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. Cancer Invest. 2013 Jul;31(6):365-73.
- Sanchez-Gonzalez C, Ciudad CJ, Noe V, et al. Walnut polyphenol metabolites, urolithins A and B, inhibit the expression of the prostate-specific antigen and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Food Funct. 2014 Nov;5(11):2922-30.
- Kim H, Yokoyama W, Davis PA. TRAMP prostate tumor growth is slowed by walnut diets through altered IGF-1 levels, energy pathways, and cholesterol metabolism. J Med Food. 2014 Dec;17(12):1281-6.
- Spaccarotella KJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Stone WL, et al. The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men. Nutr J. 2008 May 2;7:13.
- Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology. 2004 May;63(5):900-4.
- Stark A, Madar Z. Phytoestrogens: a review of recent findings. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;15(5):561-72.
- Donaldson MS. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19.
- Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer: the cancer prostate Sweden study (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Mar;17(2):169-80.
- Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL, et al. Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Dec;17(12):3577-87.
- Liu B, Mao Q, Cao M, et al. Cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Urol. 2012 Feb;19(2):134-41.
- Abdull Razis AF, Noor NM. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(3):1565-70.
- Beaver LM, Yu TW, Sokolowski EI, et al. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Sep 15;263(3):345-51.
- Yu C, Gong AY, Chen D, et al. Phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibits androgen receptor-regulated transcriptional activity in prostate cancer cells through suppressing PCAF. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Oct;57(10):1825-33.
- Sarkar FH, Li Y. Indole-3-carbinol and prostate cancer. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3493s-8s.
- Chinni SR, Li Y, Upadhyay S, et al. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) induced cell growth inhibition, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001 May 24;20(23):2927-36.
- Li Y, Chinni SR, Sarkar FH. Selective growth regulatory and pro-apoptotic effects of DIM is mediated by AKT and NF-kappaB pathways in prostate cancer cells. Front Biosci. 2005 Jan 1;10:236-43.
- Norrish AE, Skeaff CM, Arribas GL, et al. Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based case-control study. Br J Cancer. 1999 Dec;81(7):1238-42.
- Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/17290-omega-3-fatty-acids/how-much-omega-3-do-i-need. Accessed September 10, 2018.
- Dias VC, Parsons HG. Modulation in delta 9, delta 6, and delta 5 fatty acid desaturase activity in the human intestinal CaCo-2 cell line. J Lipid Res. 1995 Mar;36(3):552-63.
- du Toit PJ, van Aswegen CH, du Plessis DJ. The effect of essential fatty acids on growth and urokinase-type plasminogen activator production in human prostate DU-145 cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1996 Sep;55(3):173-7.
- Rowles JL, 3rd, Ranard KM, Applegate CC, et al. Processed and raw tomato consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2018 Sep;21(3):319-36.
- Obermuller-Jevic UC, Olano-Martin E, Corbacho AM, et al. Lycopene inhibits the growth of normal human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3356-60.
- Chen P, Zhang W, Wang X, et al. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Aug;94(33):e1260.
- Wang Y, Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, et al. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Int J Cancer. 2016 Jun 15;138(12):2846-55.
- Assar EA, Vidalle MC, Chopra M, et al. Lycopene acts through inhibition of IkappaB kinase to suppress NF-kappaB signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2016 Jul;37(7):9375-85.
- Fielding JM, Rowley KG, Cooper P, et al. Increases in plasma lycopene concentration after consumption of tomatoes cooked with olive oil. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(2):131-6.
- Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):177-206.
- Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, et al. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):4018-26.
- Wang L, Martins-Green M. Pomegranate and its components as alternative treatment for prostate cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Aug 25;15(9):14949-66.
- Lu Y, Zhai L, Zeng J, et al. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 May;25(5):591-604.
- Wilson KM, Kasperzyk JL, Rider JR, et al. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk and progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Jun 8;103(11):876-84.
- Capurso C, Vendemiale G. The Mediterranean Diet Reduces the Risk and Mortality of the Prostate Cancer: A Narrative Review. Front Nutr. 2017;4:38.
- Ferris-Tortajada J, Berbel-Tornero O, Garcia-Castell J, et al. [Dietetic factors associated with prostate cancer: protective effects of Mediterranean diet]. Actas Urol Esp. 2012 Apr;36(4):239-45.
- Urquiza-Salvat N, Pascual-Geler M, Lopez-Guarnido O, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of prostate cancer. Aging Male. 2018 Mar 15:1-7.
- Tabung F, Steck SE, Su LJ, et al. Intake of grains and dietary fiber and prostate cancer aggressiveness by race. Prostate Cancer. 2012;2012:323296.
- Augustin LS, Galeone C, Dal Maso L, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 10;112(3):446-50.
- Shin S, Saito E, Sawada N, et al. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Japanese: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Jun;29(6):589-600.
- Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2110-21.
- Aune D, De Stefani E, Ronco AL, et al. Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10(5):869-76.
- Wilson KM, Mucci LA, Drake BF, et al. Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Egg Intake at Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Dec;9(12):933-41.
- Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):87-117.
- Song Y, Chavarro JE, Cao Y, et al. Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. J Nutr. 2013 Feb;143(2):189-96.
- Steck SE, Omofuma OO, Su LJ, et al. Calcium, magnesium, and whole-milk intakes and high-aggressive prostate cancer in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):799-807.
- Tat D, Kenfield SA, Cowan JE, et al. Milk and other dairy foods in relation to prostate cancer recurrence: Data from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CaPSURE). Prostate. 2018 Jan;78(1):32-9.
- Downer MK, Batista JL, Mucci LA, et al. Dairy intake in relation to prostate cancer survival. Int J Cancer. 2017 May 1;140(9):2060-9.
- Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/cooked-meats-fact-sheet. Accessed September 12, 2018.
- Joshi AD, Corral R, Catsburg C, et al. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study. Carcinogenesis. 2012 Nov;33(11):2108-18.
- Punnen S, Hardin J, Cheng I, et al. Impact of meat consumption, preparation, and mutagens on aggressive prostate cancer. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27711.
- John EM, Stern MC, Sinha R, et al. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(4):525-37.
- Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, et al. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2001 Jun 1;47(4):262-8.
- Pelser C, Mondul AM, Hollenbeck AR, et al. Dietary fat, fatty acids, and risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr;22(4):697-707.
- Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16.
- Shukla S, Mishra A, Fu P, et al. Up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 by apigenin leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis of 22Rv1 xenograft in athymic nude mice. Faseb j. 2005 Dec;19(14):2042-4.
- von Holtz RL, Fink CS, Awad AB. beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(1):8-12.
- Cui Y, Winton MI, Zhang ZF, et al. Dietary boron intake and prostate cancer risk. Oncol Rep. 2004 Apr;11(4):887-92.
- Bishayee K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. 5-lipoxygenase antagonist therapy: a new approach towards targeted cancer chemotherapy. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013 Sep;45(9):709-19.
- Safayhi H, Sailer ER, Ammon HP. Mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;47(6):1212-6.
- Safayhi H, Rall B, Sailer ER, et al. Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):460-3.
- Siddiqui MZ. Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):255-61.
- Roy S, Khanna S, Shah H, et al. Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2005 Apr;24(4):244-55.
- Available at: http://www.med.miami.edu/news/view.asp?id=403. Accessed September 12, 2018.
- Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, et al. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:1-75.
- Khan N, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Apoptosis by dietary agents for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Mar;17(1):R39-52.
- Teiten MH, Gaascht F, Eifes S, et al. Chemopreventive potential of curcumin in prostate cancer. Genes Nutr. 2010 Mar;5(1):61-74.
- Plummer SM, Holloway KA, Manson MM, et al. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex. Oncogene. 1999 Oct 28;18(44):6013-20.
- Bin Hafeez B, Asim M, Siddiqui IA, et al. Delphinidin, a dietary anthocyanidin in pigmented fruits and vegetables: a new weapon to blunt prostate cancer growth. Cell Cycle. 2008 Nov 1;7(21):3320-6.
- Norris PC, Dennis EA. Omega-3 fatty acids cause dramatic changes in TLR4 and purinergic eicosanoid signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8517-22.
- Barham JB, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, et al. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans. J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1925-31.
- Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23.
- Brahmbhatt M, Gundala SR, Asif G, et al. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(2):263-72.
- Brasky TM, Kristal AR, Navarro SL, et al. Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(4):573-82.
- Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;66(2):1234-40.
- Raina K, Ravichandran K, Rajamanickam S, et al. Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits tumor growth, vascularity, and metabolism in TRAMP mice: a multiparametric magnetic resonance study. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Jan;6(1):40-50.
- Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Sakr W, et al. Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Aug;10(8):861-8.
- Xi SC, Siu SW, Fong SW, et al. Inhibition of androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer growth in vivo by melatonin: association of antiproliferative action of the pineal hormone with mt1 receptor protein expression. Prostate. 2001 Jan 1;46(1):52-61.
- Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Tan DX, et al. Melatonin reduces prostate cancer cell growth leading to neuroendocrine differentiation via a receptor and PKA independent mechanism. Prostate. 2005 Apr 1;63(1):29-43.
- Singh RP, Agarwal R. Prostate cancer prevention by silibinin. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004 Feb;4(1):1-11.
- Singh RP, Sharma G, Dhanalakshmi S, et al. Suppression of advanced human prostate tumor growth in athymic mice by silibinin feeding is associated with reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Sep;12(9):933-9.
- Guess BW, Scholz MC, Strum SB, et al. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) increases the prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with prostate cancer: a phase II pilot study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2003;6(4):301-4.
- Supabphol A, Supabphol R. Antimetastatic potential of N-acetylcysteine on human prostate cancer cells. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Dec;95 Suppl 12:S56-62.
- Sineh Sepehr K, Baradaran B, Mazandarani M, et al. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis. ISRN Pharm. 2012;2012:547942.
- Nair HK, Rao KV, Aalinkeel R, et al. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell colony formation by the flavonoid quercetin correlates with modulation of specific regulatory genes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Jan;11(1):63-9.
- Zaidman BZ, Wasser SP, Nevo E, et al. Coprinus comatus and Ganoderma lucidum interfere with androgen receptor function in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Biol Rep. 2008 Jun;35(2):107-17.
- Hsieh TC, Wu JM. Grape-derived chemopreventive agent resveratrol decreases prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in LNCaP cells by an androgen receptor (AR)-independent mechanism. Anticancer Res. 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1a):225-8.
- Yang Y, Ikezoe T, Zheng Z, et al. Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling. Int J Oncol. 2007 Sep;31(3):593-600.
- Clark LC, Combs GF, Jr., Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Jama. 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1957-63.
- Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, et al. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Jul;11(7):630-9.
- Ozasa K, Nakao M, Watanabe Y, et al. Serum phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study among Japanese men. Cancer Sci. 2004 Jan;95(1):65-71.
- Maramag C, Menon M, Balaji KC, et al. Effect of vitamin C on prostate cancer cells in vitro: effect on cell number, viability, and DNA synthesis. Prostate. 1997 Aug 1;32(3):188-95.
- Der T, Bailey BA, Youssef D, et al. Vitamin D and prostate cancer survival in veterans. Mil Med. 2014 Jan;179(1):81-4.
- Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Linseisen J. Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):985-92.
- Chiao JW, Wu H, Ramaswamy G, et al. Ingestion of an isothiocyanate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Aug;25(8):1403-8.
- Lu QY, Hung JC, Heber D, et al. Inverse associations between plasma lycopene and other carotenoids and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Jul;10(7):749-56.
- Gonzalez A, Peters U, Lampe JW, et al. Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):206-15.