Life Extension Magazine®

Issue: Apr 2002

Memory & Menopause, Hypothermia and Thymic Protein A

Memory and Menopause

Attitudes towards menopause in a group of women followed in a public service for menopause counseling.

This preliminary study addressed some specific attitudes towards menopause, and behavioral styles in menopausal women. The study was conducted during the period January to May 1998 at the Menopausal Service of the Magenta Hospital (Milano) in 88 women, representing almost one half of the patients followed during that period; 43 women were treated with HRT. Some traits characterizing women’s life during menopause were examined, such as presence of disturbing physical symptoms, changes in interests and discovery of new interests, and feelings of loss and uselessness. We used different psychological tests in order to evaluate anxiety and depression, in particular, the STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), the SDS (Self-rating Depression Scale), and 16 cartoon-like images representing stereotypes of menopause. The answers of our subjects showed high individual variation, with negative symptoms (e.g., hot flashes, memory loss) frequently associated with positive experiences (e.g., new hobbies, new life-styles). However, even the most frequent negative symptom (memory loss) was reported only by 70%. The experience of a change represented by menopause was described both in terms of objective change (e.g., weight increase, hot flashes, memory loss), and of subjective change (e.g., character, feeling of not being attractive, new life-styles). Treatment with HRT seems to reduce the onset of hot flashes considerably. The occurrence of anxious-depressive states was comparable to that observed in other studies; it was not associated with HRT, but rather to losses (loss of desire, memory loss, insomnia). In conclusion, menopause represents a transitional moment in which physical and psychological changes are generally integrated by the persons experiencing them. In order to preserve a good quality of life in menopause, it seems relevant to check memory loss and stabilize the mood in persons who are most “at risk” of psychological disease.

Aging (Milano) 2001 Aug;13(4):331-8

Depressive symptoms, menopausal status and climacteric symptoms in women at midlife.

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found increased rates of depression in women aged 45 to 54 years, but the factors that influence these rates are not understood. It was assessed whether higher rates of depressive symptoms were associated with menopausal status, climacteric symptoms, and use of hormone replacement therapy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community sample. METHODS: Data are from 581 women ages 45 to 54 years who were interviewed by telephone between October 1998 and February 1999. MEASURES: Depression was measured with the abbreviated CES-D, a depressive symptoms screening measure. Women’s reported perception of menopausal stage, frequency of periods in the preceding 12 months, and history of oophorectomy were used to classify their menopausal status into four categories: (1) no indication of menopause; (2) close to menopause; (3) had begun menopause; and (4) had completed menopause. RESULTS: There were 168 women (28.9%) who reported a high level (> or = 10) of depressive symptoms when the abbreviated CES-D was used. In a logistic- regression analysis, significant factors associated with increased depressive symptoms included physical inactivity, inadequate income, use of estrogen/progesterone combination, and presence of climacteric symptoms (trouble sleeping, mood swings, or memory problems). Menopausal status was not associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of women age 45 to 54 years, climacteric symptoms but not menopausal status were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms.

Psychosom Med 2001 Jul-Aug;63(4):603-8

Midlife women’s attributions about perceived memory changes: observations from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study.

Memory changes are of increasing interest as midlife women approach menopause. Recent studies of relationships between estrogen and Alzheimer’s disease have prompted interest in memory experiences around the time of menopause. The purpose of this analysis, part of the larger Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study (SMWHS), was to describe the types of memory changes women perceived during midlife, to describe their attributions about the memory changes, and to describe the relationship among these types and attributions of memory changes and age, menopausal transition stage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use, stress, and major life roles. Women (n = 230) with a mean age of 46.7 years, enrolled in the SMWHS, described whether they had noticed any changes in their memory, when they noticed them first, the nature of the changes, and what they thought were the reasons for the changes. Types of memory changes were collapsed into five categories, which included difficulty recalling words or numbers, forgetting related to everyday behavior, concentration problems, need for memory aids, and forgetting events. Six categories describing attributions about the memory changes were increased role burden and stress, getting older, physical health, menstrual cycle changes/hormones, inadequate concentration and emotional factors. Stress, physical health and aging as attributions, rather than the menstrual cycle or hormone use, were linked to most types of memory change.

J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2001 May;10(4):351-62

Women and menopause: beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. The North American Menopause Society 1997 Menopause Survey.

OBJECTIVE: The main purpose in organizing this survey was to collect information relevant to The North American Menopause Society’s (NAMS) educational mission and to document women’s knowledge of, and attitudes toward, menopause. DESIGN: During June to July 1997, The Gallup Organization conducted 750 telephone interviews with a randomly selected sample of women 45 to 60 years of age from across the United States. Women were asked about their sources of information on menopause, what changes in health they anticipated as a result of menopause, why they used hormone therapy, and their attitudes toward menopause as a natural or a medical event. RESULTS: Women are more likely to believe that depression and irritability are associated with menopause than heart disease, but only a few associate menopause with an increasing vulnerability to either memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease. Relief of physical symptoms of menopause was mentioned as the reason for starting hormone therapy more often than to protect against osteoporosis (25% relative to 15%), or to prevent stroke or a heart attack (10%), or to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (2%). The single main source of women’s information on menopause was a health professional (49%). The majority of women who were already menopausal or experiencing menstrual changes expressed an attitude toward menopause that was either neutral (42%) or positive (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Women are divided in their views of menopause, some seeing it as a medical condition requiring medical treatment, whereas others see it as a natural transition to be managed by “natural” means. Providing women with accurate, up-to-date information and enhancing communication between healthcare providers and menopausal women remain the challenges for NAMS.

Menopause 1998 Winter;5(4):197-202

Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves the performance of radial arm maze task in aged rats.

1. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on spatial memory related learning ability in aged (100 weeks) male Wistar rats. 2. Rats were fed a fish oil-deficient diet through three generations and were then randomly divided into two groups. Over 10 weeks, one group was per orally administered 300 mg/kg per day DHA dissolved in 5% gum Arabic solution and the other group was administered the vehicle alone. Five weeks after the start of the administration, rats were tested with the partially baited eight-arm radial maze to estimate two types of spatial memory related learning ability displayed by reference memory error and working memory error. 3. Chronic administration of DHA significantly decreased the number of reference memory errors and working memory errors. 4. The level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in the hippocampus tended to decrease with chronic DHA administration and demonstrated a positive correlation with the number of reference memory errors. 5. These results suggest that the accumulation of hippocampal LPO reduces spatial memory related learning ability in aged rats. Moreover, chronic administration of DHA was effective in decreasing the level of hippocampal LPO, then improving learning ability.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2001 Apr;28(4):266-70

Behavioral deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is rapidly deposited during the period of rapid brain development. The influence of n-3 fatty acid deficiency on learning performance in adult rats over two generations was investigated. Rats were fed either an n-3 fatty acid-adequate (n-3 Adq) or -deficient (n-3 Def) diet for three generations (F1-F3). Levels of total brain n-3 fatty acids were reduced in the n-3 Def group by 83 and 87% in the F2 and F3 generations, respectively. In the Morris water maze, the n-3 Def group showed a longer escape latency and delayed acquisition of this task compared with the n-3 Adq group in both generations. The acquisition and memory levels of the n-3 Def group in the F3 generation seemed to be lower than that of the F2 generation. The 22:5n-6/22:6n-3 ratio in the frontal cortex and dams’ milk was markedly increased in the n-3 Def group, and this ratio was significantly higher in the F3 generation compared with the F2 generation. These results suggest that learning and cognitive behavior are related to brain DHA status, which, in turn, is related to the levels
of the milk/dietary n-3 fatty acids.

J Neurochem 2000 Dec;75(6):2563-73

The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice.

The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum-used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian-is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng-another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it’s chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in patients receiving aspirin, NSAIDs, anticoagulants or other platelet inhibitors. Health care professionals can no longer ignore the widespread use of alternative medicines and cannot continue with the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy. Clinicians should ask the patients about their use of herbs in a non-judgmental way, and should document the patient’s use of these drugs. Finally, we must be more aware of the side effects and the potential drug interactions of these herbs, and advise our patients to avoid long term use of these drugs due to lack of information regarding the safety of these medicines.

Harefuah 2001 Aug;140(8):780-3, 805

Phosphatidylserine reverses reserpine-induced amnesia.

The effects of phosphatidylserine (PS) were studied in rats treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg) immediately after training in the passive avoidance task. In experiment I, phosphatidylserine (25 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before or immediately after training. Acute pre- or post-treatment with phosphatidylserine was effective in reversing the amnestic effect of reserpine in test trials performed 24 h and 1 week after training. Experiment II was performed to determine if the long-term pretreatment with phosphatidylserine (25 mg/kg) for 7 days is able to protect the rats against the amnestic effects of reserpine in this task. The data show that phosphatidylserine reverses the impairment induced by reserpine in trials performed 24 h and 1 week after training. These results indicate that the memory deficits associated with catecholamine depletion caused by reserpine can be attenuated by acute pre- or post-training or by long-term pretreatment with this phospholipid.

Eur J Pharmacol 2000 Sep 15;404(1-2):161-7

Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats.

Wistar rats were fed a fish oil-deficient diet through three generations. The young (five-week-old) male rats of the third generation were randomly divided into two groups. Over 10 weeks, one group was perorally administered docosahexaenoic acid dissolved in 5% gum Arabic solution at 300 mg/kg/day; the other group received a similar volume of vehicle alone. Five weeks after starting the administration, the rats were tested for learning ability related to two types of memory, reference memory and working memory, with the partially (four of eight) baited eight-arm radial maze. Reference memory is information that should be retained until the next trial. Working memory is information that disappears in a short time. Entries into unbaited arms and repeated entries into visited arms were defined as reference memory errors and working memory errors, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid administration over 10 weeks significantly reduced the number of reference memory errors, without affecting the number of working memory errors, and significantly increased the docosahexaenoic acid content and the docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. In addition, the ratio demonstrated a significantly negative correlation with the number of reference memory errors. These results suggest that chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid is conducive to the improvement of reference memory-related learning ability, and that the docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio in the hippocampus or the cerebral cortex, or both, may be an indicator of learning ability.

Neuroscience 1999;93(1):237-41

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Rapid (0.5 degrees C/min) minimally invasive induction of hypothermia using cold perfluorochemical lung lavage in dogs.

OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate minimally invasive rapid body core and brain cooling in a large animal model. DESIGN: Prospective controlled animal trial. SETTING: Private research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Adult dogs, anesthetized, mechanically ventilated. INTERVENTIONS: Cyclic lung lavage with FC-75 perfluorochemical (PFC) was administered through a dual-lumen endotracheal system in the new technique of ‘gas/liquid ventilation’ (GLV). In Trial-I, lavage volume (V-lav) was 19 ml/kg, infused and withdrawn over a cycle period (tc) of 37 s. (effective lavage rate V’-lav=31 ml/kg/min.) Five dogs received cold (approximately 4 degrees C) PFC; two controls received isothermic PFC. In Trial-II, five dogs received GLV at V-lav=8.8 ml/kg, tc=16 s, V’-lav=36 ml/kg/min. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Trial-I tympanic temperature change was -3.7+/-0.6 degrees C (SD) at 7.5 min, reaching -7.3+/-0.6 degrees C at 18 min. Heat transfer efficiency was 60%. In Trial-II, efficiency fell to 40%, but heat-exchange dead space (VDtherm) remained constant. Lung/blood thermal equilibration half-time was <8 s. Isothermic GLV caused hypercapnia unless gas ventilation was increased. At necropsy after euthanasia (24 h), modest lung injury was seen. CONCLUSIONS: GLV cooling times are comparable to those for cardiopulmonary bypass. Heat and CO(2) removal can be independently controlled by changing the mix of lavage and gas ventilation. Due to VDtherm of approximately 6 ml/kg in dogs, efficient V-lav is >18 ml/kg. GLV cooling power appears more limited by PFC flows than lavage residence times. Concurrent gas ventilation may mitigate heat-diffusion limitations in liquid breathing, perhaps via bubble-induced turbulence.

Resuscitation 2001 Aug;50(2):189-204

Hypothermia after cardiac arrest: feasibility and safety of an external cooling protocol.

BACKGROUND: No proven neuroprotective treatment exists for ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Mild-to-moderate induced hypothermia (MIH) is effective in animal models. METHODS AND RESULTS: A safety and feasibility trial was designed to evaluate mild-to-moderate induced hypothermia by use of external cooling blankets after cardiac arrest. Inclusion criteria were return of spontaneous circulation within 60 minutes of advanced cardiac life support, hypothermia initiated within 90 minutes, persistent coma and lack of acute myocardial infarction or unstable dysrhythmia. Hypothermia to 33 degrees C was maintained for 24 hours followed by passive rewarming. Nine patients were prospectively enrolled. Mean time from advanced cardiac life support to return of spontaneous circulation was 11 minutes (range 3 to 30); advanced cardiac life support to initiation of hypothermia was 78 minutes (range 40 to 109); achieving 33 degrees C took 301 minutes (range 90 to 690). Three patients completely recovered, and 1 had partial neurological recovery. One patient developed unstable cardiac dysrhythmia. No other unexpected complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Mild-to-moderate induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest is feasible and safe. However, external cooling is slow and imprecise. Efforts to speed the start of cooling and to improve the cooling process are needed.

Circulation 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1799-804

Post-resuscitative hypothermic bypass reduces ischemic brain injury in swine.

OBJECTIVES: Increasing human and laboratory evidence suggests that post-resuscitative brain hypothermia reduces the pathologic consequences of brain ischemia. Using a swine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, this investigation sought to determine whether unilateral hypothermic carotid bypass was capable of inducing selective brain hypothermia and reducing neurohistologic damage. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in common swine (n = 12). After 20 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest (without ventilatory support or cardiopulmonary resuscitation), systemic extracorporeal bypass was instituted to restore coronary and cerebral perfusion, followed by restoration of normal sinus rhythm. Animals randomized to the normal brain temperature (NBT) cohort received mechanical ventilation and intravenous fluids for 24 hours. The selective brain hypothermia (SBH) cohort received 12 hours of femoral/carotid bypass at 32 degrees C. The bypass temperature was then increased one degree per hour until reaching 37 degrees C and continued at this temperature until completion of the protocol (24 hours). Histopathologic damage was evaluated in two areas of the hippocampus. RESULTS: Normal sinus rhythm was restored in all animals after the systemic (femoral/femoral) bypass was initiated. Nasal temperature (surrogate measure of brain temperature) remained higher than 37.0 degrees C throughout the 24-hour recovery period in the NBT animals. In the SBH cohort, right nasal temperature dropped to the mild hypothermic range (<34 degrees C) two hours after institution of femoral/carotid bypass. This was maintained throughout the 12-hour cooling period without hemodynamic compromise. There was a significant improvement in the neurohistology scores in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of the SBH treated animals as compared with those of the NBT cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Post-resuscitative selective brain hypothermia reduced regional ischemic brain damage in swine with prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

Acad Emerg Med 2001 Oct;8(10):937-45

Rapid development of brain hypothermia using femoral-carotid bypass.

OBJECTIVES: Advances in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation have led to an increasing number of patients initially surviving sudden cardiac arrest. Unfortunately, most of these patients do not recover from the resultant anoxic brain insult. Several animal and human trials have suggested that post-resuscitative brain hypothermia may improve neurologic recovery after cardiopulmonary arrest. Present cooling methods are slow, induce only brain surface cooling, or result in systemic hypothermia. The authors tested the hypothesis that unilateral hypothermic carotid bypass would induce bilateral brain cooling without evoking systemic hypothermia or hemodynamic instability. METHODS: Anesthetized, ventilated common swine (n = 6, 24-37 kg) underwent right femoral and carotid artery bypass cannulation. Central and peripheral hemodynamic parameters were recorded every 2 minutes throughout the procedure. Thermodynamic parameters included bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral nasopharyngeal, pulmonary artery, and rectal temperatures. Hypothermic femoral-carotid bypass was accomplished by drawing blood from the right femoral artery, cooling it to 24 degrees C, and returning it to the right carotid artery at a flow rate of 5 mL/kg/min for 30 minutes. RESULTS: With initiation of cooling, brain temperatures dropped rapidly from baseline of 37.2 degrees C to 30.6 degrees C (right frontal lobe) and 33.1 degrees C (left frontal lobe) at 30 minutes. Pulmonary artery and rectal temperatures also decreased, but never reached mild hypothermic levels (34 degrees C). There was no significant change in any hemodynamic parameters during brain cooling. CONCLUSIONS: Femoral-carotid hypothermic bypass rapidly induced a state of selective brain hypothermia without causing systemic hypothermia or hemodynamic instability.

Acad Emerg Med 2001 Apr;8(4):303-8

Hypothermia and hyperthermia in children after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

OBJECTIVE: In experimental models of ischemic-anoxic brain injury, changes in body temperature after the insult have a profound influence on neurologic outcome. Specifically, hypothermia ameliorates whereas hyperthermia exacerbates neurologic injury. Accordingly, we sought to determine the temperature changes occurring in children after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical records of 13 children resuscitated from cardiac arrest were analyzed. Patients were identified through the emergency department and pediatric intensive care unit arrest logs. Only patients surviving for > or =12 hours after resuscitation were considered for analysis. Charts were reviewed for body temperatures, warming or cooling interventions, antipyretic and antimicrobial administration, and evidence of infection. RESULTS: Seven patients had a minimum temperature (T min) of < or =35 degrees C and 11 had a maximum temperature (T max) of > or =38.1 degrees C. Hypothermia often preceded hyperthermia. All 7 patients with T min < or =35 degrees C were actively warmed with heating lamps and 5 of 7 responded to warming with a rebound of body temperatures > or =38.1 degrees C. None of the 6 patients with T min >35 degrees C were actively warmed but all developed T max > or =38.1 degrees C. Six patients received antipyretics and 11 received antibiotics. Fever was not associated with a positive culture in any case. Conclusion. Spontaneous hypothermia followed by hyperthermia is common after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Temperature should be closely monitored after cardiac arrest and fever should be managed expectantly.

Pediatrics 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 1):118-22

Cerebral hypothermia for prevention of brain injury following perinatal asphyxia.

The possibility that hypothermia has a therapeutic role during or after resuscitation from severe perinatal asphyxia has been a longstanding focus of research. Early studies using short periods of cooling had limited and contradictory results. We now know that resuscitation can be followed by a “latent” phase, characterized by transient recovery of cerebral energy metabolism, before secondary deterioration occurs with seizures, cytotoxic edema and cerebral energy failure 6 to 15 hours after birth. Recent experimental studies have shown that moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated as soon as possible in the latent phase, before the onset of secondary injury, and continued for 48 hours or more is associated with potent, long-lasting neuroprotection. These encouraging results must be balanced against the well-known adverse systemic effects of hypothermia. Randomized clinical trials are in progress to test the safety and efficacy of cerebral hypothermia.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2000 Apr;12(2):111-5

Mild resuscitative hypothermia to improve neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. A clinical feasibility trial. Hypothermia after cardiac arrest (HACA) study group.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent animal studies showed that mild resuscitative hypothermia improves neurological outcome when applied after cardiac arrest. In a 3-year randomized, prospective, multicenter clinical trial, we hypothesized that mild resuscitative cerebral hypothermia (32 degrees C to 34 degrees C core temperature) would improve neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We lowered patients’ temperature after admission to the emergency department and continued cooling for at least 24 hours after arrest in conjunction with advanced cardiac life support. The cooling technique chosen was external head and total body cooling with a cooling device in conjunction with a blanket and a mattress. Infrared tympanic thermometry was monitored before a central pulmonary artery thermistor probe was inserted. RESULTS: In 27 patients (age 58 [interquartile range [IQR] 52 to 64] years; 7 women; estimated “no-flow” duration 6 [IQR 1 to 11] minutes and “low-flow” duration 15 [IQR 9 to 23] minutes; admitted to the emergency department 36 [IQR 24 to 43] minutes after return of spontaneous circulation), we could initiate cooling within 62 (IQR 41 to 75) minutes and achieve a pulmonary artery temperature of 33+/-1 degrees C 287 (IQR 42 to 401) minutes after cardiac arrest. During 24 hours of mild resuscitative hypothermia, no major complications occurred. Passive rewarming >35 degrees C was accomplished within 7 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Mild resuscitative hypothermia in patients is feasible and safe. A clinical multicenter trial might prove that mild hypothermia is a useful method of cerebral resuscitation after global ischemic states.

Stroke 2000 Jan;31(1):86-94

Recovery of a 62-year-old man from prolonged cold water submersion.

Recovery from prolonged cold water submersion is well documented in children but rare in adults. In the few adult cases reported, significant body cooling occurred (rectal temperature ranging from 22 degrees to 32 degrees C) and the victims were relatively young (< 40 years). We report a case of a 62-year-old man who was submersed in 2 degrees to 3 degrees C water for 15 minutes (time from initial submersion to intubation = 22 minutes). At the time of rescue, he had no vital signs, received prehospital Advanced Life Support, and was transported to hospital. On arrival at hospital, the patient remained in full cardiopulmonary arrest with an agonal ECG rhythm and had an initial pH of 6.77. Initial rectal temperature was near normal (36 degrees C) but subsequently dropped to 33 degrees C. The patient was resuscitated, rewarmed by forced-air warming, and treated for acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema and generalized seizures. He was discharged after 27 days with minor neurologic abnormalities. Given the near-normal initial rectal temperature, preferential brain cooling may have been at least partially responsible for the positive neurologic outcome.

Ann Emerg Med 1998 Jan;31(1):127-31

Study of mechanism of selective head cooling-dehydration combined therapy for brain resuscitation: effect on function of brain cellular membrane

We induced cerebral complete ischemia (CCI) by "four-vessel" model. The changes of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), total phospholipids on brain cellular membrane (BCM) at 30, 180, 360 min of reperfusion following 30 min CCI were observed. The effects of selective head cooling (SHC, 28C, surface cooling method), mannitol dehydration (MD), and selective head cooling-dehydration combined therapy (SHCDCT) on these changes were also investigated. Compared with non-ischemic, during reperfusion activities of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, Ca2+, Mg(2+)-ATPase decreased while PLA2 increased (P < 0.001), phospholipids decreased at 180 and 360 min of reperfusion (P < 0.01). SHC and SHCDCT blocked all above changes, MD had no effect. These results suggest that SHCDCT after starting reperfusion do promote recruitment of BCM function by blockade of the successive reperfusion damage on BCM.

Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 1994 Nov;32(11):688-91

Thymic Protein A

Improved immune activation markers in chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) patients treated with thymic protein A.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the orally administered thymic protein A on clinical blood parameters and the subjective symptoms common to patients with chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel immune modulator, thymic protein A, in oral formulation was tested in 23 CFIDS patients manifesting clinical symptoms of CFIDS and abnormal CD8+ subpopulations and interferon pathway-associated enzyme levels. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 23 patients experienced normalization of immune function with a corresponding improvement in clinical symptoms of CFIDS. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that reinstitution of immune regulation with thymic protein A may ameliorate symptoms associated with CFIDS.

Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine (2001) 11, 241-247

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